Laura Tormoehlen, M.D. Neurology and EM-Toxicology Indiana University

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1 Laura Tormoehlen, M.D. Neurology and EM-Toxicology Indiana University

2 Disclosures! No conflicts of interest to disclose

3 Neuroimaging 101! Plain films! Computed tomography " Angiography " Perfusion! Magnetic resonance imaging " Diffusion-weighted Imaging " Spectroscopy " Functional MRI " Diffusion Tensor Imaging! Angiography! Myelography! Ultrasound! Nuclear Medicine " Positron Emission Tomography " Single-photon Emission Computed Tomography " Cerebral Blood Flow

4 Neuroimaging 101! Plain films! Computed tomography " Angiography " Perfusion! Magnetic resonance imaging " Diffusion-weighted Imaging " Spectroscopy " Functional MRI " Diffusion Tensor Imaging! Angiography! Myelography! Ultrasound! Nuclear Medicine " Positron Emission Tomography " Single-photon Emission Computed Tomography " Cerebral Blood Flow

5 Neuroimaging 101! Magnetic resonance imaging " Diffusion-weighted Imaging (DWI) " Spectroscopy (MRS)! Nuclear Medicine " Single-photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) " Cerebral Blood Flow (CBF)

6

7 Introduction! Patterns of abnormal imaging findings: " Diffuse " Focal " Multifocal! Neurotoxic disease " Usually diffuse " Occasionally multifocal " Commonly sub-mri

8 Standard MRI! T1! T2! FLAIR! DWI! ADC! GRE! Contrast needs to be specified

9 MRI sequences! T1 with and without contrast! T2! FLAIR! Diffusion-Weighted Imaging (DWI)! Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC)! Gradient Echo (GRE)! All are done in axial plane, some also done in sagittal and coronal

10 How does a CT scan help?! Screening test " Hemorrhage " Focal lesion " Severe diffuse disease! Trauma/fractures! Calcified lesions! Temporal bone/sinus disease

11 CT versus MR! CT- differential attenuation of x-ray! MR- response of tissue to magnetic field

12 FLAIR imaging! Fluid attenuated inversion recovery! T2-based image! Attenuates the bright signal of CSF on the usual T2 image! White matter = gray! Gray matter = white

13 Comparison (non-contrast) T1 T2 FLAIR

14 Comparison (non-contrast) T2 FLAIR

15 Vasogenic and Cytotoxic Edema Vasogenic Cytotoxic! Reactive process! Bilateral if toxic! Unilateral if surrounding a mass lesion! Predominantly white matter! Improves with steroids! Primary process, tissue injury! Unilateral or bilateral! Affects gray and white matter! Does not respond to corticosteroids

16

17 DWI! Diffusion of water is rapid in normal brain parenchyma and in vasogenic edema (normal signal)! Diffusion is restricted in cytotoxic edema (bright signal)! Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) is used to verify diffusion restriction versus artifact

18 DWI/ADC! Non-invasive, physiologic imaging! Highly sensitive to tissue injury " More sensitive than T1/T2/FLAIR " Can show cerebral ischemia within minutes! ADC correlation " Acute vs. chronic infarct " Infarct vs. artifact " Cytotoxic vs. vasogenic edema

19 DWI/ADC

20 Cytotoxic Edema on MRI DWI ADC

21 Acute Ischemic Stroke

22 Acute Ischemic Stroke

23 Acute Ischemic Stroke

24 Acute Ischemic Stroke

25 Acute Ischemic Stroke FLAIR DWI ADC

26 Cerebral Metastatic Disease FLAIR DWI ADC

27 Cerebral Metastases GRE T1 +C

28 Hydrogen Peroxide Ingestion

29 Hydrogen Peroxide Ingestion

30 Hydrogen Peroxide Ingestion

31 Hydrogen Peroxide Ingestion

32 Hydrogen Peroxide Ingestion

33 Hydrogen Peroxide Ingestion

34 Hydrogen Peroxide Ingestion

35 Hydrogen Peroxide Ingestion FLAIR DWI ADC

36 Hydrogen Peroxide Ingestion FLAIR DWI ADC

37 Hydrogen Peroxide Ingestion FLAIR DWI ADC

38 Hydrogen Peroxide Ingestion FLAIR DWI ADC

39 Hydrogen Peroxide Ingestion FLAIR DWI ADC

40 Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome

41 Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome

42 Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome

43 Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome

44 Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome FLAIR DWI ADC

45 Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome FLAIR DWI ADC

46 Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome FLAIR DWI ADC

47 Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome FLAIR DWI ADC

48 PRES 4 Months Later Initial FLAIR Follow-up FLAIR

49 PRES 4 Months Later FLAIR DWI ADC

50 Delayed Post-Hypoxic Leukoencephalopathy - Heroin FLAIR DWI ADC

51 Delayed Post-Hypoxic Leukoencephalopathy - CO FLAIR DWI ADC

52 Hypoxic-Ischemic Injury

53 Hypoxic-Ischemic Injury

54 Hypoxic-Ischemic Injury

55 Hypoxic-Ischemic Injury

56 Hypoxic-Ischemic Injury

57 Hypoxic-Ischemic Injury

58 Hypoxic-Ischemic Injury

59 Hypoxic-Ischemic Injury

60 Hypoxic-Ischemic Injury

61 Hypoxic-Ischemic Injury FLAIR DWI ADC

62 Hypoxic-Ischemic Injury FLAIR DWI ADC

63 Hypoxic-Ischemic Injury FLAIR DWI ADC

64 Hypoxic-Ischemic Injury FLAIR DWI ADC

65 MRI Summary! FLAIR- white matter edema, demyelination, inflammation, infarction! DWI/ADC- cytotoxic vs. vasogenic edema! T1- metal deposition (copper, manganese)! GRE- hemosiderin! Gadolinium contrast- BBB breakdown

66

67 MRS! Phosphorus! Inorganic phosphorus, ATP! Measures energetic state, ph! Healthy tissue (Krebs cycle) vs. Ischemic tissue (glycolysis)! Proton! Three usual peaks: " Creatine (Cr) " Choline (Cho) " N-acetyl aspartate (NAA)! Lactate

68 MRS! Creatine " Relatively constant! Choline " Elevated with increased cellular turnover (e.g. neoplasm)! NAA " Decreased in neuronal injury (e.g. infarction)! Lactate " Increased in inflammation, infarction

69 MRS Profiles Myoinositol Choline NAA Lactate High grade tumor Necrotic/treated tumor HIE - + Acute Demyelination

70 Classic findings! Demyelination " Decreased NAA, Elevated Cho! Alzheimer Disease " Elevated Myoinositol! Meningiomas " Elevated Alanine! Canavan Disease " Markedly elevated NAA

71 Classic findings! Doublet lactate peak " Stroke " Seizure (recent) " High-grade or necrotic neoplasms! Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy " Elevated lactate, Decreased NAA

72 Clinical Uses of MRS! Neoplasm or not! Recurrent neoplasm vs. radiation necrosis! Etiology of leukoencephalopathy! Evaluating for metabolic disease

73 Slides withheld! Images of MRS from literature withheld! See the following references: " Chen-Plotkin AS, et al. Delayed leukoencephalopathy after hypoxic-ischemic injury. Arch Neurol 2008: 65(1): " Gottfried JA, et al. Delayed posthypoxic demyelination: association with arylsulfatase A deficiency and lactic acidosis on proton MR spectroscopy. Neurology 1997: 49: " Chang WC, et al. MRI features of spongiform leukoencephalopathy following heroin inhalation. Neurology 2006; 67: 504.

74 SPECT and Cerebral Blood Flow Study

75 Nuclear Medicine! Infuse radioactive compounds, then detect emissions with gamma cameras! Technetium " Cerebral Blood Flow Study! Indium (CSF) " Hydrocephalus study " Sinonasal CSF leak study! Positron-emitting isotopes " Deoxyglucose PET " Dopamine PET! SPECT

76

77 Cerebral Blood Flow! Technetium 99m-HMPAO! Planar imaging! Imaging delayed after infusion! In brain death, no tracer accumulates = cold study

78 CBF

79 CBF! See the following reference for additional images: " Laurin NR, et al. Cerebral Perfusion Imaging with Technetium-99m HM-PAO in Brain Death and Severe Central Nervous System Injury. J Nucl Med 1989; 30:

80

81 SPECT! Single photon-emission computed tomography! Iodinated radiotracer or technetium agents! Less expensive than PET " Agents are more stable " No cyclotron required! Stroke, Epilepsy, Dementia, Parkinsonism

82 SPECT in Parkinsonism! Radiotracer can be labeled for pre- or post-synaptic sites! Presynaptic " DAT " VMAT " AADC! Postsynaptic " D1 or D2 receptor

83 SPECT in Parkinsonism! See the following reference for images: " Huang CC. Parkinsonism induced by chronic manganese intoxication an experience in Taiwan. Chang Gung Med J 2007; 30:

84 Summary! MR Spectroscopy White matter lesion of unknown etiology! SPECT Differentiation of toxin-induced vs. idiopathic parkinsonism! Cerebral blood flow studies Confirmatory testing for brain death determination in poisoned patient

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