Anatomy and Physiology I Student Outline The Integumentary System. Integumentary System. Page 1

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1 Anatomy and Physiology I Student Outline The Integumentary System Integumentary System Page 1

2 Have a very clear understanding of the each particular tissue and their unique functions in each layer of the ingetument. Further, be able to discuss each tissue function/location relationship while viewing images of the integument. A. Integumentary System i. Organ of the Integument a. Tissues Connective Tissues * Tissue / Location Relationships Epithelial Tissues * Tissue Type / Relationships Smooth Muscle Nervous Tissue * Receptor Type / Function Relationships B. Dermatology Blood Page 2

3 2. Functions of the Integument A. Thermoregulation (Review from Feedback Handout from first lecture) i. Superficial Vasculature Deep Vasculature B. Protection from i. Abrasion UV Radiation i Invasion from pathogens Desiccation C. Receives stimuli i. Receptor Types / Function Relationships a. Touch Receptor b. Pressure Receptors c. Pain Receptors d. Temperature Receptors Page 3

4 D. Synthesis: Metabolic pathways for vitamin D synthesis E. Immunity i. Tissue and Related Functions Page 4

5 3. Epidermis (Layer #1) (See diagrams in Text!) A. General Characteristics i. Keratinized Stratified Squamous Epithelium i Avascular Basement Membrane Epidermal Ridges (and Dermal Papilla) a. Two Functions Page 5

6 Anatomy and Physiology I Student Outline The Integumentary System B. Cell Types and Desmosomes i. Keratinocyte Desmosomes Keratinization Melanocyte a. Process of Melanin Production Melanosomes Page 6

7 i Skin Color and Photoprotection of Keratinocytes (See Handout) a. Melanin Melanin production processes * Review of Transcription, translation ETC ETC Melanocyte * Dendrites ( branches ) Melanosome Mechanisms of Melanin uptake by keratinocytes * Receptor Mediated Endocytosis * Exocytosis followed by phagocytosis Perinuclear Protection of Chromatin Cell Signaling Control Mechanism by Keratinocytes Function UV Radiation UV Radiation UV Radiation UV Radiation Page 7

8 C. Five Layers of the Epidermis i. Stratum Basale (Stratum germinativum) Stratum Spinosum Desmosomes Stratum Granulosum Stratum Lucidum Stratum Corneum D. Chemical Messengers Defined Hormone Growth Factor (or colony stimulating factor) i. Epidermal Growth Factor 3. Dermis Irregular Dense Connective Tissue A. Regions of Dermis i. Papillary Region Dermal Papillae Page 8

9 Corpuscles of Touch Superficial Vasculature Functions Reticular Region Corpuscles of Pressure B. General Characteristics of the Dermis i. Fibers i Vascular Muscle Nerve Fibers v. Hair Follicles vi. v Sweat Glands Sebaceous Glands 4. Subcutaneous Layer (or region) of the Integument (also, Hypodermis) A. Tissues i. Adipose Connective Tissue Loose Areolar Connective Tissue B. Functions i. Vascular Protection i Adhesion Thermoregulation Page 9

10 Page 10

11 5. Accessory Structures A. Hair i. Hair follicle i Shaft Arrector Pili Muscles Sebaceous Glands v. Functions Nails i. Nail Bed Lunula i Functions B. Skin Glands i. Sebaceous Glands (Oil glands) Holocrine Types Sebum Merocrine Sweat Glands Tubular i Apocrine Sweat Gland i Other Integumentary Glands a. Ceruminous Glands b. Mammary Glands Homeostasis of Temperature Body review in text Page 11

12 C. Aging and Hair i. Hair Color a. Gray Hair b. White Hair Balding a. Genetic Predisposition b. Testosterone 6. Deep Wound Healing (ESSAY ALERT!! The outline below is partial. Take good notes and see text for all important details). A. Stabilization of Wound i. An initial break damages dermal blood vessels and inserts microorganisms, debris, endospores etc. i Reflexive vasoconstriction reduces blood flow Disruption of Endothelia allows platelets to come in contact with collagen fibers and inducing fibrin clot formation Clot isolates bacterial, and further reduces blood lose B. Inflammatory response i. Mast cells and Basophile secrete histamine Histamine induces inflammation characterized first by vasodilation of undamaged blood vessels Page 12

13 i Vasodilated vessels become porous allowing nutrients, oxygen and other resources to enter damaged area. Oxygen inhibits anaerobic bacteria. Of particular importance here is Clostridium tetani, causative agent of tetanus v. Margination, Diapedesis, positive chemotaxis, and phagocytosis by neutrophils vi. Neutroophils secret Pyrogen which elevates local temperature for further inhibition of bacterial growth. v Monocytes marginate and diapedis. Once in interstitium, monocyte differentiates into highly phagocytic macrophage C. Injury Resolution i. Stem cells within stratum basalis proliferate for Epidermis restoration and repair of stratum corneum. Blood vessels begin grow for purposes of restoration of normal blood flow i Fibroblasts migrate into damaged area and secrete collagen precursor molecules for restoration of collagen fibrils. This knitting together of the wound results is restoration of Irregular Dense Connective Tissue of Dermis. Page 13

14 i Epidermis mends Scab forms v. Eosinophils digest old clot material by enzyme plasminogen. D. Final Stages i. Normal blood flow restored i Bacterial and damaged tissue removed Irregularly placed collagen leaves scar Scab falls off. Page 14

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