Food Basics + Low GI Food Charts

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1 Food Basics + Low GI Food Charts The below tables will give you a good idea of where food falls on the Glycemic Index. We ve grayed the sections of high-glycemic foods - it s only a small amount of this document, notice how many options there are for yummy, healthy, low-glycemic foods! What Does Low-Glycemic Mean? The glycemic index, (GI) is a measure of the effects of carbohydrates on blood sugar levels. Simple carbohydrates that break down quickly during digestion and release glucose rapidly into the bloodstream have a high GI; complex carbohydrates that break down more slowly, releasing glucose more gradually into the bloodstream, have a low GI. Blood sugar is another name for glucose. The GI of a food shows its relationship to glucose (which has a GI of 100) and is measured based on the particular foods effects during the first two hours after consumption. Foods that have been scientifically measured for GI value usually fall within a low, moderate, or high range. Low Glycemic Index Foods: 55 or less Moderate Glycemic Index Foods: High Glycemic Index Foods: 70 or more Why is blood sugar important? When you have sugar in your blood, your body produces the hormone, insulin. The role of insulin in your body is to determine whether the available sugar should be used to generate energy or be stored as fat for later use. Foods with a high GI flood the body with sugar which it can't use right away (unless you are an athlete in training) and so your body immediately begins storing it as fat. If you eat a fat with the carb, for instance bread and butter, then none of the fat gets used either. It all gets stored as fat. Insulin does its job so well that soon after you eat the high GI food your blood sugar drops and guess what - you're hungry again. Compare that to a balanced meal with an overall low GI, say chicken breast, broccoli and brown rice. The food is digested more slowly, so instead of an immediate flood of sugar in the blood stream, the sugar is available for energy for a much longer period of time after eating.

2 Insulin can now use this sugar for the bodies needs instead of storing it as fat. The result - more energy, more muscle, and more appetite control. Low Glycemic Index Foods Here is a brief summary of low glycemic index foods. Carbs (+ Fiber) Whole grains and whole grain breads - these tend to be in the low to mid glycemic range. Watch out for breads with added sugar and/or white or wheat flour. Wheat flour is NOT wholegrain - it s made with partially white flour! Fruits - Most fresh fruits are in the low GI range, however, watermelon, raisins, dates, tropical fruits, bananas, cantaloupe, and most melons are in the moderate to high range. The lower glycemic fruits are stone fruits, berries, apples, hard pears, grapefruit, limes and lemons. Beans and legumes - almost all beans and legumes have low glycemic values. Green leafy vegetables - all have a low GI, but starchy vegetables like corn, potatoes have a high GI. Proteins By their nature, all proteins are low glycemic, but of course you want to eat the healthier ones. Meats - these usually have low or no GI value. Beans and legumes - almost all beans and legumes have low glycemic values. Nuts - they usually have low or no GI value. Yogurt - Yogurt has a low GI but be sure to check the nutrition data on the label because most flavored yogurts have added sugar or high fructose corn syrup. Low Fat Dairy, Soy and Nut Milk - Most are in the low GI range and a few are in the moderate range. Aways choose unsweetened versions. Fats All fats and nuts are low glycemic (unless they have sugar added to them), but like proteins, you want to eat the healthier options.

3 Food Group Basics / Macronutrients Macronutrients are the nutrients that provide calories or energy needed for growth, development, metabolism and all body functions. Macro means large therefore macronutrients are the nutrients we need in the largest amounts. The 3 main macronutrients are: Carbohydrate, Protein, Fat Above each Food List Chart below are descriptions of that food group: Carbohydrates, Proteins, Fat, Sweeteners. The food groups are important to understand so that you can begin to easily create low-glycemic meals anywhere, anytime. Some Foods Can Be Apart Of More Than 1 Food Group Once you have a good idea of what foods are what type and the healthy vs the unhealthy choices, you ll begin to notice that some foods are apart of more than 1 food group. For example: All of the carbohydrates contain fiber. Many nuts and seeds are protein but also a good source of fat. Greens and beans are carbohydrates, fiber, and sources of protein. Animal proteins (meat and cheese) are both protein and fat. When combing a simple snack, you can get all 4 pieces of the SexyFit Formula with only 2 foods: Apple slices with Almond Butter

4 CARBOHYDRATES (+ FIBER) Serving Size: 1/4-1/2 cup, 1/2-1 piece of fruit, 1 slice of bread LOW GI FOOD CHARTS 100% Whole, unprocessed grains Quinoa Barley, farro, ancient grains Brown rice Sprouted grains, bread, tortillas Whole grain pasta cooked al dente All raw vegetables Most cooked vegetables Low Glycemic Carbs Most fruits - especially stone fruit, berries, apples, pears, grape fruit, lemon + lime Sea vegetables, like seaweed Sweet potatoes Yams Small potatoes with skin on Whole rolled or steel cut oats Most whole, close to nature foods White carbs White bread White rice White flour White tortillas White pasta Enriched flour Cooked corn Cooked carrots Potatoes High Glycemic Carbs Fruit Juice Bananas, Pineapple, Mango, Papaya, Watermelon Corn tortilla chips Potato chips Most crackers Instant oatmeal Most cereals Most instant and highly processed foods

5 PROTEIN Serving Size: Palm of hand, 1/4-1/2 cup Plant Healthy Protein Hemp protein/hemp seeds Legumes (*these are also all low g-i carbs) Beans, black, white, kidney, pinto, etc. Lentils Peas Edamame (soy beans) Nuts and seeds, almonds especially Soy, Tofu, Tempeh Sprouts Quinoa USANA Protein Powders Animal Plain greek yogurt Salmon Tuna Most wild-caught fish Organic turkey or chicken - whole breasts, avoid deli meats Pork tenderloin is OK in moderation Eggs, if you re not allergic, are great. 1-2 per day is perfectly healthy, look for free range and organic when possible. Shrimp, scallops, calamari (boiled) Less Desirable Protein Consume meats and dairy in moderation, and always choose organic and hormone free. Lean turkey and chicken is good, be sure it s organic and not charred as the char on meat is a carcinogen. Lean pork is also an OK option, just stay away from highly processed sausages and pork products. Choose plain yogurt, and greek is best. You can add natural sweeteners to it to make it taste delicious. Opt for wild-caught fish, they are higher in omega-3 fatty acids. Game meat is often very lean and natural; if you care for the taste it s fine to eat. Duck, Cornish game hen and other less common meats are ok in moderation.

6 FATS Serving size: 1/2-1 TBL, handful, 8-12 nuts Oils Healthy Fats Extra virgin olive oil, Cold-pressed flax oil, Macadamia nut oil, Avocado oil, Coconut oil, Hemp Seed Oil, Grapeseed Oil Nuts (raw is always best) Almonds, Walnuts, Pecans, Pine nuts, Cashews (aren t as good for you as almonds and walnuts, but ok in moderation) Seeds (raw is always best) Hulled sunflower seeds, Pumpkin seeds, Flax seeds (always use ground flax - it absorbs better), Chia seeds, Watermelon Seeds, Go Raw Sprouted Seed Mixes Salmon Avocados Olives Goat + Sheep s Cheese (more easily digested) Hard or soft Goat s cheese Sheep s milk feta - Real feta is traditionally from sheep s milk Pecorino Romano is made with sheep s milk and very similar to real parmesan Unpasteurized (aka raw) cheese is easier to digest because it contains enzymes, just do not consume if you are pregnant. Oils Less Desirable Fats Peanut oil, Vegetable oil, Canola oil, Soybean oil *Buy organic if you use these at they are highly genetically modified in the US Peanuts and peanut butter should be consumed in moderation, they are heavily processed in the US and aren t really that good for you. Always opt for 100% natural organic peanut butter over commercial brands like Jiff and Skippy Animal fat in general is saturated, something we want to limit. Red meat (Limit to no more than twice per month) Cheese Avoid heavily processed cheese and all cheese in mass quantities Think of cheese as a condiment, not a main dish :-)

7 SWEETENERS Serving Size: 1 tsp, 4-6 drops Healthy Sweeteners Stevia (Sweetleaf is my favorite brand) Coconut Sugar Agave Nectar Syrup Raw Honey (M) Grade B Maple Syrup (M) Dates and date paste Fructose Rice syrup Evaporated Cane Juice (M) Unhealthy Sweeteners All artificial/chemical sweeteners Splenda, Nutrisweet, Equal, etc. All white sugar High-Fructose Corn Syrup Karo/Corn Syrup Sugar in the Raw/Brown Sugar (high-glycemic, but better for you than white sugar as it contains some nutrients.)

8 {Science Alert!} Other Factors To Consider When Considering Low Glycemic Index Foods The following also influence a food's glycemic index: Processing tends to increase the glycemic index of foods. Different types of starch are absorbed differently. For example, potato starch is digested and enters the bloodstream quickly while barley is digested much more slowly. The more fiber content a food has, the harder it is to digest. As a result, sugar is absorbed more slowly into the bloodstream. Riper fruit has more sugar and so a higher glycemic index. The more fat or acid a food contains, the more slowly it is digested + the more slowly its sugars are absorbed into the bloodstream. Cooking or grinding a food increases its glycemic index because these processes make food easier to digest and absorb. Longer cooking time has the same effect, al dente pasta has a lower GI than fully cooked pasta. Eating protein with starches tends to stop the spikes in blood sugar that can be caused by the starch. For example, lower the amount of pasta in a dish, make it whole grain and add some meat or beans or vegetables to the sauce to help maintain healthy blood sugar levels. There is so much talk about the importance of maintaining a diet using low glycemic index foods, but using only the index to choose foods does not automatically lead to a healthy diet. For example, the glycemic index of some so-called junk foods like potato chips and certain candy bars is actually lower than that of some healthy foods, such as brown rice. But the brown rice has valuable vitamins and minerals that your body needs and so the GI should be considered a general guide to food choices and should not be the only factor to consider when choosing which low glycemic index foods to eat. Other factors: The way the body processes food varies from person to person, affecting how quickly carbohydrates are converted to sugar and absorbed. How well a food is chewed and how quickly it is swallowed also have an effect, and how much time has elapsed since you last ate.

9 The Relationship Between Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load Glycemic load is the total amount of glucose provided by the food and depends on the serving size of the food in question. Glycemic load values are always quoted in reference to a serving size in grams and are a better measure of how quickly a portion of food raises your blood sugar level than the GI used alone.the glycemic load is calculated by multiplying the amount of the food by the glycemic index of the food. A food, such as carrots, bananas, watermelon, or whole-wheat bread, may not be considered one of the low glycemic index foods but it contains relatively little carbohydrate and thus has a low glycemic load. A food list can include such foods because they have little effect on the blood sugar level if eaten in moderation. Values range from 1 (the slowest) to 100 (the fastest, the index of pure glucose). The glycemic load of a food of more than 20 is considered high; between 11 and 19 is moderate and 10 or less low. Generally, you should shoot for glycemic load less than 15. Consider this example. Watermelon has a high glycemic index, but the glycemic load per food serving (size of 120g) is only 4, which is relatively low. So unless you intend to eat lots of watermelon at one sitting, it will not have a big impact on your blood glucose levels. However, because watermelon is high in sugar, you should still limit the quantity you eat but it would be okay to include watermelon (in moderation) on your low glycemic food list. If you love watermelon and are concerned about its effects, monitor your blood sugar levels after eating it. If eating the watermelon raises your blood sugar, limit the amount of watermelon you eat next time. You could also combine the watermelon with a protein or fat, to reduce the speed of sugar absorption. How To Calculate Glycemic Load To calculate glycemic load in a typical serving of food, divide the GI of that food by 100 and multiply this by the useable carbohydrate content (in grams) in the serving size. For example, the glycemic index of carrots is about 47. Carrots contain about 7 grams of carbohydrate per 100g of carrots. So, to calculate the glycemic load for a standard 50g serving of carrots, divide 47 by 100 (0.47) and multiply by 3.5. The glycemic load (GL) of carrots is therefore 1.6. Reminder Keep in mind that the most important thing is not only what you eat, but how much you eat and what you eat to accompany it.

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