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1 Biology 1 of 49

2 2 of 49

3 Sensory Receptors Neurons that react directly to stimuli from the environment are called sensory receptors. Sensory receptors react to stimuli by sending impulses to other neurons and to the central nervous system. Sensory receptors are located throughout the body but are concentrated in the sense organs. 3 of 49

4 Sensory Receptors These sense organs include the: eyes ears nose mouth skin 4 of 49

5 Sensory Receptors What are the five types of sensory receptors? 5 of 49

6 Sensory Receptors There are five general categories of sensory receptors: pain receptors thermoreceptors mechanoreceptors chemoreceptors photoreceptors 6 of 49

7 Sensory Receptors Pain receptors are located throughout the body except in the brain. They respond to chemicals released by damaged cells. Pain usually indicates danger, injury, or disease. 7 of 49

8 Sensory Receptors Thermoreceptors are located in the skin, body core, and hypothalamus. They detect variations in temperature. 8 of 49

9 Sensory Receptors Mechanoreceptors are found in the skin, skeletal muscles, and inner ears. They are sensitive to touch, pressure, stretching of muscles, sound, and motion. 9 of 49

10 Sensory Receptors Chemoreceptors, located in the nose and taste buds, are sensitive to chemicals in the external environment. Photoreceptors, found in the eyes, are sensitive to light. 10 of 49

11 Vision Vision The sense organ that animals use to sense light is the eye. The eye has three layers: the retina the choroid the sclera 11 of 49

12 Vision The retina is the inner layer of eye that contains photoreceptors. Retina 12 of 49

13 Vision The choroid is the middle layer of eye that is rich in blood vessels. Choroid 13 of 49

14 Vision The sclera is the outer layer of eye that maintains its shape. The sclera serves as point of attachment for muscles that move the eye. Sclera 14 of 49

15 Vision 15 of 49

16 Vision Light enters the eye through the cornea, a tough transparent layer of cells. Cornea 16 of 49

17 Vision The cornea helps focus light, which then passes through a chamber filled with a fluid called aqueous humor. Aqueous humor Cornea 17 of 49

18 Vision At the back of the chamber is a disklike structure called the iris, which is the colored part of the eye. Iris 18 of 49

19 Vision In the middle of the iris is a small opening called the pupil. Muscles in the iris adjust pupil size to regulate the amount of light that enters the eye. Pupil 19 of 49

20 Vision In dim light, the pupil becomes larger. In bright light, the pupil becomes smaller. 20 of 49

21 Vision Just behind the iris is the lens. Muscles attached to the lens change its shape to adjust focus to see near or distant objects. Lens 21 of 49

22 Vision Behind the lens is a large chamber filled with a transparent, jellylike fluid called vitreous humor. Vitreous humor 22 of 49

23 Vision The lens focuses light onto the retina. Photoreceptors are arranged in a layer in the retina. Retina 23 of 49

24 Vision The photoreceptors convert light energy into nerve impulses that are carried to the central nervous system. There are two types of photoreceptors: rods and cones. 24 of 49

25 Vision Rods are sensitive to light, but not color. Cones respond to light of different colors, producing color vision. 25 of 49

26 Vision Cones are concentrated in the fovea, which is the site of sharpest vision. Fovea 26 of 49

27 Vision There are no photoreceptors where the optic nerve passes through the back of the eye, which is called the blind spot. 27 of 49

28 Vision The impulses leave each eye by way of the optic nerve. Optic nerves carry impulses to the brain. The brain interprets them as visual images and provides information about the external world. Optic nerve 28 of 49

29 The Ear The Ear The human ear has two sensory functions: hearing balance 29 of 49

30 The Ear Hearing Ears can distinguish both the pitch and loudness of those vibrations. 30 of 49

31 The Ear The Human Ear 31 of 49

32 The Ear Vibrations enter the ear through the auditory canal. Auditory canal 32 of 49

33 The Ear The vibrations cause the tympanum, or eardrum, to vibrate. Tympanum 33 of 49

34 The Ear The vibrations are picked up by the hammer, anvil, and stirrup. Hammer Stirrup Anvil 34 of 49

35 The Ear The stirrup transmits the vibrations to the oval window. Stirrup Oval window 35 of 49

36 The Ear Vibrations of the oval window create pressure waves in the fluid-filled cochlea of the inner ear. Cochlea 36 of 49

37 The Ear The cochlea is lined with tiny hair cells that are pushed back and forth by these pressure waves. In response to the waves, the hair cells produce nerve impulses that are sent to the brain through the cochlear nerve. 37 of 49

38 The Ear Balance Your ears help you to maintain your balance, or equilibrium. 38 of 49

39 The Ear Within the inner ear, just above the cochlea are three semicircular canals. Semicircular canals 39 of 49

40 The Ear The canals are filled with fluid and lined with hair cells. As the head changes position, fluid in the canals changes position, causing the hair on the hair cells to bend. This sends impulses to the brain that enable it to determine body motion and position. 40 of 49

41 Smell Smell The sense of smell is actually an ability to detect chemicals. Chemoreceptors in the nasal passageway respond to chemicals and send impulses to the brain through sensory nerves. 41 of 49

42 Taste Taste The sense of taste is also a chemical sense. The sense organs that detect taste are the taste buds. Most taste buds are on the tongue. Tastes detected by the taste buds are classified as salty, bitter, sweet, and sour. Sensitivity to these tastes varies on different parts of the tongue. 42 of 49

43 Touch and Related Senses Touch and Related Senses The skin s sensory receptors respond to temperature, touch, and pain. Not all parts of the body are equally sensitive to touch, because not all parts have the same number of receptors. The greatest density of sensory receptors is found on your fingers, toes, and face. 43 of 49

44 35 4 Continue to: - or - Click to Launch: 44 of 49

45 35 4 The sensory receptor that detects variations in body temperature is a a. chemoreceptor. b. mechanoreceptor. c. thermoreceptor. d. photoreceptor. 45 of 49

46 35 4 The part of the eye containing tiny muscles that adjust the size of the pupil is the a. cornea. b. iris. c. lens. d. retina. 46 of 49

47 35 4 The part of the ear that produces the nerve impulses sent to the brain is the a. tympanum. b. Eustachian tube. c. cochlea. d. oval window. 47 of 49

48 35 4 The structures in your ears that help maintain your sense of balance a. is the auditory canal. b. is the hammer. c. is the tympanum. d. are the semicircular canals. 48 of 49

49 35 4 Photoreceptors in the eye that are sensitive to color are a. rods. b. cones. c. rods and cones. d. the optic nerve. 49 of 49

50 END OF SECTION

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