New Therapies and Trials in IPF

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1 Conflict of interest disclosure I have the following real or perceived conflicts of interest that relate to this presentation: New Therapies and Trials in IPF Talmadge E. King, Jr., M.D. Julius R. Krevans Distinguished Professorship in Internal Medicine Chair, Department of Medicine University of California San Francisco (UCSF) San Francisco, CA InterMune (Drug Study Steering committees) F. Hoffmann-La Roche/Genentech (Drug Study Steering committees) Actelion(Drug Study Steering Committees) ImmuneWorks(Scientific Advisory Committee) GlaxoSmithKline (Consultant) Boehringer Ingelheim (Consultant) Daiichi Sankyo (Consultant) Tracon(Consultant) NIH IPFnet(Principal investigator) UpToDate (Editor, Author) Talmadge E. King, Jr., MD Professor & Chair UCSF Department of Medicine Diffuse Parenchymal Lung Diseases or Interstitial Lung Diseases (ILD) Heterogeneous group of noninfectious, nonmalignant processes of the lower respiratory tract (interstitial pneumonias) that commonly result Symptoms: dyspnea and cough Signs: crackles on chest exam; (clubbing) PFTs: restrictive ventilatory impairment Chest imaging: diffuse interstitial opacities Lung biopsy: granulomatous or interstitial inflammation and fibrosis Outcome: often progressive and often fatal Diffuse Parenchymal Lung Diseases Chronic Fibrosing Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis Idiopathic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia Idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIPs) Non-familial (>8%) Familial (2-2%) 2%) Acute/Subacute Fibrosing Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia Acute interstitial pneumonia Smoking-related Respiratory bronchiolitis ILD Desquamative interstitial pneumonia 1

2 Approach to the Diagnosis of ILD: It Often Takes A Village! Primary Care Pulmonologists Clinical History Physical Laboratory PFTs Rheumatologists Radiology Chest X-ray HRCT Radiologists Pathologists Pathology Surgical lung biopsy Multidimensional and multidisciplinary Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis 211 Joint ATS/ERS/JRS/ALAT Statement Am J Respir Crit Care Med 183: Specific form of chronic, progressive fibrosing interstitial pneumonia of unknown cause, occurring in adults (55 75 years), Associated with the histopathologic and/or radiologic pattern of usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP). ATS/ERS Consensus Statement. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 22;165: Incidence and prevalence of IPF increases markedly with age Per Hundred Thousand Incidence Male Female Per Hundred Thousand Prevalence Male Female Clinical course of IPF/UIP is variable and may be difficult to predict Estimated 31, New Patients per Year in the United States Estimated 83, Current Patients in the United States WeyckerD, et al. Prevalence, Incidence, and Economic Costs of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis. Paper presented at: CHEST 22 San Diego, CA. 2

3 Heterogeneous Natural History Pattern In Patients With IPF IPF is notan inflammatory disorder It is a fibroproliferativedisorder preceded by epithelial activation. King, Pardo, Selman. Lancet 211; 378: Selman, M. King TE, Jr, PardoA. Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: Progress in Understanding Its Pathogenesis and Implications for Therapy. Ann Intern Med 21; 134;: Primary Sites of Ongoing Injury and Repair Are the Fibroblast Foci Age & Pathogenesis Multiple microfoci of epithelial injury Type 2 pneumocyte proliferation and activation IPF may represent a primary failure of the alveolar epithelium, due in part to age-related changes in cellular function. Focal fibroblast proliferation Selman, M. King TE, Jr, PardoA. Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: Progress in Understanding Its Pathogenesis and Implications for Therapy. Ann Intern Med 21; 134;:

4 October 15, 214 Why has it taken so long to get here? The FDA granted Esbriet(pirfenidone) and Ofev(nintedanib) fast track, priority review, orphan product, and breakthrough designations. To date Current animal models are NOTuseful in the development of novel therapies for IPF because animal models do NOT produce a fibrotic injury that looks or acts in any way like IPF/UIP! Need to rely more on translational rather than basic science. IPFnetis a network of ~26 medical centers across the U.S.A. dedicated to the study of IPF PANTHER Trials 4

5 Why Did We Use Corticosteroids to Treat IPF? We confused ourselves about the value of prednisone (with or without cytotoxic agents)! Rationale: treat inflammation, slow fibroblastic proliferation and prevent irreversible fibrosis Some patients experience a precipitous decline when steroids were stopped, so, they appeared to be working No other therapy available If you remember I did mention possible side effects. ILD: Responsiveness to Treatment OP Bronchiolitis UIP NSIP RB-ILD Eos Pn DIP DAD DAH Familial IPF AIP We over valued underpowered, poorly designed studies of therapies. LIP Vasc LAM PAP Amyloid 5

6 Cyclophosphamide Appears to Improve Survival in IPF 1 Prednisolone + Cyclophosphamide (n=21) 8 % Still alive 6 4 Prednisolone (n=22) p = N.S. 2 Many patients, however, failed to respond to either treatment Y e a r s Johnson et al. Randomised controlled trial comparing prednisolone alone with cyclophosphamide and low dose prednisolone in combination in cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis. Thorax 1989;44: Chest. 24; 125: We ignored the widely recognized adverse events associated with common therapies. 6

7 We could not agree on disease definition. Am J RespirCritCare Med Vol161. pp , 2 NO GLOBAL INVOLVEMENT UNTIL ~2: More precise diagnosis Pharmaceutical company interest Patient encouragement and advocacy Slide courtesy of Luca Richeldi What have we tried King IFN-γ Imatinib STEP Sildenafil Anti-CCL2 Anti-TGFβ Demedts NAC PANTHER NAC Treatment Trials Johnson Cyclophosphamide Winterbauer Azathioprine Raghu Azathioprine Douglas Colchicine Raghu Pirfenidone Ziesche IFN-γ Raghu IFN-γ Azuma Pirfenidone TOMORROW Nintedanib Shionogi Pirfenidone King Bosentan CAPACITY 1/2 Pirfenidone Infliximab BUILD-3 Bosentan INPULSIS 1 & 2 Nintedanib ASCEND Pirfenidone Raghu Etanercept Ambrisentan Anti-inflammatory Immunosuppression Immunomodulation Anti-oxidant Kubo Warfarin Anti-fibrotic ACE Warfarin Anti-proliferative 7

8 There is no cure for IPF/UIP. Can we slow the progression or improve survival of IPF/UIP? IFIGENIA Trial PANTHER trial NAC Trial INPLUSIS-1 and INPLUSIS-2 ASCEND Trial IFIGENIA NAC + azathioprine + steroids 8

9 IFIGENIA Trial NEJM 25; 353: Baseline Endpoint 6m Endpoint 12m Mortality N Engl J Med 25;353: VC (% Predicted) NAC Placebo 9% 11% Pred/Aza/NAC (n=) Pred/Aza/Placebo (n=) IMPLICATIONS FOR PATIENT CARE NAC Treatment for IPF Addition of NAC to low-dose prednisone and azathioprine may help to preserve pulmonary function in patients with IPF. However, a drop-out rate of 3% (including deaths) raised concerns regarding the clinical relevance and robustness of the treatment effect. PANTHER NAC + azathioprine + steroids 9

10 Time Until Disease Progression or Death (Decrease in Forced Vital Capacity of 1%) Kaplan Meier Curve HR 1.46 (95% CI:.7 3.5) P =.3 N Engl J Med 212; 366: The Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Clinical Research Network. N Engl J Med 212;366: Time Until Hospitalization or Death Time until Death Kaplan Meier Curve HR: 3.74 (95% CI: ) p<.1 Kaplan Meier Curve HR 9.26 (95% CI ) P =.1 The Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Clinical Research Network. N Engl J Med 212;366: The Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Clinical Research Network. N Engl J Med 212;366:

11 Triple therapy had higher incidence of adverse events than placebo Percentage P-values <.5 Placebo Pred/Aza/NAC IMPLICATIONS FOR PATIENT CARE Treatment of IPF Compelling evidence against the use of the combination of azathioprine, prednisone, and NAC for patients with IPF who have mild-to-moderate impairment in pulmonary function. Death rates in clinical trials are below historical expectation. Raghu G, et al. N Engl J Med. 212;366: Demonstrates Mild to Moderate IPF Patients Have a Low Mortality Rate 1 95 Death Rate in IPF Has Declined? 1 8 IPF patients in placebo groups from INSPIRE and CAPACITY Trials (n=622) NSIP Percent Survival 9 % Alive UIP Weeks Placebo patients from INSPIRE and CAPACITY Trials (n=622) Years Daniil ZD et al. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1999;16:

12 PANTHER N-acetylcysteine(NAC) N Engl J Med 214; 37: NAC Does Not Reduce FVC Decline Acetylcysteine offered no significant benefit with respect to the preservation of FVC in patients with IPF with mild-to - moderate impairment in lung function. Martinez FJ, et al. N Engl J Med. 214;37(22): N Engl J Med 214; 37: N Engl J Med 214; 37:

13 NAC Trial: Conclusions As compared with placebo, acetylcysteine offered no significant benefit with respect to the preservation of FVC in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis with mild-to - moderate impairment in lung function. INPULSIS Nintedanib Possible Mechanisms of Nintedanib Action N Engl J Med. 214;37: Nintedanib Triple kinase inhibitor Phosphatase activator Antiangiogenic, antitumor activity VEGF PDGF FGF SHP-1 Pleiotropic Effects Hilberg F, et al. Cancer Res. 28;68(12): Tai WT, et al. J Hepatol. 214;61(1):

14 Annual rate of change in FVC was significantly lower in the nintedanib Nintedanib Reduces Loss of FVC 52% Relative Reduction 45% Relative Reduction INPULSIS 1 INPULSIS 2 INPULSIS 1 INPULSIS 2 A significantly greater proportion of patients in nintedanibgroup had noabsolute decline in the % predicted FVC 5% points Time to 1 st acute exacerbation No INPULSIS 1 Yes INPULSIS 2 14

15 Common Nintedanib Adverse Events Event Nintedanib (n = 39) INPULSIS-1 Placebo (n = 24) Nintedanib (n = 329) INPULSIS-2 Placebo (n = 219) Any (%) Diarrhea (%) Nausea(%) Richeldi L, et al. N Engl J Med. 214;37(22): INPULSIS trials: CONCLUSION Nintedanibreduced the decline in FVC, which is consistent with a slowing of disease progression There was significant differences in favor of nintedanibfor the time to first acute exacerbation and the change from baseline in the total SGRQ score in INPULSIS-2 but not INPULSIS-1. Nintedanib was frequently associated with diarrhea, which lead to discontinuation of the study medication in less than 5% of patients. ASCEND Pirfenidone Richeldi L, et al. N Engl J Med. 214;37(22):

16 Possible Mechanisms of Pirfenidone Action Pirfenidone TNF-α IL-6 TGF-β IL-6 MMPs Collagenases ROIs Antifibrotic Molecular target unclear Collagen Active in several animal models of fibrosis (lung, liver, kidney) 61 Hilberg O, et al. Clin Respir J. 212;6: Primary Efficacy Analysis: Treatment with pirfenidone resulted in a significant between-group difference in the rank ANCOVA analysis (P<.1) Proportion of Patients with 1% FVC Decline or Death (%) Pirfenidone (N=278) Placebo (N=277) Week Absolute Difference 2.5% 7.9% 12.3% 15.3% Relative Difference 54.% 58.% 57.8% 47.9% Rank ANCOVA p-value <.1 <.1.2 <.1 48% Relative Reduction Supportive Analysis of the Primary Endpoint: Treatment group difference of 193 ml at Week 52, a 45% relative reduction in the mean change in FVC Mean change in FVC (ml) Pirfenidone (N=278) 235 ml Placebo (N=277) Week Absolute difference, ml Relative difference 62.5% 54.9% 43.9% 45.1% Rank ANCOVA P-value <.1 <.1.2 < ml King TE, et al. N Engl J Med. 214;37(22):

17 ASCEND Study Supportive Analysis: Annual rate of FVC decline at week 52 favored Pirfenidone (Linear Slope Analysis) Annual Rate of FVC Change (ml/yr) Pirfenidone (N=278) Placebo (N=277) Absolute Difference, 116 ml/yr Relative reduction: 41.5% P<.1* * Linear slope analysis: Mixed model with linear time effect adjusted for age, height, and sex 65 More Pirfenidone Patients Maintain Walk Distance or Survive Proportion of Patients with 5 m Decline or Death (%) Pirfenidone (N=278) Week Absolute Difference 3.7% 1.9% 1.9% 9.8% Relative Difference 24.1% 39.7% 31.8% 27.5% Rank ANCOVA p-value* * Tested for multiple comparisons using the Hochberg procedure Progression-free Survival*: Pirfenidone reduced the risk of disease progression or death by 43% Patients (%) HR.57 (95% CI,.43.77) P<.1 Pirfenidone (N=278) Placebo (N=277) Patients at Risk: Week Pirfenidone Placebo * Time to death or disease progression (confirmed 1% decline in FVC or confirmed 5 m decline in 6MWD) Log-rank test 67 ASCEND Adverse Events Adverse Event Pirfenidone (%) Placebo (%) (N = 278) (N = 277) Δ (%) Nausea Rash Dyspepsia Anorexia GERD Weight Loss Insomnia Dizziness Vomiting Dyspnea Cough IPF King TE, et al. N Engl J Med. 214;37(22):

18 ASCEND Study: Summary Treatment with pirfenidone for 52 weeks significantly reduced disease progression, as measured by Changes in % predicted FVC (p<.1) Changes in 6-minute walk distance (p=.36) Progression-free survival (p<.1) Treatment with pirfenidone reduced all-cause mortality and treatment emergent IPF-related mortality in pooled analyses at week 52. Pirfenidone was generally safe and well tolerated. ASCEND Study: Conclusions Pirfenidone, as compared with placebo, reduced disease progression in patients with IPF. Treatment was generally safe, had an acceptable side effectprofile and was associated with fewer deaths New Paradigm for Effective Management of IPF/UIP IPF Comorbidities GERD Combined Pulmonary Fibrosis and Emphysema (CPFE) Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) Lung cancer Raghu G et al. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 211;183:

19 Goals of effective IPF management Relieve symptoms Improve exercise tolerance Improve health status Prevent and treat complications Prevent and treat exacerbations Prevent disease progression Reduce mortality Cough, Depression, Sleep, Pulmonary rehab., GERD, Supplemental Oxygen New approaches needed?? Pirfenidone N-acetylcysteine(Fluimucil ) Nintedanib Sildenafil (advanced disease) Lung transplantation IPF Drugs in the Works Gilead: Simtuzumab(anti-LOXL2) Fibrogen: FGCL (anti-ctgf) Centocor: CNTO 888 (anti-ccl2) Novartis: QAX 576 (anti-il13) Promedior: PRM151 (Petraxin-2) Biogen: ST 1 (anti integrin αvβ6) MedImmune: Tralokinumab(anti-IL13) Sanofi: SAR (anti IL-4 and IL-13) These goals should be reached with a minimum of side effects from treatment THANK YOU FOR YOU ATTENTION. 19

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