Chap Senses. 1. Give an example of something a general sensory receptor would detect.

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1 Carl Christensen, PhD Chap Senses Bio Human Anatomy 1. Give an example of something a general sensory receptor would detect. 2. Classification of Sensory Receptors a. mechanoreceptors b. thermoreceptors c. photoreceptors d. chemoreceptors e. nociceptors pain receptors respond to chemicals in a solution sensitive to heat sensitive to touch, pressure, vibration, stretch receptors associated with vision extreme cold vestibule & semicircular canals Pacinian corpuscles Meissner s corpuscles extreme pressure muscle spindle & golgi tendon organ 3. Classification of Sensory Receptors a. exteroceptors b. enteroceptors c. proprioceptors located in skeletal muscles, tendons, joints, ligaments vestibule and semicircular canals respond to stimuli outside the body respond to stimuli arising within the body found in viscera and walls of blood vessels 4. Classification of Sensory Receptors a. simple b. complex Pacinian corpuscle Meissner s corpuscle vestibule & semicircular canals golgi tendon organ/muscle spindle nociceptors taste receptors thermoreceptors root hair plexuses 1

2 5. List the 5 special senses. 6. What part of the eye is the nervous layer and functions in image formation? 7. Name the two types of photoreceptors found in the. Give a function for each. 8. Rods and cones in the eye contain pigments that contain l, a derivative of what vitamin? 9. What eye structure focuses light waves? 10. What structure changes the shape of the lens? 11. What structure changes the shape of the pupil? How does it do this? Why does it do this? 12. What is the function of the choroid layer? 13. What part of the choroid is responsible for night vision in animals? 14. Why is the optic disc called the blind spot? 15. What is the function of the lacrimal gland? 16. Eye Disorders a. emmetropia b. hyperopia c. myopia d. presbyopia e. astigmatism f. cataracts g. glaucoma h. color blindness lens becomes clouded congenital lack of one or more cone types nearsightedness farsightedness eye is too long or lens is too strong eye is too short or lens is too weak correct with a concave lens correct with a convex lens correct with a diverging lens correct with a converging lens normal vision old people s vision 2

3 irregularly shaped cornea or lens drainage of aqueous humor blocked; introocular pressure increases; causes damage to and optic nerve 17. The optic nerve converge to form an "X" called the. 18. Within the chiasma which fibers cross over to the opposite sides of the brain? a. those from the medial b. those from the lateral 19. The left cerebral hemisphere interprets what images? a. right medial b. left medial c. right lateral d. left lateral 20. The right cerebral hemisphere interprets what images? a. right medial b. left medial c. right lateral d. left lateral 21. Optic tracts pass to the thalamus, which relays information to the cerebral cortex of the lobe. 22. What kind of vision would one experience if there was a tumor applying pressure to the optic chiasma? 23. The tympanic membrane in the ear is more commonly called the. 24. The smallest bones in the body are the. 25. What part of the internal ear functions in audition? (its shape resembles a snail shell) 26. Name the 3 canals in the cochlea. Which canal is considered membranous labyrinth? Which bony labyrinth? What fluid is found in each of the 3 canals? 27. What part of the cochlea is directly responsible for detecting sound waves and generating a nerve impulse? 28. What nerve is associated with audition and equilibrium? (name & number) 29. Where do high frequency sound waves strike the vestibular membrane in the cochlea? Low frequency? Why is there a difference? How are differences in intensity detected? 30. What structure is responsible for absorbing excess waves entering the scala tympani? 3

4 31. What is the function of the eustachian tube? If you are at high altitude and your ears are popping what should you do and why? 32. The neurons from the organ of corti form the nerve. This nerve joins the nerve to form the vestibulocochlear nerve (nerve # ). Impulses travel to the pons and then to the of the midbrain, which functions auditory. 33. The thalamus relays auditory impulses to the cerebral cortex of the lobe. 34. Name the 2 types of equilibrium. Define each. Also id. the part of the inner ear that is responsible for each type of equilibrium. 35. What is the sensory receptor for taste? 36. Describe the sensory receptor for taste. 37. What are the 4 primary taste sensations? 38. Name the 3 cranial nerves that carry gustatory nerve impulses. 39. Gustatory nerve impulses travel to the medulla oblongata and then to the hypothalamus and amygdala to activate what autonomic reflexes? What part of the brain relays gustatory nerve impulses to the cerebral cortex? 40. Describe the sensory receptor for smell. 41. What 2 properties must a chemical possess in order for it to be smelled? 42. Axons of olfactory neurons travel through the of the ethmoid bone and synapse with neurons in the olfactory. 43. Olfactory tracts travel to the hypothalamus and temporal lobe, part of the limbic system. What kinds of emotional and reflex reactions can result? 4

5 44. What is the only special sense that can reach the cerebral cortex before first passing through the thalamus? 45. What is the function of cortex feedback to the olfactory bulbs? 5

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