How to Win Friends and Influence People Lesson 6 Psychological Patterns and Disorders

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1 How to Win Friends and Influence People Lesson 6 Psychological Patterns and Disorders

2 What are psychological disorders? Mental health workers view psychological disorders as ongoing patterns of thoughts, feelings, and actions that are deviant, distressful, and/or dysfunctional. A good working definition is that apsychological disorder is a mental condition characterized by cognitive, emotional, and behavioral symptoms that: create significant distress; impair work, school, family, relationships, or daily living; or lead to significant risk of harm.

3 The DSM & Axes Axis 1 is used to specify most clinical disorders, such as anxiety disorders or schizophrenia. Axis 2 is used to specify personality disorders and mental retardation. Axis 3 is used to note any medical conditions that might be relevant to a diagnosis on Axis 1 or 2 such as significant food allergies in a person with an eating disorder, or a recent broken hip in someone who refuses to leave the house.

4 The DSM & Axes Axis 4 is used to note social and environmental problems, such as marital problem or homelessness. Axis 5 is used to note the patient's highest level of functioning in major areas of life within the past year.

5 What causes disorders? The Brain Genes Neurotransmitters Brain Structure Brain Function The Person Maladaptive Learning Maladaptive Thoughts Biases

6 Many Categories of Disorders Disorders usually first diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or adolescence Delirium, dementia, and amnestic and other cognitive disorders Mental disorders due to a general medical condition Substance-related disorders Schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders Mood disorders Personality disorders Adjustment disorders Anxiety disorders Somatoform disorders Factitious disorders Dissociative disorders Sexual and gender identity disorders Eating disorders Sleep disorders Impulse-control disorders not elsewhere classified Other conditions that may be a focus of clinical attention

7 What we will cover today Anxiety Disorders Somatoform Disorders Dissociative Disorders Mood Disorders Schizophrenia Personality Disorders

8 Anxiety Disorders Panic Disorder Panic attacks Episodes of intense fear Phobias Social public embarrassment Specific object or nonsocial situations

9 Anxiety Disorders Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Obsessions recurrent and persistent thoughts Compulsions washing, checking, ordering, counting Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

10 Somatoform Disorders Somatoform Disorder Symptoms take a somatic form without apparent physical cause Conversion Disorder Person experiences very specific genuine physical symptoms for which no physiological basis can be found. Hypochondriasis Interpretation of normal physical sensations as symptoms of a disease

11 Dissociative Disorders Disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings. Dissociative Identity Disorder Rare disorder in which a person exhibits two o more distince and alternating personalities. Skepticism localized in time and space

12 Mood Disorders Major Depressive Disorder At least 2 weeks of depressed mood Loss of interest in nearly all activities Loss of energy Feelings of hoplessness Bipolar Disorders Manic and depressive episodes Cycles of at least 1 week

13 Schizophrenia Positive Delusions Hallucinations Disorganized behavior Disorganized speech Negative Flat affect Alogia ( poverty of speech ) Avolition

14 Schizophrenia Paranoid: delusions of persecution; auditory hallucinations are common Disorganized: prominent disorganized speech and behavior and flat affect or inappropriate emotional expression Catatonic e.g. holding bizarre postures for hours Undifferentiated

15 Personality Disorders A personality disorder is a set of relatively stable personality traits that are inflexible and maladaptive, causing distress or difficulty with daily functioning. Cluster A: odd, eccentric behaviors Cluster B: emotional or dramatic behaviors Cluster C: anxious or fearful behaviors or symptoms

16 Paranoid Personality Disorders Cluster A Pattern of suspicion and distrust Schizoid Pattern of detachment from social relationships and a narrow range of displayed emotions Schizotypal Pattern of extreme discomfort in close relationships, odd or quirky behavior, and cognitive or perceptual distortions

17 Personality Disorders Cluster B Antisocial Pattern of disregard for, or violation of, the rights of others Borderline Instability in relationships, self-image, and feelings, pronounced instability. Recurrent suicidal gestures. Histrionic Excessive attention seeking and expression of emotion Narcissistic Exaggerated self-importance, need for admiration, and lack of empathy

18 Avoidant Personality Disorders Cluster C Social discomfort, feelings of inadequacy, and hypersensitivity to negative evaluation Dependent Clingy, submissive behavior that results from an extreme need to be taken care of Obsessive-compulsive Preoccupation with perfectionism, orderliness, and control (no obsessions or compulsions)

19 Risk Factors Academic failure Birth complications Caring for chronically ill or patients with dementia Child abuse and neglect Chronic insomnia Chronic pain Family disorganization or conflict Low birth weight Low socioeconomic status Medical illness Neurochemical imbalance Parental mental illness Parental substance abuse Personal loss and bereavement Poor work skills and habits Reading disabilities Sensory disabilities Social incompetence Stressful live events Substance abuse Trauma experiences

20 Protective Factors Aerobic Exercise Community offering empowerment, opportunity and security Economic independence Feelings of securityy Feelings of mastery and control Effective parenting Literacy Positive attachment and early bonding Positive parent-child relationships Problem solving skills Resilient coping with stress and adversity Self-esteem Social and work skills Social support from family and friends

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