Special Senses. Dr. Thorson

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1 Special Senses Dr. Thorson

2 Lesson Objectives Upon completion of this lesson, students should be able to: 1.Define and spell the terms to learn for this chapter. 2.Describe the anatomy of the eye, and briefly explain the function of each structure. 3.Discuss common disorders associated with the eye.

3 The Special Senses Vision Hearing Smell Taste Feeling

4 Critical Thinking Question 1.If you had to lose one of your special senses, which one would you choose to lose and why?

5 The eyeball and its anatomical structures.

6 The Eye and the Sense of Vision The eye is spherical, fluid-filled organ composed of specialized structures that work together to facilitate vision Light rays pass through the cornea, pupil, lens, and vitreous humor to the retina, where they stimulate sensory receptors Nervous system plays integral role in the sense of vision

7 The Eye and the Sense of Vision Nerves of the eye: Control the amount of light entering the eye through the pupil Focus light on the retina by using the lens Transmit the resulting images from the retina to the brain

8 The Eye and the Sense of Vision Structures of the Eyeball Eyeball housed in cavity in skull called orbit Eyeball divided into two cavities Front (anterior) cavity filled with watery fluid called aqueous humor Back (posterior) section located behind the lens and filled with very thick fluid in vitreous chamber, called vitreous humor

9 The Eye and the Sense of Vision Outer Layer of the Eyeball Sclera "white" part of the eye Cornea Frequently referred to as "window" of the eye because it allows the light to enter Limbus Corneal-scleral junction is area of the eye where the cornea and sclera meet

10 The Eye and the Sense of Vision Middle Layer of the Eyeball Choroid Lines the sclera and absorbs extra light entering the eye

11 The Eye and the Sense of Vision Middle Layer of the Eyeball Iris Contains the pigment, or eye color, and has a "hole" in the center called the pupil Muscular tissue that makes up the iris and pupil allows pupil to constrict and dilate, which is how pupil controls amount of light that enters the eye

12 The Eye and the Sense of Vision Middle Layer of the Eyeball Lens Colorless structure behind the iris, sharpens the focus of light rays onto retina; important to accommodation which adjusts eye's optical powers to maintain clear image at various distances

13 The Eye and the Sense of Vision Middle Layer of the Eyeball Ciliary body Responsible for holding and moving the lens; secretes aqueous humor, which provides nutrients to the cornea, lens, and other tissues

14 The Eye and the Sense of Vision Inner Layer of the Eyeball Retina Back of eyeball, behind vitreous humor Photosensitive cells (rods and cones) translate light rays into nerve impulses transmitted to the brain

15 The Eye and the Sense of Vision Inner Layer of the Eyeball Rods react to dim light and are used in night vision Cones are sensitive to bright light and are used to see color

16 The Eye and the Sense of Vision Inner Layer of the Eyeball Fovea centralis retinae contains only cones; located in the middle of the macula lutea Optic nerve enters at optic disk and carries incoming information from eye to brain

17 The Eye and the Sense of Vision External Structures of the Eye Eyelids (palpebrae) close over eyeballs, protecting them from intense light, foreign matter, and impacts Keep eyes moist by preventing moisture in mucosal membrane surface of eye from evaporating Eyelashes in margins of eyelids further protect the eye from foreign matter

18 The Eye and the Sense of Vision External Structures of the Eye Conjunctiva Mucous membrane that lines underside of eyelids and anterior part of eyeball; serves protective function Six short eye muscles connect eyeball to orbital cavity and supports and enables eyeball to rotate

19 The Eye and the Sense of Vision External Structures of the Eye Tears produced, stored, and removed by the structures that make up lacrimal apparatus Lacrimal gland Lacrimal canaliculi Lacrimal sac Nasolacrimal duct

20 The lacrimal apparatus.

21 Common Refractive Disorders Most common disorders of the eye Characterized by inability of eye to focus correctly Caused by factors such as aging and changes in the shape of the eyeball and various eye muscles

22 Common Refractive Disorders Astigmatism Caused by irregularities in curvature of cornea and lens Causes light not to focus on retina but rather to spread out over an area Blurry near or distant vision

23 Common Refractive Disorders Astigmatism May be accompanied by squinting and headaches Corrective lenses or surgery to reshape the cornea

24 Common Refractive Disorders Strabismus Crossed eyes or wall eyes Eyes misaligned; do not focus on same image, as one eye turns in, out, up, or down Caused by weakness in external eye

25 Common Refractive Disorders Strabismus Poor depth perception and double vision also known as diplopia Eyeglasses, eye exercises, wearing a patch over stronger eye to force weaker eye to become stronger, surgery to realign eyes

26 Common Refractive Disorders Myopia, Hyperopia, and Presbyopia Refraction problems, inability to focus correctly, occur because light rays change direction when they pass through the eye 75 percent of people living in United States wear corrective lenses to fix these disorders

27 Common Refractive Disorders Myopia Light focuses in front of retina Also called nearsightedness Objects farther away tend to be blurry and difficult to see Easier to see objects closer to the eye Corrective lenses Radial keratotomy (RK) Lasik procedure

28 Common Refractive Disorders Hyperopia Light focuses behind retina Farsightedness Objects close to eye harder to decipher and blurred Easier to see things farther away Corrective lenses Radial keratotomy (RK) Lasik procedure

29 Common Refractive Disorders Presbyopia Loss of elasticity in lens; generally result of aging Difficulty focusing and seeing objects that are close Resting eyes when reading or working at computer

30 Common Refractive Disorders Presbyopia Close eyes for seconds every 20 minutes during visual activity Corrective lenses or refractive surgeries

31 Disorders Related to Structural Irregularities of the Eye Blepharoptosis Muscles of eyelid aren't strong enough to raise it Can be congenital or acquired as a secondary symptom of another disease Abnormal drooping of one or both eyelids Surgery to correct the drooping eyelid

32 Disorders Related to Structural Irregularities of the Eye Ectropion Causes lower eyelid to turn outward Can be congenital or result of reaction to a drug, muscle weakness, facial paralysis, skin lesions

33 Disorders Related to Structural Irregularities of the Eye Ectropion Eye irritation, excessive tearing of eye or excessive dryness of eye Eye ointment or drops Permanent treatment surgical intervention

34 Disorders Related to Structural Irregularities of the Eye Entropion Causes lower eyelid to turn inward Congenital or result of eye infection, muscle weakness, scars from previous surgeries Pain and irritation

35 Disorders Related to Structural Irregularities of the Eye Entropion Sensitivity to light, watery eyes, decreased or impaired vision Skin tape Surgery required for permanent solution

36 Disorders Related to Structural Irregularities of the Eye Exophthalmos Causes bulging, bug-like appearance of one or both eyes Caused by hyperthyroidism, Graves disease, orbital tumor Treatment of underlying condition primary goal Surgical ablation and radiation are options

37 Infectious Eye Disorders Blepharitis Inflammation of the eyelids Caused by skin disorders (seborrheic dermatitis, rosacea, lice) and allergies Redness, itching, swelling of eyelids, burning sensations Treated with warm wet compresses and ophthalmic antibiotic therapy

38 Infectious Eye Disorders Conjunctivitis One of the most common and treatable eye infections Affects both children and adults Commonly known as pink eye Highly contagious condition

39 Infectious Eye Disorders Conjunctivitis Inflammation of the conjunctiva Causes include virus, bacteria, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), allergens, irritants such as chlorine, dirt, or smoke

40 Infectious Eye Disorders Conjunctivitis Redness in the sclera Increased tear production Thick yellow discharge Itchy and burning eyes Blurred vision

41 Infectious Eye Disorders Conjunctivitis Greater sensitivity to light Treatment: topical or oral antibiotics; eye drops containing antihistamines or nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents

42 Infectious Eye Disorders Hordeolums Also known as sties Very common and frequently contagious Caused by Staphylococcus bacterium May accompany blocked or infected eyelid glands or inflamed eyelids

43 Infectious Eye Disorders Hordeolums Contaminated fingers that touch eye area may cause the infection Painful hordeolums can occur under eyelids

44 A hordeolum

45 Infectious Eye Disorders Hordeolums Redness and tenderness Itching Swelling Discomfort in upper or lower eyelid

46 Infectious Eye Disorders Hordeolums Often resolve on their own Warm, wet compress applied to the area may help relieve pain Antibiotics may be taken orally or applied topically to accelerate healing

47 Age-Related Eye Disorders Cataracts Clouding or opacity of the lens that prevents light from entering Cause is unclear May be correlation between formation of cataracts and smoking, diabetes, excessive exposure to sunlight

48 Age-Related Eye Disorders Cataracts Vision begins to decrease Fuzzy, blurred, or filmy vision Lack of color intensity Night vision problems

49 Age-Related Eye Disorders Cataracts Double vision or problems with bright lights occurs If left untreated, the cataract may eventually cloud the lens severely enough to block vision completely

50 Age-Related Eye Disorders Cataracts For early or immature cataracts, eyeglasses, magnifying lenses, stronger lighting may be sufficient If not successful, surgery is recommended treatment Cataract removal very common surgery; it is extremely safe and effective with cure rate of 90 percent

51 Age-Related Eye Disorders Retinal Detachment Occurs when a retina has separated from the underlying choroid layer If left untreated, develop into full detachment

52 Age-Related Eye Disorders Retinal Detachment When such a separation occurs, vision is damaged If retina has already detached, vision can frequently be restored by surgery and laser therapy

53 Age-Related Eye Disorders Retinal Detachment Increase in floaters (particles that float slowly within viewer's eyes) Flashes of light in the field of vision Early treatment is ideal Treatment for small holes or tears laser surgery or cryotherapy Retinal detachment, more invasive surgery

54 Age-Related Eye Disorders Dry Macular Degeneration Deterioration of macula (central portion of retina) Occurs in 85 to 90 percent of cases Small yellow deposits called drusen form under the macula, causing it to thin and dry out, leading to a loss of central vision

55 Age-Related Eye Disorders Dry Macular Degeneration Slower progression than does wet type Sometimes turns into wet type

56 Age-Related Eye Disorders Dry Macular Degeneration Decline in central vision Increasing haziness of overall vision Need for brighter illumination for reading and close work No known treatment or cure

57 Age-Related Eye Disorders Wet Macular Degeneration Abnormal new blood vessels grow under retina and the macula These may then bleed and leak fluid, which causes the macula to bulge or lift up, impairing or destroying the central vision Vision loss may be rapid and severe

58 Age-Related Eye Disorders Wet Macular Degeneration Visual distortions Blurry spot in central vision If performed early, laser surgery may halt the progression of wet macular degeneration, thus preventing a total loss of vision

59 Other Eye Disorders Amblyopia Also called "lazy eye" Disorder often seen in children Occurs when nerve pathway from the eye to the brain does not properly develop

60 Other Eye Disorders Amblyopia Causes affected eye to send incorrect images to the brain May have a hereditary factor Leading cause is strabismus

61 Other Eye Disorders Amblyopia Decreased vision Eyes that appear to turn in or out Faulty depth perception Early diagnosis and treatment essential to a positive and lasting outcome

62 Other Eye Disorders Amblyopia Treatment for underlying conditions, such as strabismus or refractive disorders Patch may be worn over strong eye to force brain to interpret the images from afflicted eye

63 Other Eye Disorders Corneal Abrasion Lesion or scratch on cornea; can result from injury, infection, or both Very painful and irritating Blurred vision Excessive tearing

64 Other Eye Disorders Corneal Abrasion Gritty feeling on cornea Possible headache Very sensitive to light and difficulty opening affected eye

65 Other Eye Disorders Corneal Abrasion Treatment Mild analgesics and resting eyes If abrasion becomes infected, antibiotic eyedrops or ointments

66 Other Eye Disorders Glaucoma Affects people of all ages and all races Increased pressure in eye brought on by an excessive amount of aqueous humor Left untreated, pressure can lead to damage of the optic nerve and eventual blindness

67 Other Eye Disorders Open-angle (Acute) Glaucoma Pressure gradually builds, causing a slow drainage of aqueous humor from the anterior segment of the eye About 90 percent of glaucoma cases

68 Other Eye Disorders Closed-angle (Chronic) Glaucoma Considered more serious Space between iris and cornea narrows, causing a greater degree of pressure to build

69 Other Eye Disorders Glaucoma Open-angle is asymptomatic Patient may experience tunnel vision; once this symptom begins, damage is severe

70 Other Eye Disorders Glaucoma Closed-angle symptoms include sharp eye pain, decreased hazy vision, red swollen eyes Glaucoma treated with medications and laser and conventional surgery

71 Other Eye Disorders Nystagmus (Nystaxis) Involuntary, repetitive, rhythmic eye movements May be inherited or acquired Usually results in some loss of vision

72 Other Eye Disorders Nystagmus (Nystaxis) Uncontrolled eye movements may be lateral, horizontal, or even circular Treatment must address underlying cause: tumor, lesion, alcohol abuse, or retinal maldevelopment

73 Other Eye Disorders Retinopathy Disease of the retina caused by recurring or acute damage Patients with diabetes prone to diabetic retinopathy

74 Other Eye Disorders Retinopathy Nerve damage can result from hypertensive retinopathy caused by hypertension; can lead to permanent blindness Sickle cell disease, trauma, and other disorders can cause general retinopathy

75 Other Eye Disorders Retinopathy Symptoms vary based on type of retinopathy Treatment lies in treating underlying condition causing the disorder

76 Lesson Objectives Upon completion of this lesson, students should be able to: 1.Define and spell the terms to learn for this chapter. 2.Describe the anatomy of the ear, and briefly explain the function of each structure. 3.Explain common disorders associated with the ear.

77 Lesson Objectives Upon completion of this lesson, students should be able to: 4.Describe the anatomy of the nose, and explain how the sense of smell occurs. 5.Identify the anatomical structures that make up the special senses. 6.Discuss the sense of taste, and briefly explain the function of taste buds.

78 The ear and its anatomical structures.

79 The Ear and the Sense of Hearing The ear is responsible for hearing and equilibrium, or balance. Specialized anatomical structures in the ear are sensitive to sound vibrations, gravity, and head movements. Eighth cranial nerve connects these structures to the brain.

80 The Ear and the Sense of Hearing The Outer Ear Pinna (auricle) Visible portion of ear; funnels sound waves into auditory canal Auditory canal (auditory meatus) Slightly curved tube; carries sound waves from outer ear to tympanic membrane; secretes cerumen (earwax)

81 The Ear and the Sense of Hearing The Outer Ear Tympanic membrane (eardrum) Separates outer ear from middle ear and transmits sound vibrations into middle ear Fundus Floor of tympanic cavity

82 The Ear and the Sense of Hearing The Middle Ear Tiny cavity in temporal bone of skull Contains three small bones (ossicles) Malleus (hammer) Incus (anvil) Stapes (stirrup)

83 The Ear and the Sense of Hearing The Middle Ear Transmits sound vibrations Equalizes air pressure on both sides of tympanic membrane Protects ear from potentially damaging loud noise If eustachian tube blocked, patient may get an infection in middle ear

84 The Ear and the Sense of Hearing The Inner Ear Maze of canals within bony labyrinth in temporal bone Cochlea, vestibule, three semicircular canals make up labyrinth Tiny hair cells in inner ear function as receptors for hearing and balance Cochlea (organ of hearing) is bony spiral structure that resembles a snail's shell

85 The cochlea.

86 The Ear and the Sense of Hearing The Inner Ear The Organ of Corti, located in cochlear duct, contains nerve endings that transmit sound vibrations received from stapes to auditory region of the brain via eighth cranial nerve Vestibule is fundus of internal auditory meatus Vestibular system controls sense of balance

87 Hearing Loss Conductive Temporary Sound is not conducted efficiently through auditory canal to eardrum and middle ear Hearing loss can be medically corrected

88 Hearing Loss Sensorineural Permanent Caused by damaged cochlea or nerve pathways from inner ear to the brain Hearing aids and cochlear implants helpful

89 Common Disorders Associated with the Outer Ear Impacted Cerumen Cerumen produced by sebaceous glands to lubricate the ear Impacted cerumen obstructs auditory canal Affects older adults

90 Common Disorders Associated with Impacted Cerumen Blocked or muffled hearing Plugged feeling in ear Pain Treatment the Outer Ear Softening wax then flushing with a syringe; if left untreated, leads to tinnitus

91 Common Disorders Associated with the Outer Ear Ruptured Tympanic Membrane Objects entering ear perforate membrane or when unequal air pressure on both sides of the membrane causes a rupture Known as ruptured eardrum Sharp, sudden pain in affected ear may be followed by drainage of fluid, tinnitus, hearing loss, and vertigo (dizziness)

92 Common Disorders Associated with the Outer Ear Ruptured Tympanic Membrane Able to heal without any treatment Takes a few weeks to fully recover Antibiotic medications to prevent infection Analgesics to reduce pain Cold solutions should never be introduced into the ear

93 Common Disorders Associated with the Middle Ear Otitis Media Inflammation of any part of the ear Otitis externa (swimmer's ear) Inflammation of outer ear canal Otitis media Inflammation of middle ear

94 Common Disorders Associated with Otitis Media the Middle Ear Caused by viral or bacterial infections often secondary to sore throats and colds Occurs in children more frequently than adults

95 Common Disorders Associated with the Middle Ear Otitis Media Tugging on affected ear Irritability or fussiness Fever and fluid drainage Difficulty sleeping Loss of balance

96 Common Disorders Associated with the Middle Ear Otitis Media Treatment Eliminating cause of infection with oral antibiotics and decongestants Tubal insufflation every 1 to 2 days

97 Common Disorders Associated with the Middle Ear Otosclerosis Hereditary condition Abnormal tissue growth around stapes Prevents stapes from transmitting sound vibrations to inner ear Hearing loss in one or both ears Tinnitus and dizziness Treatment: use of a hearing aid or surgery

98 Common Disorders Associated with Tinnitus the Inner Ear Symptom associated with many forms of hearing loss and disorders of the ear Caused by hearing loss, loud noise, certain medications, other health problems such as allergies and tumors

99 Common Disorders Associated with Tinnitus the Inner Ear Ringing or roaring in one or both ears No cure Hearing aids, maskers, relaxation techniques, hypnosis, acupuncture may bring relief

100 Common Disorders Associated with the Inner Ear Ménière's Disease Named after French physician, Prosper Ménière Affects balance and hearing

101 Common Disorders Associated with the Inner Ear Ménière's Disease Changes in fluid volume in labyrinth cause symptoms Loss of hearing Pressure in the ear Vertigo Tinnitus

102 Common Disorders Associated with Ménière's Disease the Inner Ear Symptoms often occur suddenly, without warning; may occur daily or infrequently No known cure

103 Common Disorders Associated with Ménière's Disease the Inner Ear Controlled by lifestyle changes: reducing fluid retention with lowsalt diet and avoiding caffeine and alcohol Diuretic drugs Eliminating tobacco use

104 Common Disorders Associated with Presbycusis the Inner Ear Gradual deterioration of sensory receptors in the cochlea Seen most frequently in older adults Causes Prolonged exposure to loud noises, infection, injury, side effects of medications

105 Common Disorders Associated with the Inner Ear Presbycusis Occurs in both ears and affects normal and high-pitched tones Treatment Use of a hearing aid

106 The Senses of Taste and Smell Nose primary organ for the sense of smell Olfactory cells of nasal cavity respond to changes in chemical concentrations Sends the information to the brain via olfactory nerves Sense of taste and sense of smell function together to create a combined effect interpreted by the brain

107 Nasal cartilage and external structures.

108 The Senses of Taste and Smell Taste buds are microscopic bumps on the tongue, roof of the mouth, walls of throat Four types of taste cells Sweet Sour Salty Bitter

109 The Sense of Touch Oldest, most primitive sense First sense humans experience in the womb and the last one lost before death Found over entire body Originates in dermis

110 The Sense of Touch Nerve endings in dermis (receptors) transmit information to brain via spinal cord More nerve endings = more sensitivity

111

112

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