Urinary System Organs

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1 Learning Objectives Renal System Figure 26.4 Major sources of water intake and output. Blood filtration through the glomerulus How Glomerular filtration rate is regulated Intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms Formation of urine Control of urine concentration Metabolism 10% Foods 30% Beverages 60% 250 ml 750 ml 1500 ml 2500 ml 100 ml 200 ml 700 ml 1500 ml Feces 4% Sweat 8% Insensible loss via skin and lungs 28% Urine 60% 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Average intake per day Average output per day Urinary System Organs Kidneys are major excretory organs Urinary bladder is the temporary storage reservoir for urine Ureters transport urine from the kidneys to the bladder Urethra transports urine out of the body Hepatic veins (cut) Esophagus (cut) Inferior vena cava Adrenal gland Aorta Iliac crest Rectum (cut) Uterus (part of female reproductive system) Renal artery Renal hilum Renal vein Kidney Ureter Urinary bladder Urethra Figure 25.1 Kidney Functions Removal of toxins, metabolic wastes, and excess ions from the blood Regulation of blood volume, chemical composition, and ph Kidney Functions Gluconeogenesis during prolonged fasting Endocrine (hormone) functions Renin: regulation of blood pressure and kidney function Activation of vitamin D (metabolism) 1

2 Kidney Anatomy Retroperitoneal, in the superior lumbar region Right kidney is lower than the left Convex lateral surface, concave medial surface Ureters, renal blood vessels, lymphatics, and nerves enter and exit at the hilum Size of bar of soap Kidney Anatomy Layers of supportive tissue 1. Renal fascia The anchoring outer layer of dense fibrous connective tissue 2. Perirenal fat capsule A fatty cushion 3. Fibrous capsule Prevents spread of infection to kidney Renal hilum Renal cortex Renal Major calyx Papilla of pyramid Renal pelvis Minor calyx Ureter Renal pyramid in renal Renal column Fibrous capsule (a) Photograph of right kidney, frontal section (b) Diagrammatic view Cortical radiate vein Cortical radiate artery Arcuate vein Arcuate artery Interlobar vein Interlobar artery Segmental arteries Renal vein Renal artery Renal pelvis Ureter Renal Renal cortex (a) Frontal section illustrating major blood vessels Figure 25.3 Figure 25.4a Aorta Renal artery Inferior vena cava Renal vein Nephrons Segmental artery Interlobar artery Arcuate artery Cortical radiate artery Interlobar vein Arcuate vein Cortical radiate vein Peritubular capillaries and vasa recta Afferent arteriole Efferent arteriole Glomerulus (capillaries) Structural and functional units that form urine ~1 million per kidney Two main parts 1. Glomerulus: a tuft of capillaries 2. Renal tubule: begins as cup shaped glomerular (Bowman s) capsule surrounding the glomerulus Nephron-associated blood vessels (see Figure 25.7) (b) Path of blood flow through renal blood vessels Figure 25.4b 2

3 Nephrons Renal corpuscle Glomerulus + capsule Fenestrated glomerular endothelium Allows filtrate to pass from plasma into the glomerular capsule Figure 25.5 Renal Tubule Glomerular capsule: parietal layer Glomerular capsule Parietal layer: simple squamous epithelium Support in filtrate formation Visceral layer: branching epithelial podocytes Extensions terminate in foot processes that cling to basement membrane Filtration slits allow filtrate to pass into the capsular space Basement membrane Podocyte Fenestrated endothelium of the glomerulus Glomerular capsule: visceral layer Figure 25.5 Renal Tubule Proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) Cuboidal cells with dense microvilli and large mitochondria Functions in reabsorption and secretion Confined to the cortex Microvilli Mitochondria Renal Tubule Loop of Henle with descending and ascending limbs Thin segment usually in descending limb Simple squamous epithelium Freely permeable to water Thick segment of ascending limb Cuboidal to columnar cells Highly infolded plasma membrane 3

4 Renal Tubule Distal convoluted tubule (DCT) Cuboidal cells with very few microvilli Function more in secretion than reabsorption Confined to the cortex Collecting Ducts Receive filtrate from many nephrons Fuse together to deliver urine through papillae into minor calyces Collecting Ducts Glomerular capsule: parietal layer Cuboidal cells with microvilli Function in maintaining the acidbase balance of the body Cuboidal cells without microvilli Help maintain the body s water and salt balance Renal cortex Renal Renal pelvis Kidney Renal corpuscle Glomerular capsule Glomerulus Ureter Proximal convoluted tubule Cortex Distal convoluted tubule Basement membrane Podocyte Fenestrated endothelium of the glomerulus Glomerular capsule: visceral layer Microvilli Mitochondria Highly infolded plasma membrane Proximal convoluted tubule cells Medulla Principal Thick segment Thin segment Loop of Henle Descending limb Ascending limb Collecting duct Distal convoluted tubule cells Loop of Henle (thin-segment) cells Principal cell Intercalated cell Intercalated Collecting duct cells Figure 25.5 Nephrons Cortical nephrons 85% of nephrons; almost entirely in the cortex Juxtary nephrons Long loops of Henle deeply invade the Extensive thin segments Important in the production of concentrated urine Cortical nephron Has short loop of Henle and glomerulus further from the corticory junction Efferent arteriole supplies peritubular capillaries Efferent arteriole Renal Glomerular capillaries corpuscle (glomerulus) Glomerular (Bowman s) capsule Proximal convoluted tubule Peritubular capillaries Ascending or thick limb of the loop of Henle Kidney Cortex Medulla Renal pelvis Ureter Arcuate vein Arcuate artery Loop of Henle Descending or thin limb of loop of Henle Juxtary nephron Has long loop of Henle and glomerulus closer to the corticory junction Efferent arteriole supplies vasa recta Cortical radiate vein Cortical radiate artery Afferent arteriole Collecting duct Distal convoluted tubule Afferent arteriole Efferent arteriole Corticory junction Vasa recta (a) Figure 25.7a 4

5 Regulation of Urine Concentration and Volume Osmolality Number of solute particles in 1 kg of H 2 O Reflects ability to cause osmosis Regulation of Urine Concentration and Volume Osmolality of body fluids The kidneys maintain osmolality of plasma at ~300 mosm, using countercurrent mechanisms Countercurrent Mechanism Occurs when fluid flows in opposite directions in two adjacent segments of the same tube Filtrate flow in the loop of Henle (countercurrent multiplier) Blood flow in the vasa recta (countercurrent exchanger) Countercurrent Mechanism Role of countercurrent mechanisms Establish and maintain an osmotic gradient (300 mosm to 1200 mosm) from renal cortex through the Allow the kidneys to vary urine concentration Loop of Henle and Vasa Recta do NOT flow in opposite directions as name implies Figure Cortex Medulla Countercurrent Multiplier: Loop of Henle Functions because of two factors: 1. Descending limb Freely permeable to H 2 O, which passes out of the filtrate into the hyperosmotic ry interstitial fluid Filtrate osmolality increases to ~1200 mosm Figure

6 Countercurrent Multiplier: Loop of Henle 2. Ascending limb Impermeable to H 2 O Selectively permeable to solutes Na + and Cl are passively reabsorbed in the thin segment, actively reabsorbed in the thick segment Filtrate osmolality decreases to 100 mosm Due to countercurrent flow able to multiply small changes in solute to form a gradient Active transport Passive transport Water impermeable (a) Countercurrent multiplier. The long loops of Henle of the juxtary nephrons create the ry osmotic gradient. Filtrate entering the loop of Henle is isosmotic to both blood plasma and cortical interstitial fluid. The descending limb: Permeable to Impermeable to NaCl As filtrate flows, it becomes increasingly concentrated as leaves the tubule by osmosis. The filtrate osmolality increases from 300 to 1200 mosm. Loop of Henle Osmolality of interstitial fluid (mosm) Cortex Outer Inner The ascending limb: Impermeable to Permeable to NaCl Filtrate becomes increasingly dilute as NaCl leaves, eventually becoming hypo-osmotic to blood at 100 mosm in the cortex. NaCl leaving the ascending limb increases the osmolality of the ry interstitial fluid. Figure 25.16a Countercurrent Exchanger: Vasa Recta Osmolality of interstitial fluid (mosm) Blood from efferent arteriole Passive transport To vein The vasa recta Deliver blood to the ry tissues Protect the ry osmotic gradient by preventing rapid removal of salt, and by removing reabsorbed H 2 O Cortex Outer Inner Vasa recta (b) Countercurrent exchanger. The vasa recta preserve the ry gradient while removing reabsorbed water and solutes. The vasa recta: Highly permeable to and solute Nearly isosmotic to interstitial fluid due to sluggish blood flow Blood becomes more concentrated as it descends deeper into the and less concentrated as it approaches the cortex. Figure 25.16b Role of osmotic gradient?? Concentration of urine Without gradient unable to raise concentration of urine above 300mOsm Would not be able to excrete excess solutes Formation of Dilute Urine Filtrate is diluted in the ascending loop of Henle In the absence of ADH, dilute filtrate continues into the renal pelvis as dilute urine Na + and other ions may be selectively removed in the DCT and collecting duct, decreasing osmolality to as low as 50 mosm 6

7 Active transport Passive transport Formation of Concentrated Urine Collecting duct Descending limb of loop of Henle Cortex Outer DCT Urea Depends on the ry osmotic gradient and ADH ADH triggers reabsorption of H 2 O in the collecting ducts Facultative water reabsorption occurs in the presence of ADH so that 99% of H 2 O in filtrate is reabsorbed Inner (a) Absence of ADH Large volume of dilute urine Figure 25.17a Collecting duct Descending limb of loop of Henle DCT Cortex Outer Urea Urea Inner Active transport Passive transport 1. Glomerulus Nephron Capillary Beds Afferent arteriole glomerulus efferent arteriole Specialized for filtration Blood pressure is high because Afferent arterioles are smaller in diameter than efferent arterioles Arterioles are high resistance vessels (b) Maximal ADH Small volume of concentrated urine Figure 25.17b Nephron Capillary Beds 2. Peritubular capillaries Low pressure, porous capillaries adapted for absorption Arise from efferent arterioles Cling to adjacent renal tubules in cortex Empty into venules Nephron Capillary Beds 3. Vasa recta Long vessels parallel to long loops of Henle Arise from efferent arterioles of juxtary nephrons Function in formation of concentrated urine 7

8 Mechanisms of Urine Formation 1. Glomerular filtration 2. Tubular reabsorption Returns all glucose and amino acids, 99% of water, salt, and other components to the blood 3. Tubular secretion Reverse of reabsoprtion: selective addition to urine Cortical radiate artery Three major renal processes: Glomerular filtration Tubular reabsorption Tubular secretion Afferent arteriole Glomerular capillaries Efferent arteriole Urine Glomerular capsule Rest of renal tubule containing filtrate Peritubular capillary To cortical radiate vein Figure Fenestration (pore) Capillary Filtration membrane Fenestrated capillary endothelium Basement membrane Foot processes of podocyte of glomerular capsule Filtration slit Slit diaphragm Plasma Filtrate in capsular space Foot processes of podocyte (c) Three parts of the filtration membrane Filtration Membrane Porous membrane between the blood and the capsular space Consists of 1. Fenestrated endothelium of the glomerular capillaries 2. Gel like basement membrane (fused basal laminae of the two other layers) 3. Visceral membrane of the glomerular capsule (podocytes with foot processes and filtration slits) BLOOD Figure 25.9c Filtration Membrane Allows passage of water and solutes smaller than most plasma proteins Fenestrations prevent filtration of blood cells Negatively charged basement membrane repels large anions such as plasma proteins Slit diaphragms also help to repel macromolecules Filtration Membrane Glomerular mesangial cells Engulf and degrade macromolecules Can contract to change the total surface area available for filtration BLOOD BLOOD 8

9 STEP 1; Glomerular Filtration Passive mechanical process driven by hydrostatic pressure The glomerulus is a very efficient filter because Its filtration membrane is very permeable and it has a large surface area Glomerular blood pressure is higher (55 mm Hg) than other capillaries Molecules >5 nm are not filtered (e.g., plasma proteins) and function to maintain colloid osmotic pressure of the blood Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) Volume of filtrate formed per minute by the kidneys ( ml/min) Governed by (and directly proportional to) Total surface area available for filtration Filtration membrane permeability Net Filtration Pressure Regulation of Glomerular Filtration GFR is tightly controlled by two types of mechanisms Intrinsic controls (renal autoregulation) Act locally within the kidney Extrinsic controls Nervous and endocrine mechanisms that maintain blood pressure, but affect kidney function Intrinsic Controls Maintains a nearly constant GFR when MAP is in the range of mm Hg Two types of renal autoregulation Myogenic mechanism Tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism, which senses changes in the juxtaglomerular apparatus Intrinsic Controls: Myogenic Mechanism BP constriction of afferent arterioles Helps maintain normal GFR Protects glomeruli from damaging high BP BP dilation of afferent arterioles Helps maintain normal GFR MAP = mean arterial pressure 9

10 Intrinsic Controls: Tubuloglomerular Feedback Mechanism Flow dependent mechanism directed by the macula densa cells If GFR increases, filtrate flow rate increases in the tubule Filtrate NaCl concentration will be high because of insufficient time for reabsorption Intrinsic Controls: Tubuloglomerular Feedback Mechanism Macula densa cells of the JGA respond to NaCl by releasing a vasoconstricting chemical that acts on the afferent arteriole GFR The opposite occurs if GFR decreases. Extrinsic Controls: Sympathetic Nervous System Under normal conditions at rest Renal blood vessels are dilated Renal autoregulation mechanisms prevail Figure Extrinsic Controls: Sympathetic Nervous System Under extreme stress Norepinephrine is released by the sympathetic nervous system Epinephrine is released by the adrenal Both cause constriction of afferent arterioles, inhibiting filtration and triggering the release of renin Extrinsic Controls: Renin Angiotensin Mechanism Triggered when the granular cells of the JGA release renin angiotensinogen (a plasma globulin) RENIN angiotensin I angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) angiotensin II 10

11 Effects of Angiotensin II 1. Constricts arteriolar smooth muscle, causing MAP (mean arterial pressure) to rise 2. Stimulates the reabsorption of Na + Acts directly on the renal tubules Triggers adrenal cortex to release 3. Stimulates the hypothalamus to release ADH and activates the thirst center Effects of Angiotensin II 4. Constricts efferent arterioles, decreasing peritubular capillary hydrostatic pressure and increasing fluid reabsorption 5. Causes glomerular mesangial cells to contract, decreasing the surface area available for filtration Extrinsic Controls: Renin Angiotensin Mechanism Triggers for renin release by granular cells Reduced stretch of granular cells (MAP below 80 mm Hg) Stimulation of the granular cells by activated macula densa cells Direct stimulation of granular cells via 1 adrenergic receptors by renal nerves STEP 2; Tubular Reabsorption A selective transepithelial process All organic nutrients (glucose, amino acids) are reabsorbed Water and ion re absorption are hormonally regulated Includes active and passive process Two routes Transcellular Paracellular Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+ Tubular Reabsorption Transcellular route Luminal membranes of tubule cells Cytosol of tubule cells Basolateral membranes of tubule cells Endothelium of peritubular capillaries Tubular Reabsorption Paracellular route Between cells Limited to water movement and reabsorption of Ca 2+, Mg 2+, K +, and some Na + in the PCT where tight junctions are leaky 11

12 Movement via the transcellular route involves: 1 Transport across the luminal membrane. 2 Diffusion through the cytosol. Filtrate in tubule lumen H 2 O Luminal membrane Solutes Tight junction Transport across the basolateral membrane. (Often involves the lateral intercellular spaces because membrane transporters transport ions into these spaces.) 4 Movement through the interstitial fluid and into the capillary. Lateral intercellular space Tubule cell Paracellular Transcellular Transcellular Paracellular Interstitial fluid Capillary endothelial cell 4 4 Basolateral membranes Peritubular capillary The paracellular route involves: Movement through leaky tight junctions, particularly in the PCT. Active transport Passive transport Sodium Reabsorption Na + (most abundant cation in filtrate) Primary active transport out of the tubule cell by Na + K + ATPase in the basolateral membrane Na + passes in through the luminal membrane by secondary active transport or facilitated diffusion mechanisms Figure Sodium Reabsorption Low hydrostatic pressure and high osmotic pressure in the peritubular capillaries Promotes bulk flow of water and solutes (including Na + ) Na+ reabsorption provides the energy and the means for reabsorbing most other substances Reabsorption of Nutrients, Water, and Ions Organic nutrients are reabsorbed by secondary active transport Transport maximum (Tm) reflects the number of carriers in the renal tubules available When the carriers are saturated, excess of that substance is excreted Example Reabsorption of Nutrients, Water, and Ions Water is reabsorbed by osmosis, aided by water filled pores called aquaporins Cations and fat soluble substances follow by diffusion Filtrate Nucleus Interstitial in tubule Tubule cell fluid lumen Na + 2 3Na + 3Na + 1 Glucose 2K Amino + 2K + 3 acids Some K + ions 4 Vitamins Lipid-soluble 5 substances Cl, Ca 2+, K + 6 Cl and other Tight junction Paracellular ions, urea route Primary active transport Transport protein Secondary active transport Ion channel or aquaporin Passive transport (diffusion) Peritubular capillary 1 At the basolateral membrane, Na + is pumped into the interstitial space by the Na + -K + ATPase. Active Na + transport creates concentration gradients that drive: 2 Downhill Na + entry at the luminal membrane. 3 Reabsorption of organic nutrients and certain ions by cotransport at the luminal membrane. 4 Reabsorption of water by osmosis. Water reabsorption increases the concentration of the solutes that are left behind. These solutes can then be reabsorbed as they move down their concentration gradients: 5 Lipid-soluble substances diffuse by the transcellular route. 6 Cl (and other anions), K +, and urea diffuse by the paracellular route. Figure

13 Reabsorptive Capabilities of Renal Tubules and Collecting Ducts PCT Site of reabsorption 65% of Na + and water All nutrients Ions Small proteins Any plasma proteins removed by endocytosis and degraded Reabsorptive Capabilities of Renal Tubules and Collecting Ducts Loop of Henle Descending limb: H 2 O Ascending limb: Na +, K +, Cl Reabsorptive Capabilities of Renal Tubules and Collecting Ducts DCT and collecting duct Reabsorption is hormonally regulated Ca 2+ (Para Thyroid Hormone) Water (Anti Diuretic Hormone) Na + (Aldosterone and Anti Natriuretic Peptide) Reabsorptive Capabilities of Renal Tubules and Collecting Ducts Mechanism of Aldosterone Targets collecting ducts (principal cells) and distal DCT Promotes synthesis of luminal Na + and K + channels Promotes synthesis of basolateral Na + K + ATPases Little to no Na + leaves in urine STEP 3; Tubular Secretion Reabsorption in reverse K +, H +, NH 4+, creatinine, and organic acids move from peritubular capillaries or tubule cells into filtrate Disposes of substances that are bound to plasma proteins Two ways to eliminate unwanted substances Don t reabsorb them OR Secrete them into the filtrate 13

14 Tubular Secretion Eliminates undesirable substances that have been passively reabsorbed (e.g., urea and uric acid) Rids the body of excess K + Controls blood ph by altering amounts of H + or HCO 3 in urine 14

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