1 Hypertension and Diabetes Should we be SPRINTING or Reaching an ACCORD? Suzanne Oparil, MD Distinguished Professor of Medicine, Professor of Cell, Developmental and Integrative Biology Director, Vascular Biology and Hypertension Program of the Division of Cardiovascular Disease University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama Past President, American Heart Association (AHA) Past President, American Society of Hypertension (ASH) University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry University of Rochester Diabetes Conference: Diabetes In and Out Rochester, New York March 12, 2016
2 Cardiovascular Mortality Rate per 10,000 Patient-Years Elevated SBP in Type 2 Diabetes Increases Cardiovascular Risk Elevated SBP increases risk of CV death almost twofold in diabetic vs nondiabetic patients Stamler J et al. Diabetes Care. 1993;16: SBP (mm Hg) Nondiabetic patients Diabetic patients < MRFIT
3 JAMA. 2014;311(5): doi: /jama Published online December 18,
4 The Most Important Clinical Questions in Hypertension Does evidence from RCTs of antihypertensive treatment support (or refute) 140/90 mm Hg as a treatment threshold or goal? Should the threshold or goal be lower or higher in persons with diabetes or CKD, the elderly or those with other co-morbidities or special characteristics? Is there RCT evidence that BP lowering treatment with a particular drug or drug class improves outcomes compared to any other drug/drug class? James PA, Oparil S, Carter BL, et al. JAMA 2014;311(5): doi: /jama
5 The Most Important Clinical Questions in Hypertension Does evidence from RCTs of antihypertensive treatment support (or refute) 140/90 mm Hg as a treatment threshold or goal? Should the threshold or goal be lower or higher in persons with diabetes or CKD, the elderly or those with other co-morbidities or special characteristics? Is there RCT evidence that BP lowering treatment with a particular drug or drug class improves outcomes compared to any other drug/drug class? James PA, Oparil S, Carter BL, et al. JAMA 2014;311(5): doi: /jama
7 Recommendation 5 In the population 18 years of age with diabetes, initiate pharmacologic treatment to lower BP at SBP 140 mm Hg or DBP 90 mm Hg and treat to a goal SBP <140 mm Hg and goal DBP <90 mm Hg. (Expert Opinion Grade E)
8 The Most Important Clinical Questions in Hypertension Does evidence from RCTs of antihypertensive treatment support (or refute) 140/90 mm Hg as a treatment threshold or goal? Should the threshold or goal be lower or higher in persons with diabetes or CKD, the elderly or those with other co-morbidities or special characteristics? Is there RCT evidence that BP lowering treatment with a particular drug or drug class improves outcomes compared to any other drug/drug class? James PA, Oparil S, Carter BL, et al. JAMA 2014;311(5): doi: /jama
9 Recommendation 6 In the general non-black population, including those with diabetes, initial antihypertensive treatment should include a thiazide-type diuretic, CCB, ACEI or ARB. Moderate Recommendation Grade B
10 Initial Combinations of Medications Diuretics β-blockers should be included in the regimen if there is a compelling indication for a β-blocker ACE inhibitors or ARBs* Calcium antagonists * Combining ACEI with ARB discouraged
12 Comprehensive Overview of Effects of BP-lowering in Patients with Diabetes Regardless of the Presence or Absence of Defined Hypertension Who should be offered therapy? What BP target(s) should be achieved? 40 trials of high quality (low risk of bias) 100,354 participants All-cause mortality + 4 macrovascular and 3 microvascular outcomes Emdin CA, et al. Blood pressure lowering in type 2 diabetes. JAMA. 313(6): , 2015.
13 Associations Between 10 mmhg Lower SBP and Mortality, Macrovascular and Microvascular Outcomes in Diabetic Patients Emdin CA, et al. Blood pressure lowering in type 2 diabetes. JAMA. 313(6): , 2015.
14 Associations Between 10 mmhg Lower SBP and CVD Outcomes Stratified by SBP at Entry MORTALITY 140 <140 Overall CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE 140 <140 Overall CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE 140 <140 Overall STROKE 140 <140 Overall Emdin CA, et al. Blood pressure lowering in type 2 diabetes. JAMA. 313(6): , 2015.
15 Associations Between 10 mmhg Lower SBP and CVD Outcomes Stratified by SBP at Entry HEART FAILURE 140 <140 Overall RENAL FAILURE 140 <140 Overall RETINOPATHY 140 <140 Overall ALBUMINURIA 140 <140 Overall Emdin CA, et al. Blood pressure lowering in type 2 diabetes. JAMA. 313(6): , 2015.
16 Associations Between 10 mm Hg Lower SBP and Outcomes Stratified by Achieved SBP MORTALITY 130 < 130 Overall CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE 130 < 130 Overall CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE 130 < 130 Overall STROKE 130 < 130 Overall Emdin CA, et al. Blood pressure lowering in type 2 diabetes. JAMA. 313(6): , 2015.
17 Associations Between 10 mm Hg Lower SBP and Outcomes Stratified by Achieved SBP HEART FAILURE 130 < 130 Overall RENAL FAILURE 130 < 130 Overall RETINOPATHY 130 < 130 Overall ALBUMINURIA 130 < 130 Overall Emdin CA, et al. Blood pressure lowering in type 2 diabetes. JAMA. 313(6): , 2015.
18 Associations of Each Class of Antihypertensive on Outcomes Compared With All Other Classes of Antihypertensives MORTALITY CCB ACE Diuretics Β-Blocker ARB CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE CCB ACE Diuretics Β-Blocker ARB CORONARY HEART DISEASE CCB ACE Diuretics Β-Blocker ARB Emdin CA, et al. Blood pressure lowering in type 2 diabetes. JAMA. 313(6): , 2015.
19 Associations of Each Class of Antihypertensive on Outcomes Compared With All Other Classes of Antihypertensives STROKE CCB ACE Diuretics Β-Blocker ARB HEART FAILURE CCB ACE Diuretics Β-Blocker ARB Emdin CA, et al. Blood pressure lowering in type 2 diabetes. JAMA. 313(6): , 2015.
20 SUMMARY SBP reduction (10 mmhg) lowered risk of all-cause mortality, CVD and CHD events and stroke, as well as retinopathy and albuminuria, but not HF or renal failure in the diabetic population as a whole. SBP reduction lowered risk of mortality, CVD, CHD and HF only in those with baseline SBP 140 mm Hg. SBP reduction lowered risk of stroke and albuminuria in all participants, independent of baseline SBP. Reductions in mortality, CHD, CVD, HF and albuminuria were greater at achieved SBPs 130 mmhg than < 130 mmhg. Emdin CA, et al. Blood pressure lowering in type 2 diabetes. JAMA. 313(6): , 2015.
21 SUMMARY Reductions in stroke and albuminuria were similar in both achieved BP strata. All classes of BP-lowering medications had similar effects except Diuretics and possibly ARBs were more effective in preventing HF. CCBs were less effective in preventing HF and more effective in preventing stroke. BBs were less effective in preventing stroke. ARBs were more effective in preventing death (limited data). Emdin CA, et al. Blood pressure lowering in type 2 diabetes. JAMA. 313(6): , 2015.
22 RECOMMENDATIONS Among patients with type 2 diabetes, BP lowering was associated with reduction in mortality and other clinical outcomes in those with baseline BP 140 mmhg. These findings support the use of medications for BP lowering in these patients. For individuals at high risk of stroke, retinopathy, and progressive albuminuria (e.g., those with a history of cerebrovascular disease or mild nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy), beginning BP-lowering therapy at an initial SBP level below 140 mm Hg and treatment to a SBP level below 130 mm Hg should be considered. Emdin CA, et al. Blood pressure lowering in type 2 diabetes. JAMA. 313(6): , 2015.
23 RECOMMENDATIONS Individualized assessment of likely absolute benefits and risks is vital to shared decisionmaking between patients and clinicians. Emdin CA, et al. Blood pressure lowering in type 2 diabetes. JAMA. 313(6): , 2015.
24 Recent Recommendations for Antihypertensive Medications in Diabetes Group ESH/ESC (2013) ESC/EASD (2013) AHA/ACC/CDC Science Advisory (US) (2013) ADA ( ) ASH-ISH (2013) US JNC 8 Panel (2014) US VA/DoD (2014) Preferred Medications* All All ACEI or ARB, thiazide, BB, CCB ACEI or ARB ARB or ACEI thiazide-type diuretic, CCB, ACEI or ARB; Blacks: thiazide or CCB Thiazide-type diuretic * All guidelines recommend ACEI or ARB if proteinuria, some if any CKD
25 Cushman WC, Evans GW, Byington RP, et al, the Accord Study Group. N Engl J Med 362(17): , 2010.
26 ACCORD BP Study: Primary and Secondary Outcomes Patients with T2D and hypertension (N = 4733) Random assignment Intensive therapy: target SBP < 120 mm Hg Standard therapy: target SBP < 140 mm Hg 1 outcome: nonfatal MI, nonfatal stroke, death from CV causes Mean follow-up = 4.7 y Outcome Intensive Standard HR P-value SBP after 1 year (mmhg) NR NR 1 outcome (annual rate) Death from any cause (annual rate) Stroke (annual rate) AEs (rate) NR <.001 Cushman WC, Evans GW, Byington RP et.al, and Ismail-Beigi F. N.Engl.J.Med. 2010;362 :
27 ACCORD BP Trial: Systolic BP (mean + 95% CI) Mean # Meds Intensive: Standard: Average after 1 st year: Standard vs Intensive, Delta = 14.2 N RZ: SBP <120 vs <140 DBP for the same time interval averaged 70 & 64 mm Hg (Delta = 6 mm Hg) Cushman, et al. N Engl J Med. 2010;362:
28 Intensive Events (%/yr) Standard Events (%/yr) HR (95% CI) P Primary 208 (1.87) 237 (2.09) 0.88 ( ) 0.20 Total Mortality 150 (1.28) 144 (1.19) 1.07 ( ) 0.55 Cardiovascular Deaths 60 (0.52) 58 (0.49) 1.06 ( ) 0.74 Nonfatal MI 126 (1.13) 146 (1.28) 0.87 ( ) 0.25 Nonfatal Stroke 34 (0.30) 55 (0.47) 0.63 ( ) 0.03 Total Stroke 36 (0.32) 62 (0.53) 0.59 ( ) 0.01 Also examined Fatal/Nonfatal HF (HR=0.94, p=0.67), a composite of fatal coronary events, nonfatal MI and unstable angina (HR=0.94, p=0.50) and a composite of the primary outcome, revascularization and unstable angina (HR=0.95, p=0.40)
29 20 Primary Outcome Nonfatal MI, Nonfatal Stroke or CVD Death Patients with Events (%) HR = % CI ( ) Years Post-Randomization
30 Nonfatal Stroke Total Stroke Patients with Events (%) HR = % CI ( ) Patients with Events (%) HR = % CI ( ) Years Post-Randomization Years Post-Randomization
31 Intensive N (%) Standard N (%) Serious AE 77 (3.3) 30 (1.3) < Hypotension 17 (0.7) 1 (0.04) < Syncope 12 (0.5) 5 (0.2) 0.10 Bradycardia or Arrhythmia 12 (0.5) 3 (0.1) 0.02 Hyperkalemia 9 (0.4) 1 (0.04) 0.01 Renal Failure 5 (0.2) 1 (0.04) 0.12 egfr ever <30 ml/min/1.73m 2 99 (4.2) 52 (2.2) <0.001 Any Dialysis or ESRD 59 (2.5) 58 (2.4) 0.93 Dizziness on Standing 217 (44) 188 (40) 0.36 P Symptom experienced over past 30 days from HRQL sample of N=969 participants assessed at 12, 36, and 48 months post-randomization
32 Primary Outcome by Pre-defined Sub-groups Cushman WC-AHA Late Breaker Nov. 2015
33 Margolis, et al.diabetes Care 2014;37:
34 ACCORD BP Trial Conclusions The results provide no conclusive evidence that the intensive BP control strategy reduces combined CVD events in high risk patients with diabetes mellitus. However, the trial was unexpectedly underpowered (CI , rate 2%/yr). Therefore, ACCORD also does not conclusively prove that <120 mm Hg goal is not beneficial (equipoise).
35 Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) SPRINT Research Group, Wright JT Jr, Williamson JD, Whelton PK, Snyder JK, Sink KM, Rocco MV, Reboussin DM, Rahman M, Oparil S, Lewis CE, Kimmel PL, Johnson KC, Goff DC Jr, Fine LJ, Cutler JA, Cushman WC, Cheung AK, Ambrosius WT. A Randomized Trial of Intensive versus Standard Blood-Pressure Control, 373(22): , 2015.
36 Major Exclusion Criteria Stroke Diabetes mellitus Polycystic kidney disease Congestive heart failure (symptoms or EF < 35%) Proteinuria >1g/d CKD with egfr < 20 ml/min/1.73m 2 (MDRD) Adherence concerns
37 Decision to Stop BP Intervention On August 20 th, 2015, NHLBI Director accepted DSMB recommendation to inform SPRINT investigators and participants of CVD results Concurrently, decision made to stop BP intervention This presentation based on adjudicated events that occurred through August 20 th, 2015 Median follow-up = 3.26 years Data for some secondary non-cvd outcomes (e.g. dementia and cognitive impairment) being collected at close-out visit, and this process will be completed in Summer 2016
38 Cumulative Hazard for SPRINT Primary Outcome Hazard Ratio = 0.76 (95% CI: 0.64 to 0.89) Standard Intensive During Trial (median follow-up = 3.26 years) Include Number Needed NNT to Treat (NNT) to prevent a primary outcome in one participant = 61 Number of Participants SPRINT Study Research Group. Published online NEJM, Nov 9, 2015
39 Cumulative Hazard for All-cause Mortality Hazard Ratio = 0.73 (95% CI: 0.60 to 0.90) Standard Intensive During Trial (median follow-up = 3.26 years) Number Needed to Treat (NNT) to Prevent death in one participant = 90 Include NNT Number of Participants SPRINT Study Research Group. Published online NEJM, Nov 9, 2015
40 SPRINT Primary Outcome and Component Event Rates and Hazard Ratios Primary Outcome Intensive No. of Events Rate, %/year Standard No. of Events Rate, %/year HR (95% CI) (0.64, 0.89) P value < All MI (0.64, 1.09) Non-MI ACS (0.64, 1.55) All Stroke (0.63, 1.25) All HF (0.45, 0.84) CVD Death (0.38, 0.005
41 Serious Adverse Events* (SAE) During Follow-up All SAE reports Number (%) of Participants Intensive Standard HR (P Value) 1793 (38.3) 1736 (37.1) 1.04 (0.25) SAEs associated with Specific Conditions of Interest Hypotension 110 (2.4) 66 (1.4) 1.67 (0.001) Syncope 107 (2.3) 80 (1.7) 1.33 (0.05) Injurious fall 105 (2.2) 110 (2.3) 0.95 (0.71) Bradycardia 87 (1.9) 73 (1.6) 1.19 (0.28) Electrolyte abnormality 144 (3.1) 107 (2.3) 1.35 (0.02)
42 FAQs ABOUT SPRINT GENERALIZABILITY TO EXCLUDED POPULATIONS AGE < 50 years? Diabetes? Prior stroke? Heart failure? Secondary hypertension? Severe CKD (egfr < 20mL/min/1.73 m 2 or proteinuria)? Frail elderly? High CVD risk without hypertension? Lower CVD risk with hypertension?
43 Outcomes from SPRINT and ACCORD Trials and Combined Data from Both Trials. Perkovic V, Rodgers A. N Engl J Med DOI: /NEJMe
44 ACCORD vs SPRINT 1. SPRINT sample size was about twice that of ACCORD BP. 2. SPRINT participants were older (mean age 68 years) than ACCORD BP (mean age 62 years). 3. SPRINT included a cohort with CKD, but serum Cr >1.5 mg/dl was an exclusion in ACCORD BP. 4. The factorial design in ACCORD may have negatively affected the opportunity to test the effect of the BP intervention.
45 Strict interpretation of RCTs supports SBP goal of <150 mm Hg. Achieved SBP in ADVANCE and the standard group in ACCORD BP suggest <140 mm Hg may be a reasonable SBP goal (JNC 8 and most other current guidelines recommend this). A recent meta-analysis suggests <130 mm Hg. ACCORD benefit in the Standard Glycemia subgroup and SPRINT benefit in other high-risk groups support <120 mm Hg.
46 STANDARDS OF MEDICAL CARE IN DIABETES 2016 Diabetes Care 2016;39(Suppl. 1):S1 S108 DOI: /dc16-S011.
47 ADA Evidence Grading System for Clinical Practice Recommendations LEVEL OF EVIDENCE A DESCRIPTION Clear or supportive evidence from adequately powered well-conducted, generalizable, randomized controlled trials; Compelling nonexperimental evidence B C E Supportive evidence from well-conducted cohort studies or case-control study Supportive evidence from poorly controlled or uncontrolled studies; Conflicting evidence with the weight of evidence supporting the recommendation Expert consensus or clinical experience Diabetes Care 2016;39(Suppl. 1):S1 S108 DOI: /dc16-S011.
48 Goals ADA RECOMMENDATIONS Hypertension/BP Control People with diabetes and hypertension should be treated to a SBP goal of < 140 mmhg A Lower systolic targets, such as < 130 mmhg, may be appropriate for some, e.g., younger patients and higher-risk patients, if it can be achieved without undue treatment burden C Those with diabetes should be treated to a DBP < 90 mmhg A Lower diastolic targets, e.g., < 80 mmhg, may be appropriate for some, e.g., younger patients and higher-risk patients, if it can be achieved without undue treatment burden B Diabetes Care 2016;39(Suppl. 1):S60 S71 DOI: /dc16-S011. ADA. 8. Cardiovascular Disease and Risk Management. Diabetes Care
49 ADA RECOMMENDATIONS Hypertension/BP Control Treatment Patients with BP >120/80 mmhg should be advised on lifestyle changes to reduce BP B Patients with confirmed BP higher than 140/90 mmhg should, in addition to lifestyle therapy, have prompt initiation and timely subsequent titration of pharmacological therapy to achieve BP goals A Diabetes Care 2016;39(Suppl. 1):S1 S108 DOI: /dc16-S011.
50 *Treatment ADA RECOMMENDATIONS Hypertension/BP Control Pharmacological therapy for patients with diabetes and hypertension comprise a regimen that includes: either an ACE inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker B; if one class is not tolerated, substitute the other C Multiple drug therapy (two or more agents at maximal doses) generally required to achieve BP targets B *Inconsistent with JNC 8. Diabetes Care 2016;39(Suppl. 1):S1 S108 DOI: /dc16-S011.
51 Treatment ADA RECOMMENDATIONS Hypertension/BP Control If ACE inhibitors, ARBs, or diuretics are used, serum creatinine/egfr and potassium levels should be monitored E In pregnant patients with diabetes and chronic hypertension, BP target goals of /65 79 mmhg are suggested in interest of long-term maternal health and minimizing impaired fetal growth; ACE inhibitors, ARBs, contraindicated during pregnancy E Diabetes Care 2016;39(Suppl. 1):S1 S108 DOI: /dc16-S011.
52 Management of Hypertension in Diabetes Hypertension is present in >2/3 of patients with type 2 diabetes. Hypertension and diabetes confer a much enhanced risk of cardiovascular disease than either one alone. Clinical trial evidence suggests that BP < /85 mm Hg is a reasonable therapeutic goal in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, SPRINT + ACCORD suggest SBP <120 mm Hg may be considered. In patients with diabetes, a combination of a RAS-blocker and a thiazide-type diuretic might be the most reasonable initial antihypertensive regimen, although CCBs and CCB-ACEI combination are also effective.
53 BP Goals in People with Diabetes It is possible that there is an inherent difference in the CVD benefits of intensive SBP lowering in diabetic and non-diabetic adults. Because ACCORD BP was not definitive, it would be ethical to conduct another trial of intensive BP-lowering on major CVD outcomes in diabetics. Enrollment of a higher risk group (e.g., participants of older age and those with CKD) and enlarging the sample size would help to ensure adequate statistical power to answer this question. In the meantime, guideline committees and the medical community will have to decide whether the SPRINT results should be generalized to patients with hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Cushman, et al. Published online in Hypertension, Nov 9,2015.
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