1 Blood Pressure Goal in Elderly Hypertensive Patients with Diabetes Mellitus: A Subanalysis of the CASE-J Trial Kenji Ueshima 1, Shinji Yasuno 1, Sachiko Tanaka 1, Akira Fujimoto 1, Toshio Ogihara 2, Takao Saruta 3, Kazuwa Nakao 1,4, On behalf of CASE-J (Candesartan Antihypertensive Survival Evaluation in Japan) trial Group 1. EBM Research Center, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan 2. Osaka University, Osaka, Japan 3. Keio University, Tokyo, Japan 4. Department of Medicine and Clinical Science, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan
2 COI (Conflict of Interest) Disclosure Information Kenji Ueshima The CASE-J Trial was funded by EBM Research Center, Kyoto University of Graduate School of Medicine, with an unrestricted grant from Takeda Pharmaceutical Co. I have the following financial relationships to disclose. Honoraria: for lectures from Takeda Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd and Pfizer Japan Inc.
3 2007 ESH-ESC Practice Guidelines for the Management of Arterial Hypertension 20.1 Elderly Patients Blood pressure goal is the same as in younger patients, i.e. <140/90mmHg or below, if tolerated. Many elderly patients need two or more drugs to control blood pressure and reductions to <140mmHg systolic may be difficult to obtain Diabetic Patients Goal blood pressure should be <130/80mmHg and antihypertensive drug treatment may be started already when BP is in the high normal range.
5 Hypertension in the elderly Treatment sufficient to achieve the final target of blood pressure control should be performed in elderly patients. Prognosis is expected to improve by reducing blood pressure to <140/90mmHg at all ages. In patients that have been well treated before the age of 65 years, the same antihypertensive treatment should be continued after the age of 65 years. Diabetes mellitus The target of blood pressure control in hypertension complicated with diabetes mellitus should be <130/80 mmhg.
6 Background Various guidelines for the management of hypertension recommend that blood pressure (BP) goal should be <140/90 mmhg in the elderly and <130/80 mmhg in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), respectively. However, BP goal in elderly patients with DM remains to be elucidated.
7 Purpose To examine the relationship between achieved BP level and cardiovascular (CV) risk to evaluate BP goal in elderly hypertensive patients ( 65 years old) with DM using database of CASE-J trial. CASE-J trial was a randomized clinical trial to compare the effects of the angiotensin II receptor blocker, candesartan and the calcium channel blocker, amlodipine on the incidence of CV events in high-risk Japanese hypertensive patients.
8 Outline of the CASE-J Trial Subjects: 4,728 High-risk Japanese hypertensive patients Randomization: 2,364 patients in Candesartan 2,364 patients in Amlodipine Mean Follow-up period: 3.2 years (Follow-up rate: 97.1 %) Study design: Open Label Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluation: PROBE method Primary endpoint: Composite of CV morbidity and mortality Sudden death, Cerebrovascular events, Cardiac events, Renal events, and Vascular events
9 Result of Primary Endpoint
10 Methods in the Subanalysis As an observational cohort study irrespective of allocated drugs Subject: 2,377 patients aged 65 or older, who had at least one visit during the follow-up period. Groups: according to existence or absence of DM at baseline, they were divided into the two groups. With DM : n=1,031 Without DM : n=1,346 Achieved BP: the last value of BP in patients who did not experience CV events, and the value of BP prior to CV events in those who experienced CV events. Hazard ratio (HR): calculated with the multiple Cox regression analysis adjusted for baseline characteristics.
11 Baseline Characteristics Mean ± SD or (%) Characteristics Total With DM Without DM Number of participants Prior antihypertensive treatment 1794 (75.5) 784 (76.0) 1010 (75.0) Drug, Candesartan 1181 (49.7) 501 (48.6) 680 (50.5) Age (years) 72.0 ± ± ± 5.1 Men 1144 (48.1) 513 (49.8) 631 (46.9) Body mass index (kg/m 2 ) 24.0 ± ± ± 3.3 SBP (mmhg) ± ± ± 13.8 DBP (mmhg) 89.2 ± ± ± 10.8 HR (beats/min) 71.9 ± ± ± 10.8 Hyperlipidemia 1046 (44.0) 454 (43.4) 577 (43.4) Cerebrovascular disease 327 (13.8) 90 (8.7) 237 (17.6) Left ventricular hypertrophy 771 (32.4) 231 (22.4) 540 (40.1) Ishchemic heart disease 387 (16.3) 139 (13.5) 248 (18.4) Proteinuria 454 (19.1) 191 (18.5) 263 (19.5) Renal dysfunction 247 (10.4) 120 (11.6) 127 (9.4) Vascular disease 38 (1.6) 25 (1.9) 13 (1.3) P<0.05 vs. Without DM
12 Blood Pressure Change (mmhg) DM: ± 12.1 Non-DM: ± 13.8 With DM Without DM Mean±SD DM: 137.1±12.8 Non- DM: 135.4± DM: 86.3 ± 10.2 Non-DM: 91.4 ± 10.8 DM: 74.5±9.4 Non- DM: 75.5± Baseline (Months) P<0.05 vs. Without DM
13 Cumulative incidence (%) Cumulative Incidence of CV Events 20 With DM Without DM 15 Adjusted HR:2.18, 95%CI: , P< Baseline (Months)
14 Incidence rate (per 1000 patient-year) Incidence rate (per 1000 patient-year) Crude Incidence Rate of CV Events at Each Achieved BP Level Achieved SBP Achieved DBP 10,0 8,0 With DM Without DM 10,0 8,0 With DM Without DM 6,0 6,0 4,0 4,0 2,0 2,0 0,0 < < < < < 0,0 <75 75-<80 80-<85 85-<90 90<
15 Relations between Achieved SBP Level and the Risk of CV Events after Adjustment 32,00 16,00 8,00 4,00 2,00 1,00 0,50 0,25 With DM Without DM 2,27 Interaction P= ,60 3,89 3,73 4,75 14,51 9,27 1,98 1,04 1,00 < < < < < mmhg HR of an achieved SBP <130 mmhg category without DM was assigned a reference value of 1.0. P<0.05. vs SBP <130 mmhg in Without DM
16 Relations between Achieved DBP Level and the Risk of CV Events after Adjustment 32,00 16,00 8,00 With DM Without DM Interaction P= ,44 8,50 4,00 2,00 2,15 1,53 1,85 2,90 3,51 1,00 0,50 1,00 1,13 <75 75-<80 80-<85 85-<90 90< 0,65 mmhg 0,25 HR of an achieved DBP 75-<80 mmhg category without DM was assigned a reference value of 1.0. P<0.05. vs DBP 75-<80 mmhg in Without DM
17 Relations between Achieved DBP Level and the Risk of Cerebrovascular Events after Adjustment 16,00 8,00 4,00 2,00 1,00 0,50 0,25 With DM Without DM Interaction P= ,54 4,19 3,97 2,42 1,39 1,23 1,46 1,00 <75 75-<80 80-<85 85-<90 90< 0,70 0,59 mmhg HR of an achieved DBP 75-<80 mmhg category without DM was assigned a reference value of 1.0. P<0.05. vs DBP 75-<80 mmhg in Without DM
18 Relations between Achieved DBP Level and the Risk of Cardiac Events after Adjustment 128,00 64,00 With DM 32,00 Without DM 16,00 Interaction P= ,09 8,00 4,00 3,01 2,81 2,73 5,13 2,00 0,97 2,40 1,00 1,00 0,50 <75 0,63 75-<80 80-<85 85-<90 90< mmhg 0,25 0,13 0,18 HR of an achieved DBP 75-<80 mmhg category without DM was assigned a reference value of 1.0. P<0.05. vs DBP 75-<80 mmhg in Without DM
19 Summary In the relations between achieved SBP and the risk of CV events, lower achieved SBP was associated with the reduced risk in both elderly patients with or without DM. However, the SBP lowering effect was attenuated in patients with DM compared with those without DM. A risk reduction was observed down to the level of achieved SBP <140 mmhg in patients without DM and <130 mmhg in DM patients. For DBP, a risk reduction was observed down to the level of achieved DBP <85 mmhg in both groups. A J-shaped relationship between achieved DBP level and CV events (especially, cardiac events) was observed at achieved DBP <75 mmhg in elderly patients with DM.
20 Limitations The CASE-J trial was not originally designed to examine the optimal BP levels in hypertensive patients. This subanalysis was post hoc analysis. The number of CV events may not be enough and the mean follow-up period (3.2 years) may not be enough long to analyze the relationship between achieved BP level and CV events in these patients.
21 Conclusion The present subanalysis suggests that reduction of BP down to <130/85 mmhg is beneficial for elderly hypertensive patients with DM according to the recommendation for not the elderly but rather diabetics. Excessive DBP lowering <75 mmhg in patients with DM may increase the CV risk, especially cardiac events.
23 Treatment Protocol of the CASE-J Trial 1 month BP recording Add diuretics, β-blockers etc. Titrate Candesartan(up to 12 mg/day) Candesartan 4 ~8 mg/day Amlodipine 2.5 ~ 5 mg/day Titrate Amlodipine(up to 10 mg/day) Informed consent BP recording Enrollment Add diuretics, β-blockers etc. Follow-up period:3 years or more Candesartan cilexetil Amlodipine besylate : 4 ~ 8 mg/day. If necessary, the dose was increased up to 12 mg/day. : 2.5 ~5 mg/day. If necessary, the dose was increased up to 10 mg/day. If the response was insufficient, diuretics or β-blockers etc were added to the regimen in both groups.
24 Hypertension complicated by other diseases Treatment plan for hypertension complicated by diabetes mellitus. Blood pressure to start treatment >=130/80 mmhg Drug therapy with lifestyle modifications and glycemia control Primary drug: ACE inhibitor, ARB Insufficient effect Increase in dose Conconmitant use of Ca antagonist or diuretic Insufficient effect Combinations of 3 drugs: ARB or ACE inhibitor, Ca antagonist, diuretic Target level <130/80 mmhg If the blood pressure is /80 89mmHg, and the target of blood pressure control is expected to be achieved through lifestyle modifications, blood pressure control by such modifications may be attempted over a period not exceeding 3 months.
25 Hypertension in the elderly Treatment algorithm for elderly patients with hypertension Lifestyle modifications Step 1 (Antihypertensive drugs may be changed if the antihypertensive effect is insufficient or the drug is poorly tolerated.) Ca antagonist or ARB ACE inhibitor or Low-dose diuretic Step 2 Combination of 2 drugs Ca antagonist + ARB/ACE inhibitor Ca antagonist + Low-dose diuretic ARB/ACE inhibitor + Low-dose diuretic Step 3 (β- or α-blockers may be used depending on patients.) Ca antagonist + ARB/ACE inhibitor + Low-dose diuretic Antihypertensive drug treatment should be started generally at half the regular dose, and the dose should be increased at an interval of 4 weeks to 3 months. The final target of blood pressure is <140/90mmHg. In patients aged 75 years with grade II or III hypertension ( 160mmHg), blood pressure should be reduced carefully by setting an intermediate target of <150/90mmHg.
26 Relations between achieved SBP level and the risk of cerebrovascular events 128,00 64,00 32,00 16,00 8,00 4,00 2,00 1,00 0,50 0,25 With DM Without DM 2,47 Interaction P= ,84 4,37 3,54 20,95 16,03 12,31 6,76 2,08 1,00 < < < < < HR of an achieved SBP <130 mmhg category without DM was assigned a reference value of 1.0. P<0.05. vs SBP <130 mmhg in Without DM
27 Relations between achieved SBP level and the risk of cardiac events 64,00 32,00 16,00 8,00 4,00 2,00 1,00 0,50 0,25 With DM Without DM Interaction P= ,48 5,50 4,04 5,04 5,22 4,14 2,32 1,00 1,27 < < < < < 0,56 HR of an achieved SBP <130 mmhg category without DM was assigned a reference value of 1.0. P<0.05. vs SBP <130 mmhg in Without DM
29 Relations between achieved SBP level and the risk of cerebrovascular events 128,00 64,00 32,00 16,00 8,00 4,00 2,00 1,00 0,50 0,25 With DM Without DM 2,47 Interaction P= ,84 4,37 3,54 20,95 16,03 12,31 6,76 2,08 1,00 < < < < < HR of an achieved SBP <130 mmhg category without DM was assigned a reference value of 1.0. P<0.05. vs SBP <130 mmhg in Without DM
30 Relations between achieved SBP level and the risk of cardiac events 64,00 32,00 16,00 8,00 4,00 2,00 1,00 0,50 0,25 With DM Without DM Interaction P= ,48 5,50 4,04 5,04 5,22 4,14 2,32 1,00 1,27 < < < < < 0,56 HR of an achieved SBP <130 mmhg category without DM was assigned a reference value of 1.0. P<0.05. vs SBP <130 mmhg in Without DM
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