Homeostasis. Homeostasis. Homeostasis. Excretory System.notebook. January 05, Homeostasis. Water Balance. Homeostasis

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1 Excretory System.notebook January 05, 2011 Water alance Maintaining an internal environment despite changes in an external environment The kidneys have a system that regulates: 1. Water alance 2. Ion Reabsorption 3. ph The body maintains water levels in the body by the action of osmoreceptors in the brain Osmoreceptors ells, located in the hypothalamus of the brain, that are sensitive to osmotic pressure Dehydration (++ osmotic pressure) or overhydration ( osmotic pressure) within the blood will stimulate these receptors to fire in the brain Net Effect DH is released or inhibited from being released from the pituitary gland in the brain DH ntidiuretic Hormone hormone that will inhibit the excretion of water Water alance Water alance diuretic increases water excretion n antidiuretic inhibits water excretion DH operate specifically on the cells within the distal tubule and collecting duct, making them more permeable to water 1

2 Water alance Water alance Diabetes Insipidus disorder where DH secretion is insufficient Individuals will excrete copious amounts of urine (4 8L per day) More water is excreted than what can be taken in Results in severe dehydration and ion imbalances in the blood Treatment is exogenous (Synthetic) DH injections lcohol Inhibits the release of DH auses more water excretion in the urine Diuretic affeine Opens the pores in the glomerulus auses more fluid to pass into the filtrate and ultimately more water in the urine Diuretic oth will intensify thirst and lead to dehydration Ion Reabsorption The kidneys can alter blood pressure by controlling how much salt reabsorption occurs in the distal tubule Operates through the "renin angiotensin aldosterone mechanism" 1. juxtaglomerular apparatus (JG) near the afferent arteriole detects low blood pressure releases renin (an enzyme) into the blood stream 2. Renin converts angiotensinogen (a plasma protein) into angiotensin ngiotensin causes vasoconstriction and stimulates the adrenal gland to produce aldosterone (hormone) 3. ldosterone (produced in the adrenal gland is released into the blood stream) 4. ldosterone stimulates the distal tubule to become more permeable to Na+ More Na+ into the blood is followed by water and l More blood volume = increased blood pressure 2

3 16 Explain how the kidneys are involved in maintaining blood ph??? Maintaining blood ph The kidneys are capable of excreting H+ and reabsorbing HO 3 Overall: H+ + HO 3 H 2 O 3 H 2 O + O 2 If blood is acidic, H+ is excreted and HO 3 is reabsorbed Result is a raise in ph (more basic) If blood is basic, H+ is not excreted and HO 3 is not reabsorbed Result is a lowering in ph (more acidic) 17 Describe how antidiuretic hormone is involved in water and sodium ion reabsorption, excretion and blood pressure regulation??? 18 Describe the role of aldosterone in water and sodium ion reabsorption, excretion and blood pressure regulation??? 3

4 19 Explain how the following may affect kidney function: lcohol, Stress, Sedentary Lifestyle, High lood Pressure??? Diabetes Mellitus ells of the body are not able to uptake glucose in the blood (lack of insulin hormone) s a result, blood glucose levels are high High levels of glucose in the blood oppose the reabsorption of glucose in the nephron Increases the osmotic force (sucking power) in the nephron tubules Individuals lose water and glucose in the urine Treated using insulin injections (stimulates cells to uptake glucose) This is different from diabetes insipidus!! Diabetes "to pass through" or "produce lots of urine" Nephritis broad classification of diseases that result in the inflammation of the nephron Usually caused by a bacterial infection These diseases affect the permeability of the glomerulus llows larger blood components to enter the nephron Proteins mostly The kidney has no mechanism to reabsorb the proteins They create a large osmotic force (sucking power) in the tubules s a result, they excrete more water in the urine and the urine will have proteins present an be treated using anti biotics Kidney Stones Stone like pebbles that form in the kidneys and usually lodge and further develop in the renal pelvis or ureters aused by the precipitation (formation of a solid) of minerals usually calcium Treatments: 1. Let it pass OUH! an due damage to delicate tissues 2. Surgically remove it 3. last it! Use localized, high energy sound waves to break apart the kidney stone into smaller fragments and allow them to pass 4

5 Excretory System.notebook Renal Insufficiency January 05, 2011 Dialysis state in which the kidneys are unable to maintain homeostasis an be due to multiple causes: Infection High blood pressure Diabetes mellitus Trauma Poisoning (Mercury) therosclerosis lockage of nephron tubules Treatment 1. Dialysis 2. Kidney Transplant process by which blood is passed through a semi permeable membrane Substances move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration Highly concentrated solution = blood (it has lots of wastes) Low concentration solution = dialysis solution (dialysate) Substances can be added or removed from the dialysate depending on waste concentration in the individual's blood Two types of dialysis 1. Hemodialysis 2. Peritoneal Dialysis Hemodialysis Peritoneal Dialysis 5

6 Kidney Transplant The surgical removal of a compatible donor kidney and implantation into a recipient 6

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