Biological Bases of Behavior

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1 Biological Bases of Behavior

2 Where is the Soul? Ancient Egyp,ans: heart was seat of emo0on, thought, will and inten0on Today: Emo6on, inten6on and behavior come from the nervous system (brain). Why? Phineas P. Gage Steel rod destroys frontal lobe changes everything

3 Nervous system: 4 Jobs 1) Receive info. (from inside & out) 2) Processes info. (make sense of it) 3) Store info. (in short & long term memory) 4) Transmit info. (sensory & motor)

4 Made of Neurons Whole system is made up of NEURONS 3 PARTS: Dendrites (input.) Cell body (processing.) Axons (output)

5 About Neurons React to s0muli (sound, light, heat, elec., chem.) Conductors: send electricity along axon (fake it) Needs O 2 and glucose (hold your breath ) Last a life0me (100 years) diabetes nerve damage Not replaced if destroyed drugs, concussions

6 Axons, Myelin and MS Axons send informa6on to other cells. Myelin: a protec0ve coa0ng that helps the signal travel along the axon. Mul,ple Sclerosis (MS): immune system amacks the myelin signals slow down or stop.

7 Symptoms of MS Problems with balance, numbness, weakness, tremors and coordina0on. Also: Bowel and bladder Vision problems Hearing loss Monitored with MRI scans Treatments vary: meds to lifestyle Life expectancy: normal to 5-10 years less

8 Signals between Neurons Info from dendrites is processed in cell body NERVE IMPULSE : the ELECTRICAL SIGNAL that the nerve sends down the axon. Neurons don t actually touch. How does one neuron talk to another? Electricity doesn t work (no touching) Need chemicals to bridge the gap (NT) Your reality is chemicals floa0ng around

9 The Synapse The SPACE BETWEEN NEURONS Info from one neuron gets to another using chemicals called NEUROTRANSMITTERS Go alphabe6cally, (A D): Draw the SYNAPSE. from axon terminal receptor on a dendrite Why do drugs work on our bodies? Why doesn t sand do the same things? Drugs work because we have receptors for them in our body our body must make it already. (HEROIN and ENDORPHINS)

10 EPILEPSY Brain damage scar 0ssue Chemicals from scar 6ssue get in synapse and act like NEUROTRANSMITTERS. All the neurons near the scar start to fire. Build- up of nerve impulses gets out of control EPILEPTIC SEIZURE. From QUEASY HALLUCINATIONS PETIT MAL (BLACK OUT) GRAND MAL (CONVULSIONS). Meds: ANTI- TRANSMITTER DRUGS.

11 Stop here: Epilepsy Videos What is an epilep6c seizure? (video) Boy who has 200 seizures a day What to do if someone is having a seizure Grand Mal Jenny Labaw: Living with Epilepsy Difference between epilepsy and seizures Wilder Penfield Canadian Moments

12 STOP Funwork quiz on this stuff next Friday.

13 PNS and CNS

14 Nervous System NOT JUST ABOUT THE BRAIN 2 parts: PNS & CNS CNS: central the brain and spinal cord PNS: peripheral the neurons that connect the brain and spinal cord to the rest of the body

15 PNS 3 WORKING ELEMENTS Sensory receptors: pick up s,muli and send an impulse to the spinal cord and brain. 4 types in your skin Diff amounts in diff places Back / fingers Sensory Nerve: Bunch of axons that send an impulse from receptor CNS Motor Nerve: Axons carry signals from brain to muscles to make movement. Doorway example.

16 THE PATH INFORMATION TAKES STIMULUS (HEAT, LIGHT, SOUND, TOUCH) RECEPTORS PICK IT UP (SEND IMPULSE) SENSORY NERVE SPINAL CORD / BRAIN CNS (Brain, SC) MAKES A DECISION MOTOR NERVE BACK TOWARD MUSCLES MUSCLES ACT.

17 Brain and Spinal cord Draw the 3 parts. CNS Brain 3 parts Cerebrum big part: emo,on, reason, voluntary movement Cerebellum balance and coordina6on Brain stem involuntary movement (heart, breathe) Brain dead Spinal cord Info between PNS & brain Reflexes (fast and involuntary) Reflexes bypass the brain (demo)

18 PARKINSON S DISEASE Disorder of the CNS NEUROTRANSMITTER (Dopamine) MAKING CELLS IN THE Middle of the BRAIN DIE CAUSING MOTOR SYMPTOMS. Early symptoms: motor (movement) Shaking Rigidity, Slowness of movement Difficulty walking LATER: swallowing, sleep, emo0onal, depression, dimen6a Early Tx.: Dopamine agonists

19 CEREBRUM (4 parts) Occipital: vision Frontal: reason, inhibi6on Finished developing age 20 Temporal: memory Parietal: sensa6on and movement Lei brain controls right body

20 Ques6ons Name the 3 parts of the neuron: Dendrite, Body, Axon What type of signal is a nerve impulse? Electrical What do we call the space between neurons? Synapse What do we call the chemicals in the synapse? NeurotransmiPers What are the 2 main parts of the nervous system? CNS and PNS (central and peripheral)

21 Ques6ons What are the 2 parts of the CNS Brain and Spinal cord What starts a nerve impulse (heat, light, chemicals)? S,mulus What part of the PNS receives the s6mulus? The receptor What kind of nerve travels from the PNS to CNS? Sensory receptor What kind of nerve travels from the CNS to the PNS? Motor nerve Where to reflexes get processed? In the spinal cord

22 Ques6ons What are the 3 main parts of the brain? Cerebrum, cerebellum, brain stem. Which of the 3 main parts controls balance? Cerebellum Which of the 3 main parts controls breathing? Brain stem Which of the 3 main parts controls coordina6on? Cerebellum Which of the 3 main parts controls emo6on? Cerebrum Which of the 3 main parts controls your dancing? Cerebrum

23 Ques6ons How many lobes does your cerebrum have 4 Name the 4 lobes Occipital, frontal, temporal, parietal Which lobe controls vision? Occipital Which lobe controls memory? Temporal Which lobe controls body movement? Parietal Which lobe controls the ability to reason? Frontal

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