1 Regina Rodman, MD Faculty Mentor: Tamara Watts, MD PhD The University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB Health) Department of Otolaryngology Grand Rounds Presentation March 29, 2012
2 Anatomic landmarks Photography Facial Analysis Anatomy Examples Demayo, Cesar. Geometric Morphometric Analyses of Facial Shape in Twins. The Internet Journal of Biological Anthropology
3 Beauty is easily recognizable within a given culture, but difficult to define objectively. The standard attractive face Symmetry Proportions Angles Relationships Correction of what is askew determines the surgical plan
4 Primary points of interest Trichion Glabella Nasion Supratip Tip Subnasale Stomion Menton Zimbler, Marc Ham, Jongwook. Aesthetic Facial Analysis, Cummings: Otolaryngology: Head and Neck Surgery, 4 th ed 2010
5 Zimbler, Marc Ham, Jongwook. Aesthetic Facial Analysis, Cummings: Otolaryngology: Head and Neck Surgery, 4 th ed
8 Centered and symmetric Important that the midline be from Trichion menton
9 Supra tragal point in line with inferior orbital rim Important and necessary in every view except base view
10 Profile Only ½ eye Frankfort plane is still key
11 ERY/RHINOPLASTY-NASAL-RECONSTRUCTION Frankfort plane still important Distal medial canthus of eye aligned with distal oral commissure OR nasal tip in line with malar eminence
12 The tip of the nose in alignment with the infrabrow line -Lam Sam. Pictoral Documentation: Traditional Photography and Digital Imaging. Head and Neck Surgery-Otolaryngology, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins locateadoc.com case_35205_before2.jpg
13 Horizontal 1/3s Trichion glabella Glabella subnasale Subnasale menton Lower 1/3 may be subdivided Upper lip 1/3 Lower lip + chin 2/3 Orten, Steven and Hilger, Peter. Facial Analysis of the Rhinoplasty Patient. Papel: Facial and Plastic ReconstructiveSurgery, 2002.
14 Vertical 1/5s- intercanthal distance Orten, Steven and Hilger, Peter. Facial Analysis of the Rhinoplasty Patient. Papel: Facial and Plastic ReconstructiveSurgery, 2002.
15 Thick at radix Thin at rhinion Thick at supratip break Thin at tip Rhinoplasty DominicMCastellanoM.D. Castellano&HowardSpecialtyCenter Tampa,Fl, Osler Review Course
16 Twisted Dorsal width Alar base Tip defining points Asymmetry of domes Rhinoplasty DominicMCastellanoM.D. Castellano&HowardSpecialtyCenter Tampa,Fl, Osler Review Course
17 A curved, unbroken line should sweep from the medial brow to the tip defining point Orten, Steven and Hilger, Peter. Facial Analysis of the Rhinoplasty Patient. Papel: Facial and Plastic ReconstructiveSurgery, 2002.
18 Abnormal contour involving the middle vault of the nose
19 A line from midglabella to the menton should bisect the nasal bridge and tip symmetrically
22 The width of the alar base = intercanthal distance
24 The width of the bony sidewall of the nose should be 75-80% of the normal alar base.
25 Surgically corrected with lateral osteotomy
26 Represent light reflection from the skin overlying the domes of lower lateral cartilages
27 Angle of divergence Lateral angulation from midline Variations Narrow Elongated tip Wide (Bulbous) Box and ball Rhinoplasty DominicMCastellanoM.D. Castellano&HowardSpecialtyCenter Tampa,Fl, Osler Review Course
30 Columella should hang just inferior to alar rims Infratip lobule should be a gentle gull in flight Too much-reduction Retracted-augmentation Nostril show should not be excessive Over rotated tip Note asymmetries Orten, Steven and Hilger, Peter. Facial Analysis of the Rhinoplasty Patient. Papel: Facial and Plastic ReconstructiveSurgery, 2002.
32 Why measure? To help objectify elements of nose Aspects of the face other than the nose can be the cause of imbalance Low radix/nasion can cause appearance of overprojection Small chin can cause appearance of overprojection
33 Connects the brow with the nasal dorsum Glabella Nasion Nasion Nasal tip Nasion (deepest point) should lie at supratarsal crease Angle is usually degrees No well established parameters, use judgement to determine what is too shallow and too deep. Orten, Steven and Hilger, Peter. Facial Analysis of the Rhinoplasty Patient. Papel: Facial and Plastic ReconstructiveSurgery, 2002.
34 Line from alar crease tip Nasion tip Ratio should be (alar) to 1.0 (nasion)
35 Crumley 3,4,5 3=C alar point-to-nasal tip line 4= A alar point-tonasion line 5=B nasion-to-nasal tip line
36 Nasal tip projection may also be measured in relation to the upper lip 50-60% of the horizontal projection of the nose lies anterior to upper lip >60% is over projected <50% is under projected Orten, Steven and Hilger, Peter. Facial Analysis of the Rhinoplasty Patient. Papel: Facial and Plastic ReconstructiveSurgery, 2002.
37 Line from Nasion to desired tip projection Nasal dorsum should lie at or slightly (1-2mm) posterior and parallel to this line Slight supratip break of dorsum gives definition and helps distinguish dorsum from tip
38 The incline of the nasal dorsum in relation to the facial plane. Ideally 36 degrees (varies 30 to 40) Zimbler, Marc Ham, Jongwook. Aesthetic Facial Analysis, Cummings: Otolaryngology: Head and Neck Surgery, 4 th ed
39 Line anterior to posterior point of nostril Vertical line perpendicular to Frankfurt plane, dropped along upper lip Men Women
41 Major LLC size and shape LLC attachment to ULC LLC attachment to caudal spine Minor Interdomal ligament Soft tissue envelope Cartilagenous dorsum membranous septum Nasal spine
42 First proposed by Anderson JR (1969) Tripod Lateral cruras= two posterior legs Conjoined medial cruras = anterior third leg Helps predict the tip rotation Tilt in the direction of the shorter leg Cephalic rotation Shortening of the lateral cruras Lengthening medial cruras
44 The degree of resilience of the nasal tip supportive structures provides a reliable guide to the ability of the nasal tip to retain satisfactory support and projection following tip refinement procedures.
45 2-4 mm columella should be visible below alar margin on profile >4 mm is excessive Retracted alar lobule Hanging caudal septum Orten, Steven and Hilger, Peter. Facial Analysis of the Rhinoplasty Patient. Papel: Facial and Plastic ReconstructiveSurgery, 2002.
46 Three possible configurations for the columella Normal hanging Retracted Three for the nostril rim or ala (normal, hanging, or retracted) NINE possible configurations for the alarcolumellar relationship
47 Columella is seen to have a double break 1 st -tip of the nose turns posterior-inferior to infratip lobule 2 nd - mid columella, where takes a horizontal course to subnasale
48 Size Shape Orientation Width and length of columella Height of Lobule Rhinoplasty DominicMCastellanoM.D. Castellano&HowardSpecialtyCenter Tampa,Fl, Osler Review Course /
50 Isosceles Triangle Lobule 1/3 Columella 2/3 Nostrils Symmetric Pear shaped Columella flare at base and at infratip lobule
51 Must address the relationship of the nose to the rest of the face. A deficient menton causes nose to appear disproportionately large even though projection may be appropriate for nasal length
52 Gonzales-Uloa Line from nasion perpendicular to Frankfort plane chin should approximate this line Orten, Steven and Hilger, Peter. Facial Analysis of the Rhinoplasty Patient. Papel: Facial and Plastic ReconstructiveSurgery, 2002.
53 Drop Frankfort perpendicular line from vermillion of lower lip evaluate chin relative to this line Males should meet or come close
54 Line that touches more projecting portion of lips inferiorly, the menton should touch Within 2-3 mm in women
55 Microgenia Underdeveloped mental portion of mandible Micrognathia Underdeveloped mandible with class II occlusion Retrognathia Mandible is normal in size but retruded with class II occlusion Micrognathia or retrognathia= orthognathic surgery Microgenia or doesn t desire orthognathic surgery=augmentation mentoplasty
56 The shape of the forehead influences the perception of the nose Three fundamental countours Also prominent brow alters perception of the nasofrontal angle. Appears deeper and more acute, therefore the nose appears greater projected
57 A forehead that slopes posteriorly from the brow to the hairline tends to exaggerate the appearance of nasal length and projection. A flat, vertically oriented, or protruding forehead diminishes the appearance of nasal length. Orten, Steven and Hilger, Peter. Facial Analysis of the Rhinoplasty Patient. Papel: Facial and Plastic ReconstructiveSurgery, 2002.
59 Frontal View Divide the face Horizontal 1/3 Vertical 1/5 Look for asymmetry Dorsal width 75% of alar base Alar width Intercanthal distance Shape and asymmetry of tip Note abnormalities in the dental occlusal relations
60 Nasal length Tip projection Goode 1: 0.6 ratio Crumley 3,4,5 Tip Rotation Nasolabial angle men in women
61 All analysis of lips should include assessment of forehead, brow, lips, chin, dentition. Forehead- Nasofrontal angle Chin- Vermillion borders to chin (should be within 2-3 mm)
62 Now that I have your attention, let s practice!
64 hump reduction radix costal cartilage graft spreader grafts caudal septal extension graft cephalic margin tip graft alar rim grafts dome-binding sutures, open approach
66 -reduction of the length of the quadrangular cartilage -excision of redundant vestibular skin -shave-excision of the caudal margin of the medial and intermediate crura.
67 32 year old female presents for rhinoplasty Radix osseocartilagenous vault tip projection chin
68 Caudally positioned radix Position of the radix accentuates a slight convexity at the rhinion Under-projected osseocartilagenous vault normal tip projection Microgenia
69 Augmentation of the radix and osseocartilagenous vault with a single-layer septal cartilage graft. The convexity of the rhinion was eliminated to provide a flat surface for placement of the dorsal augmentation graft. A chin implant was inserted for enhancement. Although the tip was cephalically rotated, projection remained unchanged. Dorsal augmentation accounted for the increase in the height of the nasal profile observed one and a half years post operative.
76 Figure 32 2 Patient with iatrogenic overprojection of the tip several years following rhinoplasty surgery. (A) Inappropriate tip refinement technique was chosen, resulting in disproportion of the nose. Original operative record was unavailable. (B) Revision surgery consisted of exploration of the nasal tip with retropositioning of the overprojection phenomenon, intended to bring the nose into better balance.
77 Figure 32 4 (A) Patient requesting revision rhinoplasty following overaggressive procedure carried out elsewhere. (B) Revision repair utilizing autogenous cartilage grafts to augment the overdeep bony dorsum and nasofrontal angle, with reduction of the soft tissue and cartilaginous pollybeak deformity.
84 Figure Two-year follow-up of patient operated utilizing a nondelivery cartilage splitting approach to the nose. Preoperative (column 1) and postoperative (column 2 ) condition.
88 She is a 30-year-old female who is requesting correction for improving the balance of her nose. She has got tensionnose deformity and microgenia. A Mersilene mesh implant medium size is placed through a submental skin incision into a precise subperiosteal pocket in addition to rhinoplasty performed through an open approach. She had lateral crural underlay grafts placed in addition to cephalic margin trim, bilateral spreader grafts, and bilateral alar rim grafts. She had an alar wedge excision performed on the left-hand side to narrow her nostrils; in addition, she had tongue-in-groove maneuver to maintain projection and rotation of the tip, bilateral domal sutures performed both intradomal and transdomal in addition to finishing off the nose with soft tissue placed on the nasal dorsum for camouflage in a smooth finish. drdayan.com
90 Tension nose deformity. She underwent hump projection/deprojectio n with a complete transfixion incision, cartilage in the nasal tip, alar rim grafts, and a chin implant, pure closed approach.
93 Increase Rotation: Lateral crural steal, Increase Rotation: Transdomal suture that recruits lateral crura medially, Base-up resection of caudal septum (variable effect), Cephalic resection (variable effect), Lateral crural overlay, Columellar struct(variable effect), Plumping grafts (variable effect) Illusions of rotation: increase double break, plumping grafts (blunting nasolabial angle) Decrease Rotation (Counter-rotate) Full -transfixion incision, Double-layer tip graft, Shorten medial crura, Caudal extension graft, Reconstruct L strut as in rib graft reconstruction (integrated dorsal graft/columellar strut) of saddle nose.
94 Increase Projection: Lateral crural steal (increased projection, increased rotation), Tip graft, Plumping grafts, Premaxillary graft, Septocolumellar sutures (buried) Columellar strut (variable effect), Caudal extension graft, Decrease Projection: High-partial or full transfixion- incision, Lateral crural overlay (decreased projection, increased rotation), Nasal spine reduction, Vertical dome division with excision of excess medial crura with suture reattachment
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