Induction and maintenance of gastric ulceration in horses in simulated race training

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Induction and maintenance of gastric ulceration in horses in simulated race training"

Transcription

1 40 EQUINE GASTRIC ULCER.4TION Equine vet. J.. Suppl. 29 (1999) Induction and maintenance of gastric ulceration in in simulated race training N. J. VATISTAS, R. L. SIFFERMAN*, J. HOLSTEt, J. L. COXt, G. PINALTOS and K. T. SCHULTZt Deparfment of Veterinary Surgical and Radiological Sciences, University of California, Davis, California; *Bradford Park Veterinary Hospital, 1255 E. Independence, Springfield, Missouri; *Denison, Texas and tmerial, 6498 Jade Rd, Fulton, Missouri, USA. Keywords: horse; gastric ulceration; simulated race training Summary Gastric ulceration is a prevalent condition of race. A number of models of gastric ulceration have been described, but none mimic the conditions of a horse in training. The objectives of this study were to determine whether gastric ulcers could be induced and maintained in a group of in simulated race training. In addition, serum cortisol was measured on a weekly basis to investigate the possibility that stress may be important in the pathogenesis of gastric ulceration. Thirty used in the trial were fed Bermuda grass hay and 6 kg of a concentrate diet, and exercised 6 daydweek at speed over a distance of km. Serum was collected and gastroendoscopic examinations performed on a weekly basis for the duration of the trial. All developed moderate to severe ulceration, and ulcers were maintained for the 56 day period of the trial. Only one horse had signs of abdominal discomfort, which resolved with minimal symptomatic treatment and without the use of antiulcer medications. Serum cortisol remained within reference ranges for the duration of the trial. Although there was some variation between the weekly examinations, serum cortisol concentrations were decreased from values obtained at the start of the trial. In this study ulcers developed without the administration of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents or withholding of feed. This model provides a method to study the condition, and to investigate the effects of medications on the healing of ulcers in race. Introduction Gastric ulcers have been identified relatively frequently in foals (Traub et al. 1983; Becht and Byars 1986; Murray et al. 1990) and adult (Acland et al. 1983; Murray et al. 1989; Vatistas et al. 1994a,b; Murray et al. 1996). Endoscopic surveys of the stomachs of Thoroughbreds in active race training have identified gastric ulceration in 8149% (Murray et al. 1989; Vatistas et al. 1994a,b; Vatistas 1998). Gastric ulceration in mature has been associated with clinical evidence of abdominal discomfort (Murray et al. 1989). Colic was attributed to the presence of gastric ulceration in 31 on the basis of a lack of lesions at exploratory laparotomy and an alleviation of abdominal discomfort following anti-ulcer therapy (Murray et al. 1989). However, other studies have suggested that overt abdominal pain may be a less common sequelae to the development of gastric ulceration (Vatistas et al. 1994a,b). Although commonly observed in Thoroughbreds, the aetiology of gastric ulceration in remains to be elucidated due, in part, to the lack of a suitable model and the difficulties involved in performing research on client-owned. Gastric ulceration may be induced by alternately feeding and fasting (Murray 1994). However, ulcers had healed in the majority of animals which were examined endoscopically 7 days following the final period of fasting (Murray 1994). Spontaneous resolution of ulcers is uncommon clinically in maintained in active training. Models have also used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications (NSAIDs) to produce ulcers in ponies (Jones 1983; MacAllister and Sangiah 1993). Ulcers induced by the administration of NSAIDs may have a dissimilar endoscopic appearance to naturally occurring ulcers (D.R. Thompson, personal communication) and gastric ulceration in in race training is rarely associated with the administration of NSAIDs (Vatistas et al. 3994b; Murray et al. 1996; Vatistas 1998). In addition, ulcers caused by NSAID administration frequently affected the glandular mucosa (Furr and Murray 1989; Kuinaran and Bhuvanakumar 1994) and tended to heal spontaneously (Jones 1983; MacAllister and Sangiah 1993). both of which occunences are infrequent in the clinical setting (Vatistas and Snyder 1997; Vatistas 1998). Spontaneous healing of ulcers, following induction of ulceration by either fasting or NSAID administration, precludes the evaluation of anti-ulcer medication. Clinical studies conducted at the race track designed to determine the effectiveness or the appropriate dosage of anti-ulcer medication are hampered by the lack of client compliance, the use of concurrent medications, and differences in quantity of feed given, training regimes and racing schedules. Consequently, a model that maintains gastric ulcers and mimics the situation on the race track, but in which exercise, feeding and management may be precisely controlled, may be useful in the investigation of anti-ulcer therapies. Stress in man has been documented as a cause of peptic ulcer disease (Yoshitomi et al. 1986). By extrapolation from human studies, stress has been suggested as a cause of gastric ulceration in (Murray 1993). Stress, due to concurrent disease, has been documented to increase the prevalence of peptic ulcer disease in neonatal foals (Furr et al. 1992). Difficulties exist in defining stress objectively, but several studies in man and have used serum cortisol concentrations (McCall et al. 1987; Alexander etal. 1988; Taylor 1989; Ma1 etal. 1991; Taylor 1991;

2 N. J. Vatistas et al. 41 Covalesky et al. 1992; Taylor and Watkins 1992; Taylor et al. 1992; Clark et al. 1993; Kaciuba-Uscilko et al. 1994; Ockenfels et al. 1995; Hydbring et al. 1996; Smith et al. 1996; Pollard 1997). There is a popularly held belief that in race training are in a stressful environment and, consequently, may be prone to conditions such as gastric ulceration. However, a study measuring serum cortisol concentrations in racing Thoroughbreds and at pasture found no significant differences between the 2 groups (Irvine and Alexander 1994). From studies at the race track, we have determined a typical feeding, environmental and training regime that was associated with the presence of gastric ulceration in (Vatistas 1998). In general, are fed large quantities of concentrates (grain) and enter an increasing exercise programme of progressively faster galloping work. The aims of this study were to determine whether ulcers could be induced and maintained in a population of fed a concentrate diet, maintained in fast work and fasted before exercise. In addition, by measuring serum cortisol, the study aimed to determine if were stressed by race training and whether gastric ulceration induced signs of acute abdominal discomfort. Materials and methods Study design Thirty mature Thoroughbred were used, including 10 females, 16 geldings and 4 intact males age 2-13 years, weighing kg. Fifteen were accustomed to the training regime for at least 2 weeks before endoscopic examination (Group I), while the remaining 15 were maintained at pasture immediately before the trial (Group 2). All entered a simulated training regime on the same day (Day 0) and were maintained in training for 56 days. They were examined gastroendoscopically and venous blood was collected every week for the duration of the trial. The start of the trial was defined as the time the unfit (Group 2) entered into the exercise and feeding protocol. Exercise Horses were exercised 6 timedweek. Horses were walked for approximately 0.4 km, were trotted for a additional 0.4 km and then galloped for km on a 0.8 km oval training track. One day/week, were breezed for an additional 0.8 km. Following completion of exercise, were walked for approximately 0.4 km, washed down, and cooled off on a hot walker for 30 min. Feeding Horses were fed coastal Bermuda hay twice daily, in the morning and evening. Horses also received 6 kg of a concentrate ration (Heavy Duty 14 Horse Feed) containing 14% crude protein, 3% fat, 7.5% fibre, % calcium, 0.4% phosphorus, 10 ppm copper, 0.1 ppm selenium and 0.5 ppm zinc.water was available ad libitum throughout the trial, but was withheld for 4 h before gastroendoscopy. Gastroendoscopy Gastroendoscopic examinations were performed 2 days before the trial (Days -2 and -l), and on Days 7, 14,21, 28,34,42,49 and 56. Twelve hours before gastroendoscopic examination, feed was withheld, were muzzled and bedding removed. Gastroendoscopy was performed on days when the were not exercised. Horses were sedated with xylazine hydrochloride (X-Ject E)2 (0.3 mag bwt i.v.) and acepromazine maleate (0.02 mgkg bwt i.v.), and restrained with a twitch. A 3 m gastroendo~cope~ was passed using the left or right nostril into the stomach. The stomach was insufflated, and systematically searched. The period of fasting allowed visualisation of the entire squamous portion of the stomach, and a portion of the glandular mucosa. The worst gastric lesions were recorded using the following grading system: Housing Intact mucosal epithelium (may have reddening and/or hyperkeratosis). Small single or small multifocal ulcers: ulcers extended through the mucosa to the submucosa and were c2 cm diameter, as judged by the marks on the endoscope. Large single or large multifocal ulcers: ulcers extended through the mucosa to the submucosa and were >2 cm diameter, as judged by the marks on the endoscope. Extensive and coalescing ulcers with areas of apparent deep ulceration: ulcers extended through the mucosa to the submucosa. Ulcers appeared as grade 2 ulcers, but would coalesce, producing areas of extensive ulceration. All were kept in individual stalls and their health monitored at least twice daily. Serum cortisol Venous blood samples were collected in the morning on the same days that endoscopy was performed into plain (without anticoagulant) vacutainer tubes. Samples were allowed to clot and separated at 2000 g. The serum was separated and sent for determination of serum cortisol concentrations at Texas A & M Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratories. Samples were collected before endoscopic examinations, whilst the horse was resting in its stall. Statistical analysis ANOVA (repeated measures) was used to determine whether there was a temporal effect for the severity of ulceration or the values of serum cortisol concentration for either Group I or Group 2. Significance was set at P S Results Of the in Group I (Table l), all had ulceration at the beginning of the trial and the grade of ulceration was not altered for the duration of the (P = 0.17). Of Group 2, 13 had no evidence of ulcers and 2 had mild (grade I ) gastric ulceration on the first examination, but ulcers had developed in the majority of by 7 days and were present in all by 14 days. There was a significant increase in the severity of ulceration from baseline (P = 0.02). Although the grade of ulceration varied in some between examinations, there was no change in the severity of ulceration from Day 28 to the end of the trial. In both groups, ulcers were located within the squamous mucosa, adjacent to the margo plicatus. At the start of the trial, mean i s.e. serum cortisol concentration for groups I and 2 were i nmovl and i 65.69

3 42 Induction and maintenance of gastric ulceration TABLE 1: Mean * s.e. values for ulcer severity and serum cortisol concentrations (nmolll) of 30 maintained in simulated race training Ulcer score Days -2 to -1 Day 7 Day 114 Day 21 Day 28 Day 35 Day 42 Day 49 Day 56 Group 1 (Conditioned): f f k k f f f f i Group 2 (unfit): 3.59 * f f f k * * OO t Serum cortisol nmolll Group 1 (Conditioned): f f k f f f :t26.50 Group 2 (unfit): * f f f k k Ok :t32.57 See Materials and methods nmol/l, respectively; and by the end of the trial, * nmol/l and * nmov1, respectively. Although serum cortisol concentrations varied from one week to the next (Table I), there was a significant downward trend over the course of the study (P<O.OOOI). During the course of the trial, 8 were given topical treatment with dimethyl~ulphoxide~ for soreness of the metacarpophalangeal joints, 2 were treated for a cough, one for an abscess with penicillin (20,000 iuikg i.m. b.i.d. for 5 days) and one was treated topically with polymixin B, bacitracin, neomycin for superficial skin abrasions. One horse had a mild bout of colic treated with mineral oil (2 litresper 0s) and xylazine hydrochloride (300 mg, i.v.), and one horse, which refused food on one occasion, was administered mineral oil (2 litresper 0s). Discussion In our study, all had developed gastric ulcers within 2 weeks of entering simulated race training. This is similar to Thoroughbreds in active race training, in which gastric ulceration has a prevalence of 80-90% and an incidence of 100% (Lind et a/. 1983). In developing the present model, the aim was to simulate conditions during race training. Studies of therapeutic regimes using client-owned at the race track may be hampered by owner compliance, the lack of control of the feeding, concurrent medication administration and exercise schedule. To avoid these potential complications, various models have been described (Jones 1983; MacAllister and Sangiah 1993; Murray 1994). These have been hampered by the need to administer NSAIDs or the spontaneous healing of ulcers (Jones 1983; MacAllister and Sangiah 1993; Murray 1994). In developing the present model, we used information gained in a previous cohort study of entering race training (Vatistas 1998). Significant factors for the development of gastric ulceration included the feeding of concentrates and faster exercise (Vatistas 1998). In addition, withholding feed before exercise was a modifying factor that, although not causing gastric ulceration, may have decreased time of onset. In our study, we incorporated the feeding of a high concentrate diet and periods of galloping exercise. Our model appeared similar to the clinical situation, in that ulcers developed and were maintained. Although a common condition of racing Thorougnbred, the aetiology of gastric ulceration remains to be elucidated. Early reviews of equine gastric ulcers have implicated some of the potential causes in man, including age, (Kato et a/. 1992) occupation (Pfeiffer 1992), stress (Yoshitomi et a/. 1986), diet (Yoshitomi et a/. 1986; Rachmilewitz et a/. 1994) and NSAIDs (Vakil et a/. 1994). However, comparisons between ulceration in mature and man are not valid due to the differing gastric anatomy between the two species. In an attempt to determine the effects of individual factors in the feeding and management of responsible, several studies have attempted to address the effects of withholding feed, feeding concentrates and stabling (Murray 1994; Murray and Eichorn 1996). Murray determined that alternately withholding feed for 24 h followed by feeding for 24 h induced ulceration of the squamous mucosa that appeared endoscopically similar to naturally occurring ulcers (Murray 1994). However, such a severe form of feed deprivation does not occur in in training, in which may be fasted for 4 h before training exercise, although the period of feed withdrawal may be longer prior to a race. The results of our study tend to support the concept from other studies that feed deprivation is not necessary for the development of gastric ulceration (Vatistas 1998). The stabling of from pasture has been documented to increase the severity of gastric ulceration (Murray and Eichorn, 1996). All in the present study were stabled and this may have had some influence on the development of gastric ulceration. Evidence for the role grain is predominantly anecdotal, but there has been one study that demonstrated an increased prevalence of gastric ulceration in ponies fed a concentrate diet compared to ponies fed hay alone. Owing to the design of the present study, it was not possible to separate the effects of feeding, exercise and stabling. Further studies using this model are required to separate these factors to determine which are important in the aetiology of gastric ulceration or whether all are required. It has been suggested that NSAIDs are a cause of gastric ulceration in in race training. However, ulcers of the squamous mucosa developed in all the in the present trial without the use of NSAIDs. Further evidence that the administration of NSAIDs are not important contributors to the formation of gastric ulceration within the squamous mucosa has been provided by several studies of in active race training

4 N. J. Vatistas et al. 43 (Murray et al. 1996; Vatistas et al. 1994a,b; Vatistas 1998). However, the effects of the administration of NSAIDs on the development of naturally occurring ulcers of the glandular mucosa have yet to be determined. The stress of race training has been suggested as a cause of gastric ulceration in Thoroughbred race. A potential cause of the high prevalence of ulcers in racing Thoroughbreds may be the stress of the race track in association with feeding practices of in training. Rodents, which share a similar gastric anatomy to, develop mild ulceration of the squamous mucosa following feed deprivation or stress (Hinton 1980; Ossenkopp and Mazmanian 1985; Ostensen et al. 1985a,b; Rydning and Berstad 1985; Lindell et al. 1994). When feed deprivation and stress were combined in the same animal, more severe ulceration of the squamous mucosa was induced than expected from a simple additive effect of feed deprivation and stress. In our study, we attempted to determine stress by measurement of serum cortisol. In, serum cortisol has been shown to have a diurnal rhythm, being highest in the morning and lowest in the evening (Bottoms et al. 1972; Larsson et al. 1979). In man, serum cortisol concentrations have been shown to be altered by physiological stress (Kaciuba-Uscilko et al. 1994; Ockenfels et al. 1995). Serum cortisol concentration has been used as a measure of stress in (Flisinska- Bojanowska et al. 1974; Lucke and Hall 1980; McCall et al. 1987; Alexander et al. 1988; Martinez et al. 1988; Taylor 1989; Ma1 et al. 1991; Covalesky et al. 1992; Furr et al. 1992; Clark et al. 1993; Irvine and Alexander 1994; Hydbring et al. 1996; Smith et al. 1996). Serum cortisol concentrations were increased with road transport, anaesthesia, exposure to a new environment, disease, restraint, nasogastric intubation, and abrupt weaning of foals (McCall et al. 1987; Taylor 1989; Covalesky et al. 1992; Fun et al. 1992; Clark et al. 1993; Irvine and Alexander 1994; Hydbring et al. 1996). Serum cortisol concentrations were not altered by isolation, different diets or shoeing (Alexander et al. 1988; Martinez et al. 1988; Stull and Rodiek 1988; Ma et al. 1991). The values determined in our study declined during the period of study, suggesting that became acclimatised to their environment. Other studies that have shown that the values of serum cortisol concentration are the same in Thoroughbreds in training and at pasture (Irvine and Alexander 1994). The results of our study suggest that, rather than training itself, the most stressful event may have been when entered their new environment. Compared to pastured animals, an increase in cortisol values and a loss of the normal diurnal rhythm has been documented in within 48 h of stabling (Irvine and Alexander 1994). However, as become acclimatised to new environments, cortisol concentrations return to baseline and the diurnal rhythm returns (Covalesky et al. 1992; Irvine and Alexander 1994). In a number of studies, ulcers have been implicated as a cause of abdominal pain, poor performance and death due to gastric perforation (Murray et al. 1989; Murray 1992; Vatistas et al. 1994a,b). Increasing severity of gastric ulceration was greater in displaying clinical signs of recurrent, acute or chronic colic, diminished appetite and poor body condition than in a similar group of free from signs of abdominal discomfort (Murray et al. 1989). In addition, colic was attributed to the presence of gastric ulceration in 3 1 on the basis of a lack of lesions at exploratory laparotomy, and an alleviation of abdominal discomfort following anti-ulcer therapy (Murray 1992). In this study, only one horse showed signs of colic, and another had a diminished appetite. These signs resolved with minimal symptomatic treatment, and without treatment with anti-ulcer medications. The results of this and other studies suggest that colic may be an uncommon sequelae to gasttic ulceration (Vatistas et al ; Vatistas 1998). Other studies have suggested that signs of gastric ulceration are associated with performance, appetite and body condition (Murray et al. 1989; Vatistas et al. 1994b). Other studies, in which sensitive measures of body condition, appetite, performance and abdominal pain are taken, are required to determine the effects of gastric ulceration on the health. Manufacturers addresses Texas Farm Products Co., Nacogdoches, Texas, USA. 2Burns Veterinary Supply, Rcckville Center, New York, USA. 3Pentax Precision Instruments, Precision Medical Instruments, Chandler, North Carolina, USA. 4SFB, Wichita, Kansas, USA. References Acland, H.M., Gunson, D.E. and Gillette, D.M. (1983) Ulcerative duodenitis in foals. Vet. Path. 20, Alexander, S.L., Irvine, C.H.G., Livesey, J.H. and Donald, R.A. (1988) Effect of isolation stress on concentrations of arginine vasopressin, alpha-melanocytestimulating hormone and ACTH in the pituitary venous effluent of the normal horse. J. Endocrinol. 116, Becht, J.L. and Byars, T.D. (1986) Gastroduodenal ulceration in foals. Equine vef. J. 18, Bottoms, G.D., Roesel, O.F., Rausch, F.D. and Akins, E.L. (1972) Circadian variation in plasma cortisol and corticosterone in pigs and mares. Am. J. vet. Res. 33, Clark, D.K., Friend, T.H. and Dellmeier, G. (1993) The effect of orientation during trailer transport on heart rate, cortisol and balance in. Appl. anim. Behav. Sci Covalesky, M.E., Russoniello, C.R. and Malinowski, K. (1992) Effects of showjumping performance stress on plasma cortisol and lactate concentrations and heart rate and behavior in. J. equine vet. Sci. 12, Flisinska-Bojanowska, A,, Skwarlo, K., Lukaszewska, I., Bobilewicz. D., Wilk, M. and Gill, J. (1974) Diurnal variations of serum cortisol and PBI in the Thoroughbred horse and effect of physical effort on plasma cortisol concentration. Bull. Acad. Polon. Sci. Serie des Sciences Biologiques 22, Furr, M.O. and Murray, M.J. (1989) Treatmenl of gastric ulcers in with histamine type 2 receptor antagonists. Equine vet. J., Suppl. 7, Furr, M.O.. Murray, M.J. and Ferguson. D.C. (1992) The effects of stress on gastric ulceration, T3, T4, reverse T3 and cortisol in neonatal foals. Equine vet. J. 24, Hinton, M. (1980) Gastric ulceration in the rabbit. J. comp. Path. 90, Hydbring, E., Nyman, S. and Dahlborn, K. (l!)96) Changes in plasma cortisol, plasma beta-endorphin, heart rate, haematocrit and plasma protein concentration in during restraint and use of naso-gastric tube. Pferdeheilkunde 12, Irvine, C.H.G. and Alexander, S.L. (1994) Factors affecting the circadian rhythm in plasma cortisol concentrations in the horse. Dom. anim. Endocrinol. 11, Jones, W.E. (1983) Gastrointestinal ulcers [foal] Equine vef. Data 4, 305, Kaciuba-Uscilko, H., Porta, S., Nazar, K., Tonderska, M., Titow-Stupnicka, E., Ziemba, A.W. and Chwalbinska-Moneta, J. (1994) Effect of mild psychological stress on physiological responses to exercise in men. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 45, Kato. I., Nomura, A.M., Stemmermann, G.N. and Chyou, P.H. (1992) A prospective study of gasmc and duodenal ulcer and its relation to smoking, alcohol, and diet. Am. J. Epidemiol. 135, Kumaran, D. and Bhuvanakumar, C.K. (1994) Gastro duodenal ulceration in foals - a discussion. Cenfaur Mylapore 10, Larsson, M., Edqvist, L. E., Ekman, L. and Persson, S. (1979) Plasma cortisol in the horse, diurnal rhythm and effects of exogenous ACTH. Acfa vet. Scund Lind, T., Cederberg, C., Ekenved, G., Haglund, U. and Olbe, L. (1983) Effect of omeprazole-a gastric proton pump inhibitor-on pentagastrin stimulated acid

5 44 Induction and maintenance of gastric ulceration secretion in man. Gut Lindell, G.. Celehioglu, F., Von Holstein. C.S. and Graflner. H. (1994) On the natural history of peptic ulcer. Scund. J. Gustroenterol Lucke. J.N. and Hall, G.M. (1980) Further studies on the metabolic effects of long distance nding: Golden Horseshoe Ride Equine vet. J MacAllister. C.G. and Sangiah, S. (1993) Effect of ranitidine (in healing of experimentally induced gastric ulcers in ponies. Am. J. vet. R~T. 54, Mal. M.E. Friend, T.H., Lay, D.C., Vogelsang. S.G. and Jenkins, O.C. (1991) Physiological responses of mares to short term confinement and social isolation. J. equine vet. Sci Martinei. R.. Godoy, A,, Naretto, E. and White. A. (1988) Neuroendocrine changes produced by competition stress on the Thoroughbred race horse. Comp. Biocheni. Physiol. Comparative Physiology McCall, C.A.. Potter, G.D., Kreider, J.L. and Jenkins, W.L. (19x7) Physiological responses in foals weaned by abrupt or gradual methods. J. equine vet. Sci. 7, Murray, M.J. (1992) Gastric ulceration in : 9 I case\ ( ) J. Am. vet. merl. A,\$. 201, I Murray. M.J. ( 1993) Gastric ulceration in : pathologic and therapeutic considerations. Proc. Am. Ass. equine P ractnrv. 38, Murray, M.J. (1994) Equine model of inducing ulceration in alimentary squamous epithelial mucosa. Dig. Di,\. Sci. 39, Murray, M.J. and Eichorn, E.S. (1996) Effects of intermittent feed deprivation, intermittent feed deprivation with ranitidine administration, and stall confinement with ad lihitum access to hay on gastric ulceration in. Am. J. w. ~e is~ Mumy, M.J.. Schusser, G.F., Pipers. F.S. and Gross, S.J. (1996) Factors associated with gastric lesions in Thoroughbred race. Equine wt. J Murray. M.J.. Grodinsky. C., Anderson. C.W.. Radue, P.F. and Schmidt. G.R. (1989) Gastric ulcers in : a comparison of endoscopic findings in with and without clinical signs. Equine vet. J.. Suppl Murray. M.J.. Grodinsky. C.. Cuwles, R.R.. Hawkins. W.L.. Forfa, R.J. and Luba. N.K. (1990) Endoscopic evaluation of changes in gastric lesions of Thoroughhred foals. J. Am. vet. med. A,\s. 196, Ockenfels, M.C.. Porter. L., Smyth. J.. Kirschhaum. C., Hellhammer, D.H. and Stone, A.A. (1995) Effect of chronic stress associated with unemployment on salivary cortisol: overall cortisol levels. diurnal rhythm, and acute stress reactivity. Pswhsom. Med Ossenkopp. K.P. and Mazmanian. D.S. (1985) Some hehavioral Pacton related to the effects of cold-restraint stress in rats: a factor analytic-multiple regressiiin approach. Phy.\iol. Behui: 34, Ostensen. H., Gudmundsen. T.E., Bolz. K.D., Burhol. P.G. and Bonnevie, 0. (1985a) The incidence of gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer in north Norway. A prospective epidemiological study. Scand. J. Gastroenferol Ostensen. H., Gudmundsen, T.E., Burhol, P.G. and Bonnevie, 0. ( 1985h) Seasonal periodicity of peptic ulcer disease. A prospective radiokigic study. Scand. J. Girtroenterol. 20, 1 2X I - I284 Pfeiffer, C.J. (1992) A review of spontaneous ulcer disease in domestic aiiimals: chickens, cattle,, and swine. Aim. Physiol. Hung. 80, Pollard. T.M. (19971 Physiological consequences of everyday psychosocial stress. Coll. Anfropol. 21, Rachmilewitz, D., Karmeli. F., Okon, E. and Samuni, A. (1994) A novel antiulcerogenic stable radical prevents gastric mucosal lesions in rats. Cut. 35, Rydning, A. and Berstad, A ) Dietary aspects of peptic ulcer disease. Scand. J. Gu\troentrroI., Suppl Smith. B.L.. Jones, J.H., Hornof. W.J., Miles, J.A., Longworth, K.E. and Willits. N.H. (1996) Effects of road transport on indices iifstress in. Equine vet. J Stull. C.L. and Rodiek. A.V. (1988) Responses of hlood glucose, insulin and ~(irtisol concentrations to common equine diets. J. Nut Taylor, P.M. (1989) Equine stress responses to anaesthesia. Br. J. Anaesth ~. Taylor. P.M. ( I 99 I ) Stress responses in ponies during halothane or isoilurane anaesthesia after induction with thiopentone or xylazineketamine. J. vet. Anaesth I. Taylor. P.M. and Watkins. S.B. (1992) Stress responses dunng total intrajenous anaesthesia in ponies with detomidine-guaiphenesin-ketamlne. J. vet. Annesrh Taylor. P.M., Luna. S.PL. Brearley, J.C.. Young, S.S. and Johnson, C.B. (1992) Physiiilogical effect.; of total intravenous surgical anaesthesia using detomidine-guaiphenesin-ketamine in. J. vet. Anaesth. 19, IS. Trauh. J.L., Gallina. A.M., Grant. B.D., Reed, S.M.. Gavin. P.R. and Paulserl. L.M. (1983) Phenylhutazone toxicosis in the foal. Am. J. vet. Rex Vakil. N.. Smith. W.. Bourgeois. K., Everbach, E.C. and Knynm, K. (1994) Endoscopic measurement of lesion ciie: improved accuracy with image processing. Gnatrointest. 0ido.w Vatistas. N.J. ( 1998) Gastric Ulceration in the Rucing Thoroughbred. PhD Thesis. Vatistas. N.J. and Snyder. J.R. (1997) Clinical trial of the use of omeprazok in the healing of Thoroughhred race maintained in active race training. Proc. Am. Ass. equine Practnrs. 42, Vatistas. N.J. Carlson, G.P.. Johnson. B., Snyder, J.R., Thurmond. M.. Arthur. R.M. and Lloyd, K.C.K. (I 994a) Gastric ulceration in racing Thoroughbred.;: A pathologic and epidemiologic study. Gnstroenterol. 106, A24R-A240 Vatistas. N.J.. Snyder. J.R.. Carlson, G.P.. Johnson. B., Arther, R.M.. Thurmiind. M. and Lloyd, K.C.K. (1994b) Epidemiology study of gastric ulcerarion in the Thoroughbred race horse: 202. Proc.,4m. AYS. equine Pnictnr.s. 39, Yoshitomi. K.. Maronpot. R.R., Solleveld, H A,. Boonnan. G.A. and Eustis. S.L 11986) Forestomach ulcers in Crj:B6C3 (CS7BWhNCrj x C3H/HeNC'rj) FI mice. Lab. Anim. Six 36, 51)1-S1)3.

Understanding gastric ulcers. and caring for your horse with equine gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS) Diagnosis, prevention and outcomes

Understanding gastric ulcers. and caring for your horse with equine gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS) Diagnosis, prevention and outcomes Understanding gastric ulcers and caring for your horse with equine gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS) Diagnosis, prevention and outcomes Introduction Equine gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS) is a common condition

More information

Gastric Ulcer Prophylaxis in the Critically Ill Equine Neonate ( 6-Nov-2001 )

Gastric Ulcer Prophylaxis in the Critically Ill Equine Neonate ( 6-Nov-2001 ) In: Recent Advances in Equine Neonatal Care, P. A. Wilkins and J. E. Palmer (Eds.) Publisher: International Veterinary Information Service (www.ivis.org), Ithaca, New York, USA. Gastric Ulcer Prophylaxis

More information

Introduction. Introduction. Equine Gastric and Pyloric Ulcer Syndrome. Equine gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS) First described in 1986

Introduction. Introduction. Equine Gastric and Pyloric Ulcer Syndrome. Equine gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS) First described in 1986 Equine Gastric and Pyloric Ulcer Syndrome Jenifer R Gold DVM, DACVIM-LA Assistant Professor-Colorado State University Colorado Veterinary Medical Association September 22, 2013 S Introduction Equine gastric

More information

GASTROINTESTINAL SYSTEM MANAGEMENT OF DYSPEPSIA

GASTROINTESTINAL SYSTEM MANAGEMENT OF DYSPEPSIA GASTROINTESTINAL SYSTEM MANAGEMENT OF DYSPEPSIA MANAGEMENT Dyspepsia refers to a spectrum of usually intermittent upper gastrointestinal symptoms, including epigastric pain and heartburn. For the majority

More information

Nutrition #3 Created for Canadian Pony Club Education By Lezah Williamson

Nutrition #3 Created for Canadian Pony Club Education By Lezah Williamson Nutrition #3 Created for Canadian Pony Club Education By Lezah Williamson 1. Feed little and often 2. Feed plenty of bulk food 3. Feed according to size, age, breed, temperament, condition, season and

More information

Hoof Health: Foundation Formula

Hoof Health: Foundation Formula Hoof Health: Foundation Formula December Educational Webinar 2017 Dr Tania Cubitt Performance Horse Nutrition NUTRITION & THE HOOF The hoof wall grows downward at a rate of 1/4 to 3/8ths of an inch per

More information

MANAGEMENT OF DYSPEPSIA AND GASTRO-OESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE (GORD)

MANAGEMENT OF DYSPEPSIA AND GASTRO-OESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE (GORD) DERBYSHIRE JOINT AREA PRESCRIBING COMMITTEE (JAPC) MANAGEMENT OF DYSPEPSIA AND GASTRO-OESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE (GORD) Routine endoscopic investigation of patients of any age, presenting with dyspepsia

More information

Product Advisor Questions

Product Advisor Questions Product Advisor Questions All the answers to the questions below can be found in the Bronze Product Advisor booklet, Dengie product guide or on the Dengie website. Tip: Look how many marks there are for

More information

Hay-based diets for horses: Matching horse type to hay type

Hay-based diets for horses: Matching horse type to hay type Digestive tract Hay-based diets for horses: Matching horse type to hay type Spends more time chewing than pre-gastric fermentors Feedstuffs reach hindgut within 4 hours Hindgut retention time 24-48 hours

More information

You Can Lead A Horse To Hay But You Can t Make It Eat

You Can Lead A Horse To Hay But You Can t Make It Eat You Can Lead A Horse To Hay But You Can t Make It Eat Dr. Nicola Pusterla, PhD, Diplomate ACVIM Department of Medicine and Epidemiology School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis Outline

More information

Cushing s Disease. Avondale Veterinary Group. Avondale House Strathaven Rural Centre Strathaven Lanarkshire ML10 6SY.

Cushing s Disease. Avondale Veterinary Group. Avondale House Strathaven Rural Centre Strathaven Lanarkshire ML10 6SY. Avondale Veterinary Group Avondale House Strathaven Rural Centre Strathaven Lanarkshire ML10 6SY Tel: 01357 520251 Cushing s Disease Equine Cushing s Disease (ECD), also known as Pars Pituitary Intermedia

More information

Nutrient Needs of Performance Horses ABSTRACT. Laurie Lawrence, Ph.D.

Nutrient Needs of Performance Horses ABSTRACT. Laurie Lawrence, Ph.D. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia ISSN impresso: 1516-3598 R. Bras. Zootec., v.37, suplemento especial p.206-210, 2008 ISSN on-line: 1806-9290 www.sbz.org.br Nutrient Needs of Performance Horses Laurie Lawrence,

More information

Dairy Feed 14% - Textured

Dairy Feed 14% - Textured Dairy Dairy Feed 14% - Textured Guaranteed Analysis CRUDE PROTEIN, not less than... 14.0 % CRUDE FAT, not less than... 2.0 % CRUDE FIBER, not more than... 3.0 % ADF, not more than... 4.00 % CALCIUM (Ca),

More information

RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN EQUINE NUTRITION RESEARCH

RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN EQUINE NUTRITION RESEARCH J.D. Pagan 251 RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN EQUINE NUTRITION RESEARCH JOE D. PAGAN Kentucky Equine Research, Inc., Versailles, Kentucky, USA Introduction Several important equine nutrition meetings were held

More information

EFFECT OF VAGOTOMY AND PYLOROPLASTY: THE ORAL GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST

EFFECT OF VAGOTOMY AND PYLOROPLASTY: THE ORAL GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST GASTROENTEROLOGY 64: 217-222, 1973 Copyright 1973 by The Williams & Wilkins Co. Vol. 64, No.2 Printed in U.S.A. EFFECT OF VAGOTOMY AND PYLOROPLASTY: THE ORAL GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST W, H, HALL, M,D" L.

More information

Feeding Your Miniature Horse

Feeding Your Miniature Horse Feeding Your Miniature Horse How Horse s Ate in Nature A grazing animal. Evolved to eat large amounts of poor quality forage. Getting enough food involved a lot of travelling. How Horse s Ate in Nature

More information

Equine Nutrition in Health and Disease. Dr Karin Kruger BVSc, MSc, DACVIM Equine Specialist Physician

Equine Nutrition in Health and Disease. Dr Karin Kruger BVSc, MSc, DACVIM Equine Specialist Physician Equine Nutrition in Health and Disease Dr Karin Kruger BVSc, MSc, DACVIM Equine Specialist Physician What to feed my horse? 2% DM of ideal body weight (60:40) Grass / forage Best quality Good quality commercial

More information

Development of the Rodent Gastrointestinal Tract:

Development of the Rodent Gastrointestinal Tract: White Paper Development of the Rodent Gastrointestinal Tract: The regulation of the development of the GI tract is unique and complex. With respect to the GI tract there are several considerations that

More information

Feeding the Horse with Cushing s s Disease. Dr. Martin Adams

Feeding the Horse with Cushing s s Disease. Dr. Martin Adams Feeding the Horse with Cushing s s Disease Dr. Martin Adams What is Equine Cushing s s Disease? Disorder of pituitary gland. Results in hormonal imbalances with variety of symptoms. Occurs in middle-aged

More information

Beyond Water and Hay, What a Healthy Horse Needs to Meet Daily Nutritional Requirements

Beyond Water and Hay, What a Healthy Horse Needs to Meet Daily Nutritional Requirements Beyond Water and Hay, What a Healthy Horse Needs to Meet Daily Nutritional Requirements Dr. Nicola Pusterla, PhD, Diplomate ACVIM Department of Medicine and Epidemiology School of Veterinary Medicine,

More information

WSVMA Annual Conference

WSVMA Annual Conference WSVMA Annual Conference Equine Nutrition Spokane Convention Center Spokane, Washington October 1-3, 2010 Steve Duren, PhD Performance Horse Nutrition, Weiser, ID Stephen Duren, MS, PhD, PAS Performance

More information

OF DIETARY CATION-ANION BALANCE ON MINERAL BALANCE IN HORSES. Story In Brief

OF DIETARY CATION-ANION BALANCE ON MINERAL BALANCE IN HORSES. Story In Brief EFFECf OF DIETARY CATION-ANION BALANCE ON MINERAL BALANCE IN HORSES L. A. Bakerl, D.R. Topliff2, D.W. Freeman2, RG. Teeter3 and I.E. Breazile4 Story In Brief Four mature sedentary geldings were used in

More information

THE EFFECT OF DIETARY CATION-ANION BALANCE ON MINERAL BALANCE IN THE ANAEROBICALLY EXERCISED HORSE

THE EFFECT OF DIETARY CATION-ANION BALANCE ON MINERAL BALANCE IN THE ANAEROBICALLY EXERCISED HORSE THE EFFECT OF DIETARY CATION-ANION BALANCE ON MINERAL BALANCE IN THE ANAEROBICALLY EXERCISED HORSE D.L. Wall', D.R. Topliff2, D.W. Freeman2, le. Breazile3, D.G. Wagner4, and w.a. Stutzl Story in Brief

More information

UNIVERSITY STANDARD. Title

UNIVERSITY STANDARD. Title UNIVERSITY STANDARD Title UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA AT CHAPEL HILL STANDARD ON FOOD AND/OR WATER RESTRICTION AND/OR DEPRIVATION IN RATS, MICE, RABBITS, AND FERRETS Introduction PURPOSE The standards

More information

Matching Hay to the Cow s Requirement Based on Forage Test

Matching Hay to the Cow s Requirement Based on Forage Test Matching Hay to the Cow s Requirement Based on Forage Test Ed Rayburn, Extension Specialist WVU Extension Service, Agriculture and Natural Resources October 2013 The conventional method for matching hay

More information

Helicobacter Pylori Testing HELICOBACTER PYLORI TESTING HS-131. Policy Number: HS-131. Original Effective Date: 9/17/2009

Helicobacter Pylori Testing HELICOBACTER PYLORI TESTING HS-131. Policy Number: HS-131. Original Effective Date: 9/17/2009 Easy Choice Health Plan, Inc. Harmony Health Plan of Illinois, Inc. Missouri Care, Inc. Ohana Health Plan, a plan offered by WellCare Health Insurance of Arizona, Inc. WellCare Health Insurance of Illinois,

More information

Nutritional Management of the Racehorse. Laurie Lawrence, Ph.D. Department of Animal and Food Sciences University of Kentucky

Nutritional Management of the Racehorse. Laurie Lawrence, Ph.D. Department of Animal and Food Sciences University of Kentucky Nutritional Management of the Racehorse Laurie Lawrence, Ph.D. Department of Animal and Food Sciences University of Kentucky Considerations Meet nutrient requirements Maintain normal GI tract Feeding the

More information

ELECTROLYTES FOR SPORT HORSES ARE THEY NEEDED?

ELECTROLYTES FOR SPORT HORSES ARE THEY NEEDED? ELECTROLYTES FOR SPORT HORSES ARE THEY NEEDED? Hal Schott, DVM, PhD, DACVIM Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences D-202 Veterinary Medical Center Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1314

More information

The Use of Analgesics in Rodents and Rabbits Deborah M. Mook, DVM

The Use of Analgesics in Rodents and Rabbits Deborah M. Mook, DVM The Use of Analgesics in Rodents and Rabbits Deborah M. Mook, DVM (Last updated August, 2005) Rationale. Well-established studies have shown repeatedly that effective analgesia enhances locomotion, increases

More information

Methods Tennessee Livestock Producers, Inc. (Tennessee Farm Bureau Federation, Columbia,

Methods Tennessee Livestock Producers, Inc. (Tennessee Farm Bureau Federation, Columbia, Evaluation of Injectable Minerals and Growth Implants to Enhance Weaned Calf Development A.E. Fisher, W.W. Gill, C.D. Lane, Jr., R.L. Ellis and G.M. Pighetti Department of Animal Science Research and Education

More information

produced by FiberForce the optimal gut improver

produced by FiberForce the optimal gut improver W LO SU G HI AR GH (3 IN %) FI AN BE D R ST (2 AR 5% C ) H( 5% ) produced by FiberForce the optimal gut improver A healthy horse from within FiberForce is a unique formula with extruded fiber pellets,

More information

MPI is satisfied the current quarantine measures in place are sufficient to manage the situation.

MPI is satisfied the current quarantine measures in place are sufficient to manage the situation. Equine Herpes Virus type 1 myeloencephalopathy Update 7 February 2014 MPI has confirmed that Equine Herpes Virus type 1 myeloencephalopathy is present on a stud farm in the Waikato. It has not been reported

More information

Nutrition for the Metabolic/Cushingoid Horse. Ocean State Equine Associates 2205 Providence Pike North Smithfield, RI 02896

Nutrition for the Metabolic/Cushingoid Horse. Ocean State Equine Associates 2205 Providence Pike North Smithfield, RI 02896 Nutrition for the Metabolic/Cushingoid Horse Ocean State Equine Associates 2205 Providence Pike North Smithfield, RI 02896 Goals What are PPID and EMS? What is their link to IR? How is IR linked to laminitis?

More information

SWISS SOCIETY OF NEONATOLOGY. Neonatal gastric perforation

SWISS SOCIETY OF NEONATOLOGY. Neonatal gastric perforation SWISS SOCIETY OF NEONATOLOGY Neonatal gastric perforation September 2002 2 Zankl A, Stähelin J, Roth K, Boudny P and Zeilinger G, Children s Hospital of Aarau (ZA, SJ, RK, ZG) and Institute of Pathology

More information

Beef Cattle Nutrient Requirements

Beef Cattle Nutrient Requirements Beef Cattle Nutrient Requirements Nutrients Required by Beef Cattle Beef cattle require nutrients to support body maintenance, reproduction, lactation, and growth. The nutritional needs of beef cattle

More information

KK College of Nursing Peptic Ulcer Badil D ass Dass, Lecturer 25th July, 2011

KK College of Nursing Peptic Ulcer Badil D ass Dass, Lecturer 25th July, 2011 KK College of Nursing Peptic Ulcer Badil Dass, Lecturer 25 th July, 2011 Objectives: By the end of this lecture, the students t will be able to: Define peptic pp ulcer Describe the etiology and pathology

More information

Equine Metabolic Syndrome

Equine Metabolic Syndrome David Catlin Memorial Lecture Series - 2011 Equine Metabolic Syndrome Peter Heidmann DVM Diplomate & Specialist - Equine Internal Medicine a.k.a Couch Potato Syndrome ALFALFA AND C.O.B IS DORITOS AND COKE

More information

PRESCRIBING SUPPORT TEAM AUDIT: PROTON PUMP INHIBITOR PRESCRIBING REVIEW

PRESCRIBING SUPPORT TEAM AUDIT: PROTON PUMP INHIBITOR PRESCRIBING REVIEW PRESCRIBING SUPPORT TEAM AUDIT: PROTON PUMP INHIBITOR PRESCRIBING REVIEW DATE OF AUTHORISATION: AUTHORISING GP: PRESCRIBING SUPPORT TECHNICIAN: SUMMARY Dyspepsia refers to a broad range of symptoms related

More information

Reading the Labels; What you need to know By Lisa Ross Williams

Reading the Labels; What you need to know By Lisa Ross Williams Page 1 By Lisa Ross Williams Grow a whole new hoof in 30 days! Formulated for all horses; foals, maintenance, performance and seniors! Change your horse s color from bay to gray in just a week! Ok, it

More information

PEPTIC ULCER IN RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS- INTRINSIC OR RELATED TO DRUG THERAPY?

PEPTIC ULCER IN RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS- INTRINSIC OR RELATED TO DRUG THERAPY? British Journal of Rheumatology 1986;25:342-344 PEPTIC ULCER IN RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS- INTRIIC OR RELATED TO DRUG THERAPY? BY D. E. MALONE, P. A. McCORMICK, L. DALY, B. JONES, A. LONG, B. BRESNIHAN, J.

More information

Week 2: Concepts of measuring welfare: physiology, behavior, performance and health

Week 2: Concepts of measuring welfare: physiology, behavior, performance and health Questions Page -- Measuring behavior & welfare Week 1. Terminology Who is Don Broom and what does he do for a living? What is the difference between welfare and well-being? What would one measure if they

More information

A Study of the Correlation between Endoscopic and Histological Diagnoses in Gastroduodenitis

A Study of the Correlation between Endoscopic and Histological Diagnoses in Gastroduodenitis 000-9 70/8 7/80S-0749 THE AMERICAN JOIIRNAE. OF GAsrR()E.NrER 1987 by Am. Coll.ofGastroenterology Vo!.8. No. 8, 1487 Printed in U.S.A. A Study of the Correlation between Endoscopic

More information

Feeding Ethanol Co-products from Corn to Beef Cattle

Feeding Ethanol Co-products from Corn to Beef Cattle Feeding Ethanol Co-products from Corn to Beef Cattle David Bohnert 1, Ron Torell 2, and Randy Mills 1 1 Oregon State University Extension Service 2 University of Nevada Cooperative Extension Service I

More information

Nutrition Electrolytes and the Exercising Horse. Submitted by Donna Stokell

Nutrition Electrolytes and the Exercising Horse. Submitted by Donna Stokell Nutrition Electrolytes and the Exercising Horse Submitted by Donna Stokell I chose this topic as the summer was very hot and humid, which created many challenges for me as I attempted to care for my Belgian

More information

P R O D U C T R A N G E

P R O D U C T R A N G E DAIRY & BEEF P R O D U C T R A N G E Drinagh Drinagh manufactures a wide range of high quality feeds under the well known Score Drinagh Feeds brand. Accredited to the UFAS scheme our milling operation

More information

Feeding the modern sow; the next step

Feeding the modern sow; the next step Feeding the modern sow; the next step ir. P.R.T. Bonekamp Swine Specialist EMEA Brasil, December 2015 Modern swine farming does not differ that much from the past as the main goal is still to produce as

More information

Metabolism ANS 215 Physiology and Anatomy of Domesticated Animals

Metabolism ANS 215 Physiology and Anatomy of Domesticated Animals Metabolism ANS 215 Physiology and Anatomy of Domesticated Animals I. Body Temperature A. Chemical reaction of the body and therefore body functions are affected by body temperature 1. Each species has

More information

Minimal Enteral Nutrition

Minimal Enteral Nutrition Abstract Minimal Enteral Nutrition Although parenteral nutrition has been used widely in the management of sick very low birth weight infants, a smooth transition to the enteral route is most desirable.

More information

Studies on the biotin flow at the duodenum of dairy cows fed differently composed rations

Studies on the biotin flow at the duodenum of dairy cows fed differently composed rations Institute of Animal Nutrition P. Lebzien B. Schröder H. Abel G. Flachowsky Studies on the biotin flow at the duodenum of dairy cows fed differently composed rations Published in: Vitamine und Zusatzstoffe

More information

HAY FOR HORSES: ALFALFA OR GRASS? Anne Rodiek 1 ABSTRACT. Key Words: alfalfa hay, grass hay, horses, nutrient requirements INTRODUCTION

HAY FOR HORSES: ALFALFA OR GRASS? Anne Rodiek 1 ABSTRACT. Key Words: alfalfa hay, grass hay, horses, nutrient requirements INTRODUCTION HAY FOR HORSES: ALFALFA OR GRASS? Anne Rodiek 1 ABSTRACT Alfalfa hay is an excellent source of energy, protein, calcium and some other nutrients for horses. Its concentrations of protein and calcium meet

More information

ANHIDROSIS. The last several weeks at Brazos Valley Equine Hospital Navasota have seen an

ANHIDROSIS. The last several weeks at Brazos Valley Equine Hospital Navasota have seen an ANHIDROSIS Ben Buchanan, DVM Diplomate American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine Diplomate American College of Emergency and Critical Care Brazos Valley Equine Hospital Navasota, Texas The last

More information

Exercise 6 Ration Formulation II Balance for Three or More Nutrients 20 Points

Exercise 6 Ration Formulation II Balance for Three or More Nutrients 20 Points Exercise 6 Ration Formulation II Balance for Three or More Nutrients 20 Points This lab exercise progresses from balancing for two nutrients, as in Exercise 5, to balancing for three or more nutrients.

More information

Horse Feeds. Scroll Down to View the Following Feed: Premium Pelleted Horse Feeds. Life Design Series. Vitality Premium Textured Horse Feeds

Horse Feeds. Scroll Down to View the Following Feed: Premium Pelleted Horse Feeds. Life Design Series. Vitality Premium Textured Horse Feeds Horse Feeds Scroll Down to View the Following Feed: Premium Pelleted Horse Feeds SafeChoice Life Design Series Life Design Youth Life Design Compete Life Design Prime 10 Life Design Prime 14 Life Design

More information

Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle E-974

Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle E-974 Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle E-974 Department of Animal Science Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Oklahoma State University David Lalman

More information

Connie Larson received a B.S. in animal science and an M.S. degree in animal nutrition at Montana State. While earning a Ph.D.

Connie Larson received a B.S. in animal science and an M.S. degree in animal nutrition at Montana State. While earning a Ph.D. Connie Larson received a B.S. in animal science and an M.S. degree in animal nutrition at Montana State. While earning a Ph.D. degree in animal nutrition at New Mexico State University, she investigated

More information

SEDATION AND ANALGESIA IN BIRDS. Christoph Mans, Dr. med. vet., DACZM

SEDATION AND ANALGESIA IN BIRDS. Christoph Mans, Dr. med. vet., DACZM SEDATION AND ANALGESIA IN BIRDS Christoph Mans, Dr. med. vet., DACZM University of Wisconsin, School of Veterinary Medicine 2015 Linden Drive, Madison, WI 53706, USA Sedation of dogs and cats in veterinary

More information

Exercise 2 Feed Composition and Nutrient Requirements 20 Points

Exercise 2 Feed Composition and Nutrient Requirements 20 Points Exercise 2 Feed Composition and Nutrient Requirements 20 Points The objective of this laboratory exercise is to familiarize the student with the feed composition and nutrient requirement tables in the

More information

Intro to Meat Goat Nutrition

Intro to Meat Goat Nutrition Intro to Meat Goat Nutrition John Harper Livestock & Natural Resource Advisor Mendocino & Lake Counties University of California Cooperative Extension Adapted from presentation by Susan Schoenian,Sheep

More information

Growth Performance of Broilers Using a Phase-Feeding Approach with Diets Switched Every Other Day from Forty-Two to Sixty-Three Days of Age 1

Growth Performance of Broilers Using a Phase-Feeding Approach with Diets Switched Every Other Day from Forty-Two to Sixty-Three Days of Age 1 Growth Performance of Broilers Using a Phase-Feeding Approach with Diets Switched Every Other Day from Forty-Two to Sixty-Three Days of Age 1 T. Pope, L. N. Loupe, J. A. Townsend, and J. L. Emmert 2 Department

More information

Pakistan Journal of Life and Social Sciences. Pak. j. life soc. sci. (2009), 7(2):

Pakistan Journal of Life and Social Sciences. Pak. j. life soc. sci. (2009), 7(2): Pak. j. life soc. sci. (2009), 7(2): 131-135 Pakistan Journal of Life and Social Sciences Effect of Different Intermittent Feeding Regimes on the Performance of Broilers Fawwad Ahmad, Ahsan ul Haq, Muhammad

More information

VitaFerm + Creep Feed = Easy Transition and Efficient Gain

VitaFerm + Creep Feed = Easy Transition and Efficient Gain VitaFerm + Creep Feed = Easy Transition and Efficient Gain A Free Service to You BioZyme has nutritionists on staff that can help you create a creep feed recipe that will meet the requirements specific

More information

Digestion of the Bison

Digestion of the Bison Digestion of the Bison Roll Call: Name an animal. Is this animal ruminant or monogastric? Now, name as many ruminant and monogastric animals as you can. Ruminant Monogastric Because your diet is so different

More information

Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome

Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse U.S. Department of Health and Human Services NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH What is Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES)? ZES

More information

Official Journal of the European Union L 318/19

Official Journal of the European Union L 318/19 6.12.2005 Official Journal of the European Union L 318/19 COMMISSION DIRECTIVE 2005/87/EC of 5 December 2005 amending Annex I to Directive 2002/32/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on undesirable

More information

STRESS ULCER PROPHYLAXIS SUMMARY

STRESS ULCER PROPHYLAXIS SUMMARY DISCLAIMER: These guidelines were prepared jointly by the Surgical Critical Care and Medical Critical Care Services at Orlando Regional Medical Center. They are intended to serve as a general statement

More information

The Value of Peanuts and Peanut Meal in Rations for Chickens

The Value of Peanuts and Peanut Meal in Rations for Chickens i) CIRCULAR 80 NOVEMBER 1937 The Value of Peanuts and Peanut Meal in Rations for Chickens By D. F. KING and G. J. COTTIER AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION OF THE ALABAMA POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE M. J. FUNCHESS,

More information

MULTI-SPECIES DIRECT FED MICROBIAL SUPPLEMENT. Product Catalog June Cedar Falls Road Menomonie, WI

MULTI-SPECIES DIRECT FED MICROBIAL SUPPLEMENT. Product Catalog June Cedar Falls Road Menomonie, WI MULTI-SPECIES DIRECT FED MICROBIAL SUPPLEMENT Product Catalog June 2014 302 Cedar Falls Road Menomonie, WI 54751 www.probios.com 715.231.1234 the world leader in DFMs (direct-fed microbials) Probios microbial

More information

Perforated peptic ulcer

Perforated peptic ulcer Perforated peptic ulcer - Despite the widespread use of gastric anti-secretory agents and eradication therapy, the incidence of perforated peptic ulcer has changed little, age limits increase NSAIDs elderly

More information

Protein Deposition in Growing and Finishing Pigs

Protein Deposition in Growing and Finishing Pigs 1 Protein Deposition in Growing and Finishing Pigs DETERMINING WHOLE BODY PROTEIN DEPOSITION RATES IN PIGS. Mark L. Lorschy, Doug A. Gillis, John F. Patience and Kees de Lange. Summary There is controversy

More information

Review article: gastric acidity ) comparison of esomeprazole with other proton pump inhibitors

Review article: gastric acidity ) comparison of esomeprazole with other proton pump inhibitors Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2003; 17 (Suppl. 1): 10 15. Review article: gastric acidity ) comparison of esomeprazole with other proton pump inhibitors J. G. HATLEBAKK Department of Medicine, Haukeland Sykehus,

More information

Nutrient Analysis of Sorghum Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles from Ethanol Plants Located in the Western Plains Region 1

Nutrient Analysis of Sorghum Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles from Ethanol Plants Located in the Western Plains Region 1 Nutrient Analysis of Sorghum Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles from Ethanol Plants Located in the Western Plains Region K. M. Sotak, R. D. Goodband, M. D. Tokach, J. M. DeRouchey, S. S. Dritz, and

More information

Goat Nutrition. Earl H. Ward NE Area Livestock Specialist

Goat Nutrition. Earl H. Ward NE Area Livestock Specialist Goat Nutrition Earl H. Ward NE Area Livestock Specialist Anatomy of Digestive Tract Anatomy of Feed Tag Name of feed, Class of Animal, and Purpose Active Drugs Guaranteed Analysis minimum not exact Ingredient

More information

Ithaca Agway Farm Feed

Ithaca Agway Farm Feed Equine feed: Southern States Legends Growth is a fixed ingredient formula designed to support proper growth, muscle and bone development as well as milk production. Texture Pelleted Legends Carbcare is

More information

Supplement Types - Energy. ME Fixed? What is Metabolisable Energy? Feeding Supplements & Practical Ration Balancing. Dr Julian Waters 3/1/16

Supplement Types - Energy. ME Fixed? What is Metabolisable Energy? Feeding Supplements & Practical Ration Balancing. Dr Julian Waters 3/1/16 Key Nutritional Principles for Profitable Dairy Farming Feeding Supplements & Practical Ration Balancing 14 13 12 11 Supplement Types - Energy ME (MJ/kg DM) Dr Julian Waters Protected Fats 32-37 MJ Expeller

More information

Management of Gallstone Pancreatitis: Effects of Deviation from Clinical Guidelines

Management of Gallstone Pancreatitis: Effects of Deviation from Clinical Guidelines Management of Gallstone Pancreatitis: Effects of Deviation from Clinical Guidelines Kevin Sargen, Andrew N Kingsnorth Department of Surgery, Plymouth Postgraduate Medical School, Derriford Hospital. Plymouth.

More information

THE INFLUENCE OF DIETARY SELENIUM LEVELS ON BLOOD LEVELS OF SELENIUM AND GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE ACTIVITY IN THE HORSE 1

THE INFLUENCE OF DIETARY SELENIUM LEVELS ON BLOOD LEVELS OF SELENIUM AND GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE ACTIVITY IN THE HORSE 1 THE INFLUENCE OF DIETARY SELENIUM LEVELS ON BLOOD LEVELS OF SELENIUM AND GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE ACTIVITY IN THE HORSE J. S. Shellow, S. G. Jackson, J. P. Baker and A. H. Cantor University of Kentucky,

More information

Proposed Beef Cattle Manure Excretion and Characteristics Standard for ASAE

Proposed Beef Cattle Manure Excretion and Characteristics Standard for ASAE University of Nebraska - Lincoln DigitalCommons@University of Nebraska - Lincoln Conference Presentations and White Papers: Biological Systems Engineering Biological Systems Engineering October 2003 Proposed

More information

Energy utilization of reduced oil-dried distillers grains with solubles (RO-DDGS) in swine

Energy utilization of reduced oil-dried distillers grains with solubles (RO-DDGS) in swine Energy utilization of reduced oil-dried distillers grains with solubles (RO-DDGS) in swine Brian J. Kerr,* Thomas E. Weber,* and Michael E. Persia *USDA-ARS-NLAE, Ames, Iowa 011; and Iowa State University,

More information

COMMITTEE FOR VETERINARY MEDICINAL PRODUCTS

COMMITTEE FOR VETERINARY MEDICINAL PRODUCTS The European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products Veterinary Medicines and Inspections EMEA/MRL/841/02-FINAL June 2002 COMMITTEE FOR VETERINARY MEDICINAL PRODUCTS OMEPRAZOLE SUMMARY REPORT 1.

More information

Effect of KemTRACE Chromium on Feedlot Performance and Carcass Merit 1

Effect of KemTRACE Chromium on Feedlot Performance and Carcass Merit 1 Effect of KemTRACE Chromium on Feedlot Performance and Carcass Merit Introduction Cattle feeders in today s market need to optimize performance to stay competitive and profitable. Nutritionists strive

More information

Case 4: Peptic Ulcer Disease. Requejo, April Salandanan, Geralyn Talingting, Vennessa Tanay, Arvie

Case 4: Peptic Ulcer Disease. Requejo, April Salandanan, Geralyn Talingting, Vennessa Tanay, Arvie Case 4: Peptic Ulcer Disease Requejo, April Salandanan, Geralyn Talingting, Vennessa Tanay, Arvie Case 4: PUD Problem List: 1. Peptic Ulcer Disease SOAP Note: S Patient is complaining of abdominal pain

More information

Is Dietary Fat Really Healthy?

Is Dietary Fat Really Healthy? Is Dietary Fat Really Healthy? by: Ray Geor, BVSc, PhD, Dipl. ACVIM November 2002 Marketing claims regarding the virtues of fat in equine diets are plentiful. Statements such as "Added dietary fat for

More information

MAST-CELLS are present in the digestive tract of all classes of vertebrates

MAST-CELLS are present in the digestive tract of all classes of vertebrates The Distribution of Mast-Cells in the Digestive Tract of Laboratory Animals: Its Bearings on the Problem of the Location of Histamine in Tissues By I. MOTA, A. G. FERRI, AND S. YONEDA 251 (From the Laboratory

More information

Free Choice Sheep Mineral

Free Choice Sheep Mineral Free Choice Sheep Mineral Sheep on pasture Guaranteed Analysis CALCIUM (Ca), not less than... 12.5 % CALCIUM (Ca), not more than... 13.5 % PHOSPHORUS (P), not less than... 9.80 % SALT (NaCl), not less

More information

Goals. Goals. Maintenance Rations 4/25/2014. Week 4 Lecture 12. Clair Thunes, PhD

Goals. Goals. Maintenance Rations 4/25/2014. Week 4 Lecture 12. Clair Thunes, PhD Maintenance Rations Week 4 Lecture 12 Clair Thunes, PhD Animal Science 126 Equine Nutrition Goals Understand that in reality that horses have an amino acid requirement not a CP requirement That there are

More information

Maryland 4-H Animal Science Livestock Market Project Record

Maryland 4-H Animal Science Livestock Market Project Record Maryland 4-H Animal Science Livestock Market Project Record Name Calvin Clover 4-H Age Primary Club Name Howard County Bear 4-H Club Years in 4-H 5 Years in this Project 2 I have completed this record

More information

Characterization of a Colostrum Replacer Containing IgG Concentrate and Growth Factors

Characterization of a Colostrum Replacer Containing IgG Concentrate and Growth Factors Animal Industry Report AS 650 ASL R906 004 Characterization of a Colostrum Replacer Containing IgG Concentrate and Growth Factors Carrie Hammer Iowa State University Howard Tyler Iowa State University

More information

Short-term Satiety of High Protein Formula on Obese Subjects: A Pilot Study

Short-term Satiety of High Protein Formula on Obese Subjects: A Pilot Study 2012 International Conference on Nutrition and Food Sciences IPCBEE vol. 39 (2012) (2012) IACSIT Press, Singapore Short-term Satiety of High Protein Formula on Obese Subjects: A Pilot Study Kamalita Pertiwi

More information

Feeding the Suckler Cow by Siobhan Kavanagh, Mark McGee, Liam Fitzgerald

Feeding the Suckler Cow by Siobhan Kavanagh, Mark McGee, Liam Fitzgerald Section 6 by Siobhan Kavanagh, Mark McGee, Liam Fitzgerald Introduction Suckler herds produce the majority of stock destined for beef production (though weaned animals are also sourced from dairy herds).

More information

PROKINETIC EFFECT OF CLARITHROMYCIN AND AZITHROMYCIN IN VITRO STUDY ON RABBIT DUODENUM

PROKINETIC EFFECT OF CLARITHROMYCIN AND AZITHROMYCIN IN VITRO STUDY ON RABBIT DUODENUM E:/Biomedica Vol.22 Jul. Dec. 2006/Bio-4 (A) PROKINETIC EFFECT OF CLARITHROMYCIN AND AZITHROMYCIN IN VITRO STUDY ON RABBIT DUODENUM SADIA CHIRAGH, ALMAS BEGUM AND SAMINA KARIM Department of Pharmacology,

More information

Lesson 3 Understanding Nutrients and Their Importance

Lesson 3 Understanding Nutrients and Their Importance Unit B Understanding Animal Body Systems Lesson 3 Understanding Nutrients and Their Importance 1 Terms Balanced ration Carbohydrates Complex carbohydrates Disaccharides Essential nutrients Ether Fat Fat-soluble

More information

Which peptic ulcer patients bleed?

Which peptic ulcer patients bleed? Gut, 1988, 29, 70-74 Which peptic ulcer patients bleed? K MATTHEWSON, S PUGH, AND T C NORTHFIELD From the Gastroenterology Units, St James Hospital, Balham and University College Hospital, London SUMMARY

More information

104 Trop Anim Prod :2

104 Trop Anim Prod :2 04 Trop Anim Prod 977 : SUGAR CANE FOR BEEF PRODUCTION: DERINDED SUGAR CANE AND CHOPPED CANE COMPARED WITH HAY AND CITRUS PULP F M Dixon Bodles Agricultural Station Old Harbour, Jamaica In two separate

More information

Equine Health. How Nutrition helps in preventing Colic/Laminitis/ IR. Digestive aids

Equine Health. How Nutrition helps in preventing Colic/Laminitis/ IR. Digestive aids Equine Health How Nutrition helps in preventing Colic/Laminitis/ IR Digestive aids Studies provided by: Dr. Bill Vandergrift, EquiVision, Inc. Shannon Keller Lets Start at the beginning The Equine Digestive

More information

Intra-gastric balloon procedure. Information for patients Sheffield Centre for Weight Loss Surgery

Intra-gastric balloon procedure. Information for patients Sheffield Centre for Weight Loss Surgery Intra-gastric balloon procedure Information for patients Sheffield Centre for Weight Loss Surgery Introduction The intra-gastric balloon is designed to provide short term weight loss therapy. It is a temporary

More information

YOUNG COUNTRY Enterprises Pty Ltd. Stockfeed Manufacturers

YOUNG COUNTRY Enterprises Pty Ltd. Stockfeed Manufacturers YOUNG COUNTRY Enterprises Pty Ltd Stockfeed Manufacturers Young Country Provides a Service that will care for your Poultry needs. Young Country, a family owned and operated business, was EST. 1996, in

More information

EFC-01 Fall Feeding Distiller Grains to Hogs. Ron Plain 1

EFC-01 Fall Feeding Distiller Grains to Hogs. Ron Plain 1 FACTSHEET Livestock Marketing Information Center State Extension Services in Cooperation with USDA EFC-01 Fall 2006 Feeding Distiller Grains to Hogs Ron Plain 1 The continuing rapid expansion in the number

More information

1. ZOLLINGER - ELLISON SYNDROME

1. ZOLLINGER - ELLISON SYNDROME 1. ZOLLINGER - ELLISON SYNDROME Zollinger Ellison syndrome is characterized by gastric hypersecretion, ulceration (ulceration) and gastrin-producing tumor. Gastrin is a peptide hormone synthesized by the

More information

Ovary Ovarian tumors Failure of follicular development

Ovary Ovarian tumors Failure of follicular development Common Problems Ovary Anovulatory follicles Persistent Anov. Follicles Hemorrhagic/Luteinized F. Ovulation failure Spontaneous Failure of hcg/deslorelin Persistent corpus luteum Premature luteolysis Less

More information

CHAPTER 18. PEPTIC ULCER DISEASE, SELF-ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS. 1. Which of the following is not a common cause of peptic ulcer disease (PUD)?

CHAPTER 18. PEPTIC ULCER DISEASE, SELF-ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS. 1. Which of the following is not a common cause of peptic ulcer disease (PUD)? CHAPTER 18. PEPTIC ULCER DISEASE, SELF-ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS 1. Which of the following is not a common cause of peptic ulcer disease (PUD)? A. Chronic alcohol ingestion B. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory

More information