Gas Exchange in Alveoli pulmonary

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1 Removing wastes Respiration and urination The circulatory system transports oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body. alveolus Gas Exchange in Alveoli pulmonary HCO3 H+ + HCO3- Hb H+ C Respiratory Tract Anatomy External respiration H2CO3 C Hb H2O Hb C Pulmonary alveolus 2 C C exits the blood a. enters the blood lung pulmonary artery pulmonary vein heart tissue cells systemic vein systemic artery C exits the cells enters the cells HCO3- H+ + HCO3- systemic Hb H+ H2CO3 C H2O Hb C fluid C Cellular respiration cell 2 systemic cell Hb fluid 2 b. Transport of and C in the blood Mechanics of Breathing Breathing is the alternating process of: Oxygen is bound to hemoglobin Most C is transported as bicarbonate ions (HCO3-) in the Inhaling Exhaling The diaphragm does most of the work

2 Inhalation Exhalation Air flows in Rib cage expands as rib muscles contract The diaphragm and rib muscles contract Lung Rib cage expands The muscles relax and the ribs return to their relaxed position Lung volume increases, and air flows into lungs Air flows out Rib cage gets smaller as rib muscles relax Diaphragm relaxes Diaphragm contracts (moves up) (moves down) The nervous system regulates breathing Our brain decides how fast we breathe by monitoring C Breathing control centers in the brain stem establish a regular pattern of breathing The breathing rate can be adjusted in response to C levels in the blood s Working Hard Aerobic metab C Blood becomes acidic (ph goes down) Signals to diaphragm and rib muscles Lung Cancer: Disease of the Day Medulla Increases Breathing Rate Biggest Risk Factor? Most Common Cause of Death Due to Cancer Healthy Lungs Cancerous Lungs Average Survival After Diagnosis = 9 Months Many Forms Resistant to Radiation/Chemotherapy Removal of Cancerous Portions Possible in Early Diagnosis Healthy Lungs Smoker s Lungs 87% of Cases = Smoking Related 43% of Regular Smokers Live to 70 79% of Non-Smokers Live to 70 2nd Hand Smoke 3,000 Lung Cancer Deaths/Year in Non-Smokers

3 What are the different parts that can be damaged? Nasal cavity Oral cavity What Is Cancer? Pharynx Trachea Larynx Cells growing out of control They lose control over cell division Right Bronchus Left Bronchus Diaphragm Urinary System: Organs The 2 kidneys produce urine The other organs transport and store urine until it s excreted Finding the 3D Medical Animation - What is Cancer? 1:06 Transporting and Storing Urine Tubes that carry urine from Kidney Bladder Collapsible sac that stores urine At ~200 ml smooth muscle contracts Involuntary Internal Sphincter Thin Tube Bladder Outside Voluntary External Sphincter se to Can Choo Wait Looking Inside the Receive Some Rib Protection Right Kidney Slightly Lower Liver Crowds Right Side Rich Blood Supply Ureter (Drains To Bladder) Urinary sys 5

4 Functions of the The kidneys filter wastes from the blood Excrete metabolic wastes Eliminate Urea waste from amino acid break down The Nephron Balance Network of capillaries & collecting tubes Filters the blood to remove wastes; forms urine Maintain blood ph > 1 million nephrons per kidney Produce hormones Parts of a nephron Urine formation: 3 steps Bowman s capsule Collecting duct Renal tubule Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Filtration in Bowman s Capsule Capsule Nephron Filtration Blood Pressure Small molecules are filtered forces water & small molecules out of blood Capillaries Large Molecules (Proteins), Blood Cells Stay In Blood Too big to push through walls Salts Glucose Amino acids Waste products urea, uric acid Blood pressure drives this process

5 Reabsorption Most of the water, amino acids, glucose and salts are returned to the bloodstream Active transport Selective Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Secretion Some drugs, waste products and ions (primarily H + ions) are actively secreted from from blood into tubular fluid Helps control blood ph Helps eliminate substances from the body Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Summary: How the nephron forms urine Functions of the Afferent arteriole 1 Efferent arteriole Filtration Bowmanʼs capsule What causes high filtration pressure? Glucose Amino acids Salts Urea Reabsorption Glucose Amino acids NaCl (65%) Active transport Fluid in renal tubule Secretion 2 3 H + ions Drug metabolites Urine Salts Urea Excrete metabolic wastes Eliminate Urea waste from amino acid break down Balance Maintain blood ph Produce hormones Maintaining water balance Maintaining water balance The kidneys control how much water and salt are excreted Maintains blood volume and blood pressure What happens when you drink a lot of water? Urine output Less water is reabsorbed in the nephron

6 Maintaining water balance When you re dehydrated, the hypothalamus secretes antidiuretic hormone (ADH) More water is reabsorbed into the blood Less water is lost in urine Diuretics Some chemicals increase the flow of urine Alcohol inhibits the secretion of ADH Caffeine decreases reabsorption of Na+ Result: more water is excreted Hormones: Kidney Helps Regulate Blood Pressure When blood pressure drops Lower Blood Volume Lower Blood Pressure Higher Blood Volume Higher Blood Pressure Functions of the Excrete metabolic wastes Eliminate Urea waste from amino acid break down Balance Aldosterone From Adrenal more Salt reabsorbed Follows Salt Back to Blood ADH From Hypothalamus Duct Gives Back More to Blood Maintain blood ph Produce hormones help maintain blood ph excrete H + and reabsorb all filtered bicarbonate (HCO 3- ) Why is blood ph important? produce hormones Erythropoeitin (EPO) stimulates production of s convert vitamin D to its active form

7 Urinary tract infections Kidney disease Caused by bacteria Enter urethra; travel up to the bladder Can travel up the ureters to the kidneys How does blood pressure affect kidney function? High Blood Pressure Kidney Failure Bowman s Capsule Low BP No Filtration Can t Push Fluid Out Capillaries Bowman s Capsule High BP damage capillaries Proteins, Blood Get Into Capsule Nephrons Die Kidney dialysis Nephrons Mainly in Cortex (Outer Section) Death of Nephrons Bumpy Cortex 25% of all Kidney Failures Treatment: Treat Cause of High Blood Pressure Dialysis (Blood Filtration by Machine) Kidney transplants The patient s blood vessels and ureter are connected to the transplanted kidney. Problems: Finding a donor kidney Removes metabolic wastes and excess salts 65,000 people are on waiting lists Organ rejection

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