2 Regulate chemical composition of body fluids Eliminates waste Controls composition of bloods ion levels and concentration Help maintain PCO2 & acid/base balance [ph] Help regulate blood pressure by secreting renin [renin-angiotensin system]
3 Contribute to metabolism detoxify free radicals and drugs [with peroxisomes] gluconeogenesis [during fasting] produce erythropoietin stimulates red blood cell production activation of vitamin D [as calcitrol]
4 Metabolic waste waste substance produced by the body [often lethal] 50% of N containing waste is urea [from protein aa NH 2 ammonia urea [by liver] Uric acid from nucleic acids Creatinine from creatine phosphate
5 BUN typical = mg/dl Too high = azotemia [renal insufficiency] Plasma creatinine increase above 1.5 mg/dl with decreased filtration normal = mg/dl
6 Retroperitoneal in the superior lumbar region. Extend from twelfth thoracic to third lumbar vertebra. Right kidney is lower than left because it is crowded by the liver.
8 Renal fascia outer layer of dense fibrous connective tissue that anchors the kidney to abdominal wall. Adipose capsule shock absorbing. Renal capsule fibrous cover that prevents kidney infection.
10 Cortex outer - cortical zone and juxtamedullary zone Medulla renal pyramids [8-18] Renal papillae narrow ends of pyramids Renal columns between pyramids
11 Urine Flow formed in nephrons papillary ducts minor calyx major calyx renal pelvis
13 ~ one-fourth (1200 ml) of systemic cardiac output flows through the kidneys each minute. Arterial flow into venous flow out of the kidneys follow similar paths. Figure 25.3c
22 Loop of Henle [nephron loop]: Descending limb [thin] simple squamous epithelium permeable to water [out], urea [in]; thick walls Ascending limb [thick] cuboidal to low columnar epithelium; thick at top, then thin
23 Distal convoluted tubule (DCT): Principal cells: Cuboidal cells without microvilli. Help maintain water & salt balance.
24 Collecting Ducts - drains several DCT's Combine to form papillary ducts calyces Cuboidal epithelium, then columnar
25 All nephrons begin in the cortex. Where the loop of Henle reaches to determines type Juxtamedullary nephrons: Have loops of Henle that deeply penetrate medulla. Cortical nephrons 85% of nephrons: Have loops of Henle that only slightly penetrate medulla.
26 Figure 25.5b
27 General Glomerular filtrate - from plasma but with no protein Tubular fluid - from PCT through DCT
28 Endothelium of glomerulus open pores [fenestrations] nm diameter everything but cells and platelets pass through Basal lamina [basement membrane] of glomerulus serves as dialysis membrane blocks large plasma proteins
29 Filtration slits - Endothelium of visceral layer of glomerular capsule podocytes form filtration slits [spaces between pedicels] negatively charged - repel anions -30 nm slit width
32 Glomerulus blood filtering depends on 3 main pressures 1 promotes, 2 oppose Blood Hydrostatic Pressure [HP G ] about 60 torr forces fluid out of capillaries Capsular Hydrostatic Pressure [HP C ] about -18 torr opposes from fluid already in capsular space
33 Colloidal Osmotic Pressure of blood [OP C ] about -32 torr opposes NFP = HP G [HP C + OP C ] = 55 [15-30]] = about 10 torr outward The positive pressure moves fluid out of the glomerulus into Bowman s capsule.
34 Pressure remains high throughout length so filtration continues. Especially sensitive to hypertension
35 Amount of filtrate formed in all areas of the renal corpuscles of both kidneys every minute Directly related to pressures that determine NFP Adult rate is about 125 ml/min 180L/day [males]
37 If the GFR is too high: Needed substances cannot be reabsorbed quickly enough and are lost in the urine. If the GFR is too low: Everything is reabsorbed, including wastes that are normally disposed of.
38 Three mechanisms control GFR: Renal autoregulation (intrinsic system); Neural controls; Hormonal mechanisms (renin-angiotensin system).
39 Renal Autoregulation of GFR - blood flow autoadjustment Myogenic Mechanism Smooth muscle contracts when stretched reduces blood flow which reduces pressure downstream.
40 Tubuloglomerular feedback negative feedback mechanism using the Juxtaglomerular apparatus [respond to NaCl concentration] juxtaglomerular cells - smooth muscle fibers of afferent arterioles mechanoreceptors - dilate or constrict with pressure change & secrete renin.
41 macula densa- chemoreceptors at end of ascending limb tall crowded cells that monitor Na+ and Cl- concentration
42 DC Muller, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine
43 Neural Regulation sympathetic Norepinephrine causes vasoconstriction Affects smooth muscles of vessels low input dilation, high constriction
44 Renin-angiotensin II pathway- JG cells release renin in response to 1 decreased delivery of fluid and NaCl to macula densa 2 decreased stretching of JG cells 3 increased rate of stimulation by renal sympathetic nerves
45 Angiotensin II is the active hormone that produces constriction of arterioles to increase GBHP and raise GFR stimulates secretion of aldosterone, which enhances reabsorption of Na+ [and water] by principal cells in collecting ducts
46 stimulates the thirst center of the hypothalamus stimulates release of ADH which increases water reabsorption increase in blood volume higher BP
47 Every nephron has 2 capillary beds: Glomerulus & Peritubular Each glomerulus is: Fed by an afferent arteriole Drained by an efferent arteriole
48 Peritubular beds are low-pressure, porous capillaries. Vasa recta long, straight efferent arterioles of juxtamedullary nephrons.
50 99% of materials move from filtrate back into peritubular capillaries or vasa recta Solutes are reabsorbed by active or passive transport Water is reabsorbed by osmosis = facultative water reabsorption Small peptides and proteins are reabsorbed by pinocytosis
51 Most reabsorption occurs in PCT s. Na + reabsorption- by facilitated diffusion, symporters & antiporters. Reabsorption of water Helps establish concentration gradients Promotes reabsorption of other substances
52 Substances reabsorbed in PCT: 100% of filtered glucose, lactate & amino acids 90% of bicarbonate ions 65% of Na + & water 50% of Cl & K +
54 Transport maximum (T m ): Reflects the number of carriers in the renal tubules available Exists for nearly every substance that is actively reabsorbed When the carriers are saturated, excess of that substance is excreted
55 Removes materials from blood and adds them into filtrate Function to rid body of certain materials and help control blood ph. Except for K +, the PCT is the main site of secretion. Removes urea, uric acid, bile salts catecholamines, prostaglandins, morphine, penicillin, etc.
56 ph regulation - H+ - by intercalated cells; increasing HCO 3 - reabsorption when ph is low
57 Allows for production of dilute or concentrated urine % Na + & K + 35% Cl - 15% water
58 Variable absorption based on need - 2 cell types Principal cells have infolding of basement membrane maintain water and Na balance. Sensitive to ADH and aldosterone Intercalated Cells - very few lots of mitochondria - can reabsorb K+ and secrete H+ to rid body of excess acid
59 Hormonal Influences Aldosterone - renin angiotensin system ADH - in response to dehydration and high osmolality - acts on collecting ducts,increases water absorption Parathyroid hormone stimulates Ca2+ uptake and increases phosphate excretion
60 Atrial Natriuretic Peptide [increases GFR] Secreted by atria of heart when muscle is stretched [high Bp] Promotes excretion of water and Na+ Inhibits ADH secretion & antagonizes renin system Reduces blood volume and BP
61 By end of DCT 95% of filtrate has been reabsorbed; 90% of water
63 Dilute Urine is hypotonic to blood plasma. To produce dilute urine just don t remove any water after ascending loop of Henle Dilution occurs in the absence of ADH makes principal cells impermeable to water reabsorption
64 Concentrated urine is hypertonic to plasma. ADH is present water channels [aquaporins] form in principal cell membranes [increase water reabsorption] More Complex than dilution. Solute concentration is maintained by counter current mechanism
65 Based on anatomic arrangement of juxtamedullary nephrons & the vasa recta. Get salinity gradient produced in ECF - very high at base.
66 Countercurrent Multiplier loop of Henle - recaptures Na + and returns it to deep medullary tissues keeping the gradient in place. 1. Descending water leaves, Na + & Cl - enter. 2. Ascending water enters, NaCl leaves.
67 Recycling of urea in renal medulla: gets concentrated in tubules diffuses out at collecting duct into medulla into tubular fluid in ascending loop of Henle - repeats.
68 Countercurrent exchanger Vasa Recta - Blood flows in opposite direction from loop - Maintains a gradient keep removing water and adding salt.
70 Appearance - clear, colorless to amber [pus, bacteria blood, etc. make cloudy and/or colored Odor - slight - increases with standing due to bacterial ammonia production Specific gravity [water is 1.000]
71 ph Slightly acidic (ph 6) with a range of 4.5 to 8.2 Diet can alter ph Osmolarity mosm/l Composition - 95 water
72 1-2L/da Polyuria - excessive output, Oliguria - low, Anuria none Diabetes - 4 forms - I, II gestational and insipidus. In most - results from high sugar in tubule. Insipidus is from hyposecretion of ADH
81 Muscular tube that drains urine from the bladder & conveys it out of the body. Female much shorter than male. The male urethra has 3 regions: Prostatic Membranous Spongy
83 Stretch receptors stimulated by mL signal to sacral spinal cord - some to Sympathetic neurons that suppress urination others to Parasympathetic - micturation reflex Voluntary relaxation of external sphincter
84 Renal insufficiency = state in which kidneys cannot maintain homeostasis due to extensive destruction of nephrons Causes - hypertension, infections, trauma, ischemia, poisoning, tubule blockage - protein, etc. atherosclerosis, glomerulonephritis
85 Dialysis - blood is removed and passed through a chamber with a semipermeable membrane - materials are removed from blood by diffusion.
Chapter 26 Urinary System 1 Urinary System Functions Filtering of blood: involves three processesfiltration, reabsorption, secretion. Regulation of Blood volume Concentration of blood solutes: Na +, Cl
The Kidney Vertebrates possess kidneys: internal organs which are vital to ion and water balance and excretion. The kidney has 6 roles in the maintenance of homeostasis. 6 Main Functions 1. Ion Balance
Urinary System and Excretion Bio105 Chapter 16 Outline Urinary System I. Function II. Organs of the urinary system A. Kidneys 1. Function 2. Structure III. Disorders of the urinary system Urinary System
Learning Objectives Renal System Figure 26.4 Major sources of water intake and output. Blood filtration through the glomerulus How Glomerular filtration rate is regulated Intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms
Urinary System and Excretion Bio105 Lecture Packet 20 Chapter 16 Outline Urinary System I. Function II. Organs of the urinary system A. Kidneys 1. Function 2. Structure B. Urine formation 1. Hormonal regulation
URINARY SYSTEM ANATOMY Adapted from Human Anatomy & Physiology Marieb and Hoehn (9 th ed.) OVERVIEW Metabolism of nutrients by the body produces wastes that must be removed from the body. Although excretory
Kidney and urine formation Renal structure & function Urine formation Urinary y concentration and dilution Regulation of urine formation 1 Kidney and urine formation 1.Renal structure & function 1)General
Renal Quiz - June 22, 21001 1. The molecular weight of calcium is 40 and chloride is 36. How many milligrams of CaCl 2 is required to give 2 meq of calcium? a) 40 b) 72 c) 112 d) 224 2. The extracellular
Other Factors Affecting GFR Chapter 25 Part 2. Renal Physiology Nitric oxide vasodilator produced by the vascular endothelium Adenosine vasoconstrictor of renal vasculature Endothelin a powerful vasoconstrictor
Ionic & Osmotic Homeostasis osmoregulation mechanisms in gills, salt glands, and kidneys extracellular intracellular 22 23 Salt Secretion: recycle Figure in Box 26.2 Hill et al. 2004 active Down electrochemical
Glomerular Capillary Blood Pressure Fluid pressure exerted by blood within glomerular capillaries Depends on Contraction of the heart Resistance to blood flow offered by afferent and efferent arterioles
Excretory Lecture Test Questions Set 1 1. The separation and ejection of metabolic wastes, usually in aqueous solution, is: a. reabsorption b. secretion c. filtration d. excretion e. endocrinology 2. Besides
Physiology 12 Kidney and Fluid regulation Guyton Ch 20, 21,22,23 Roles of the Kidney Regulation of body fluid osmolarity and electrolytes Regulation of acid-base balance (ph) Excretion of natural wastes
Urinary System Dr. Ahmed Maher Dr. Ahmed Manhal Presentation Map Kidney (cortex & medulla). Nephron. Duct system. Juxtaglomerular apparatus. Ureter, bladder & urethra. Definition & General Structure The
Lecture 16: The Nephron Reading: OpenStax A&P Text Chapter 25 Primary functions of the kidneys 1. Regulating osmolarity (blood concentration!) A. Regulating blood pressure B. Maintaining ion balance C.
Excretory System 1 1. Excretory System a)label the parts indicated above and give one function for structures Y and Z W- renal cortex - X- renal medulla Y- renal pelvis collecting center of urine and then
Bio 182- Ecology Unit Outline 1 Excretory System Introduction 1. Terrestrial organisms must deal with the problems of: a. obtaining and conserving water b. Removing excess salts c. Eliminating products
Chapter 19 The Urinary System Fluid and Electrolyte Balance Chapter Outline The Concept of Balance Water Balance Sodium Balance Potassium Balance Calcium Balance Interactions between Fluid and Electrolyte
The Urinary System PowerPoint presentation to accompany: Medical Assisting Third Edition Booth, Whicker, Wyman, Pugh, Thompson 30-2 Learning Outcomes 30.1 Describe the structure, location, and functions
BIOL 221 Chapter 25 The Urinary System 84 slides 1 Intro to the Urinary System The kidneys are the major excretory organ filter about 200 liters of fluid daily. skin and lungs also participate in excretion.
BIO 210 Anatomy and Physiology Homework #10: Chs. 26-28 DUE: (see course schedule) Assignments not turned in at the beginning of class will be accepted. MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that
Chapter 16 Urinary System 16.1. Introduction The urinary system includes the: kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra. The kidneys regulate the composition and volume of body fluids by constantly
Chapter 44. Regulating the Internal Environment Homeostasis Living in the world organisms had a choice: regulate their internal environment maintain relatively constant internal conditions conform to the
Excretory and Endocrine functions of the kidney The kidneys are the main excretory organs which eliminate in the urine, most metabolites primarily those containing nitrogen such as ammonia, urea and creatinine.
Excretion and the Interaction of Systems Chapter 9 Chapter 9 Excretion and the Interaction of Systems 9.1 The Structures and Function of the Excretory System 9.2 Urine Formation in the Nephron 9.3 Excretory
183 Chapter 9 Urinary System Components of the Urinary System -The urinary system consists of 2 kidneys, 2 ureters, 1 urinary bladder, and 1 urethra (Figure 26.1, Tortora). 1. kidneys - The kidneys are
Excretory System 1 1. Excretory System a)label the parts indicated above and give one function for structures Y and Z W- X- Y- Z- b) Which of the following is not a function of the organ shown? A. to produce
16 The Urinary System The Urinary System OUTLINE: Eliminating Waste Components of the Urinary System Kidneys and Homeostasis Urination Urinary Tract Infections Eliminating Waste Excretion Elimination of
Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology, 9e (Marieb) Chapter 15 The Urinary System Short Answer Figure 15.1 Using Figure 15.1, identify the following: 1) The ureter is indicated by letter. Answer: B Diff:
Urinary System Analyze the Anatomy and Physiology of the urinary system Kidney Bean-shaped Located between peritoneum and the back muscles (retroperitoneal) Renal pelvis funnelshaped structure at the beginning
Chapter 44 Osmoregulation and Excretion PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley with contributions from
URINARY SYSTEM I. Kidneys A. Location and Structure 1. Retroperitoneal 2. Between T12 and L3 3. Rt. kidney slightly lower 4. Two bean shaped organs 5. Adrenal gland 6. Internal construction a. Renal cortex
Done By: Lulu Al-Obaid - Abdulrahman Al-Rashed Reviewed By: Mohammed Jameel Khulood Al-Raddadi At the end of this lecture student should be able to describe: The loop of Henle is referred to as countercurrent
Making Water! OR is it really Just Water Just Ask the Nephron!! Author: Patricia L. Ostlund email@example.com (910) 678-9892 Fayetteville Technical Community College Fayetteville, NC 28303 Its just
Which of the following is found in the spermatic cord: a) Ductus deferens b) Dartos muscle c) Testicle d) Epididymis e) Bulbourethreal gland a) ductus deferns What structure is superior to the urogenital
Chapter 15 Fluid and Acid-Base Balance by Dr. Jay M. Templin Brooks/Cole - Thomson Learning Fluid Balance Water constitutes ~60% of body weight. All cells and tissues are surrounded by an aqueous environment.
Functional Renal Physiology and Urine Production Urinalysis can provide insight into hydration status, renal function or dysfunction, systemic disease, and toxic insults. Accurate interpretation of urinalysis
EXCRETION Types of Excretory Products in Animals Human Excretory System Urine Formation Disorders of Excretory System Excretion: Animals accumulate ammonia, urea, uric acid, carbon dioxide, water and ions
Body Water Content Fluids and electrolytes Infants have low body fat, low bone mass, and are 73% or more water Total water content declines throughout life Healthy males are about 60% water; healthy females
Regulation of Body Fluids: Na + and Water Linda Costanzo, Ph.D. OBJECTIVES: After studying this lecture, the student should understand: 1. Why body sodium content determines ECF volume and the relationships
Excretion Basic mechanisms of Kidney function Urine formation in Amphibians Urine formation in Mammals Urine formation in Insects Nitrogen balance Kidneys The most fundamental function of kidneys) is to
Physiology of Circulation Dr. Ali Ebneshahidi Blood vessels Arteries: Blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart to the lungs and tissues. Arterioles are small arteries that deliver blood to the
1 2 3 4 5 6 OSMOREGULATION AND EXCRETION OSMOREGULATION Process by which animals control their solute concentrations and balance water gain and loss Freshwater animals show adaptations that reduce water
Biology 212: Anatomy and Physiology II Lab #8: ANATOMY OF THE URINARY SYSTEM and CHARACTERISTICS OF URINE References: Saladin, KS: Anatomy and Physiology, The Unity of Form and Function 7 th ed. (2015)
3 Chapter 1 RENAL HAEMODYNAMICS AND GLOMERULAR FILTRATION David Shirley, Giovambattista Capasso and Robert Unwin The kidney has three homeostatic functions that can broadly be described as excretory, regulatory
Venous system Large veins (capacitance vessels) Small veins (capacitance vessels) Postcapillary venule Thoroughfare channel Heart Large lymphatic vessels Lymph node Lymphatic system Arteriovenous anastomosis
Excretion (IGCSE Biology Syllabus 2016-2018) Structure of the Kidney Excretion is the removal from organisms of toxic materials, the waste products of metabolism and substances in excess of requirements
Bio 6A/ Bruce Heyer NAME: Study Exercise #2: Osmoregulation & Kidney Function Some questions may have more than one correct answer. Mark all correct answers. You may use books or notes and discuss answers
Biology Form 4 Page 32 Ms. R. Buttigieg UNIT 3 Conditions supporting life In this unit we shall be seeing how an important condition that supports life is the ability of the organism to maintain a constant
Renal Terminology Renal-Root Words & Combining Forms calyx cortex glomerul/o medulla nephr/o pyel/o py/o ur/o ren/o cuplike division of the kidney outer layer of kidney glomerula inner or central portion
The Countercurrent Multiplier System After studying this lecture, you should be able to... 1. Describe active transport and osmosis in the loop of Henle and explain how these processes produce a countercurrent
Diuretics: Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors Thiazides Loop Diuretics Potassium-sparing Diuretics Renal Pharmacology Kidneys: Represent 0.5% of total body weight, but receive ~25% of the total arterial blood
UNIVERSITY OF JORDAN DEPT. OF PHYSIOLOGY & BIOCHEMISTRY RENAL PHYSIOLOGY Course Outline Textbook of medical physiology, by A.C. Guyton and John E, Hall, Twelfth edition, 2010. The (10) lectures will cover
Physical Characteristics of Urine Bởi: OpenStaxCollege The urinary system s ability to filter the blood resides in about 2 to 3 million tufts of specialized capillaries the glomeruli distributed more or
Renal with Rogers October 31, 2014 Hosted by the UNM Student Pathology Assocation Physiology, Equations, Pharmacology An interpretation of FIRSTAID topics: Embryology Anatomy o o Filtration o o o o Broadly
1. Excretion and secretion are two processes that take place in the body of a mammal. Complete the table below to compare the processes of excretion and secretion. excretion secretion one difference one
Suprarenal (adrenal) Glands 1 Two small yellowish glands situated anterosuperior to each superior renal pole. Retroperitoneal and located at the level of T12. Surrounded connective tissue that contains
Acid Base Balance Chapter 26 Balance Part 2. Acid/Base Balance Precisely balances production and loss of hydrogen ions (ph) The body generates acids during normal metabolism, tends to reduce ph Kidneys: