Endocrine System Nervous System

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1 Cells Endocrine System Nervous System Tissues Controls Organs

2 Nervous System vs Endocrine System Electrical signals (graded potentials and action potentials) and chemical signals (neurotransmitters) Fast acting Short-lived Chemical signals (hormones) that travel in the blood Slow response Long lasting

3 The Basic Jobs of the Nervous System Sensory input Integration Motor output

4 Sensory input

5 2 BIG Divisions Central Nervous System Brain & Spinal cord Peripheral Nervous System Outside the CNS (outside the DBC) Cranial Nerves & Spinal Nerves

6 2 Big Divisions of the PNS Sensory Afferent S A M E SAD Motor Efferent

7

8

9 Motor Efferent Divisions Somatic Nervous System Autonomic Nervous System

10 Somatic Nervous System Mostly voluntary Controls skeletal muscles

11 Autonomic Nervous System Involuntary Controls cardiac muscle, smooth muscle and glands

12 Autonomic NS Divisions Sympathetic Parasympathetic

13 Cells of Nervous Tissue Neurons Glial cells

14 Functions of Neurons Sensation Integration Sending signals from sensory organs to CNS (Sensory input) Sending signals from CNS to effector organs (Motor output)

15 Functions of Glial Cells Maintenance Food delivery Killing and cleaning Lining Insulating

16 Typical Neuron = Cell w/ several processes Cell body Dendrites Dendrites + Axon Axon

17 Nucleus Nissl body Soma Neurofibrils

18 Soma

19 Nucleus Collection of somata in the CNS

20 Ganglion Collection of somata in the PNS

21 Dendrites Receive signals from other neurons/sensory organs Send electrical signals (graded potentials) to the soma and the axon Usually multiple

22 Receive electrical signals (graded potentials) from dendrites/soma Send electrical signals (action potentials) to the axon terminal Axon terminal releases neurotransmitters onto another neuron or an effector cell Node of Ranvier Axon terminals (secretory region) Axon hillock Axon Neurilemma Schwann cell Telodendri

23

24 Synapse = Junction btwn 2 neurons or btwn a neuron and an effector cell

25 Synapse Presynaptic neuron Axon terminal Synaptic vesicles Postsynaptic neuron

26 Structural Classification of Neurons Multipolar Bipolar Unipolar

27 Multipolar Neurons

28 Bipolar Neurons

29 Bipolar Neurons

30 Unipolar Neurons

31 Functional Classification of Neurons Stimulus 1 Receptor Interneuron 2 Sensory neuron 3 Integration center 4 Motor neuron 5 Effector Spinal cord (CNS) Response

32 Membrane Potential = Electrical difference btwn the inside of a cell and the outside Voltmeter Plasma membrane Ground electrode outside cell Microelectrode inside cell Axon Neuron

33 Establishing a Membrane Potential Outside cell Inside cell

34 Establishing a Membrane Potential K+ leakage channels K K+ K+ + + K Cell interior 90 mv

35 Establishing a Membrane Potential K+ K+ Na+ K+ K+ + Na Cell interior 70 mv

36 Polarized Voltmeter Plasma membrane Ground electrode outside cell Microelectrode inside cell Axon Neuron

37 Electrical signals carry info from one end of a neuron to the other. These electrical signals are waves of change in the membrane potential.

38 Changing the Membrane Potential

39 Depolarization

40 Hyperpolarization

41

42

43 Graded Potentials Waves of change in the membrane potential in the dendrites and soma. Get smaller with distance.

44 Action Potentials Waves of change in the membrane potential in the axon. Does not get smaller with distance. All-or-none.

45 Graded Potentials

46 Graded Potentials

47 Graded Potentials Action Potentials

48 Threshold Potential

49 Temporal Summation

50 Spatial Summation

51 Action Potential

52 Action potentials Threshold Stimulus Time (ms)

53 mv 10 Voltagegated Na+ channels are open. 2 Graded potentials reach threshold 3 Depolarization 4 Repolarization 5 Hyperpolarization 6 Return to RMP Voltage-gated K channels are open. Potential below RMP Threshold RMP Resting membrane potential Time (ms ec )

54 Sodium channel Na+ Potassium channel Activation gates Inactivation gate 1 Resting state K+

55 Na+ K+ 2 Depolarizatio n

56 Na+ K+ 3 Repolarizatio n

57 Na+ K+ 4 Hyperpolarization

58 Absolute refractory period Relative refractory period mv 10 Voltagegated Na+ channels are open. 2 Graded potentials reach threshold 3 Depolarization 4 Repolarization 5 Hyperpolarization 6 Return to RMP Voltage-gated K channels are open. Potential below RMP Threshold RMP Resting membrane potential Time (ms ec )

59 Action Potential

60 Depolarization: Consecutive voltage-gated Na+ channels go through the following stages: open, closed (inactivation state), closed (resting state) Interstitial fluid Na Cytosol Closed (resting state) Closed (inactivation state) mv mv Open (activation state) As threshold is reached Na+ channels open and Na+ diffuses in; polarity reversed 70 mv Closed (resting state)

61 Repolarization: Consecutive voltage-gated K+ channels go through the following stages: open and closed K Closed 70 mv Open mv Closed K+ channels open and K+ diffuses out; RMP ( 70 mv) is reestablished

62 Absolute refractory period Relative refractory period mv 10 Voltagegated Na+ channels are open. 2 Graded potentials reach threshold 3 Depolarization 4 Repolarization 5 Hyperpolarization 6 Return to RMP Voltage-gated K channels are open. Potential below RMP Threshold RMP Resting membrane potential Time (ms ec )

63

64 Continuous Conduction of an Action Potential Stimulus Voltage-gated ion channel

65 Saltatory Conduction of an Action Potential Myelin sheath Stimulus Node of Ranvier 1 mm Myelin sheath

66 Neurotransmitter Release Presynaptic neuron Presynaptic neuron Postsynaptic neuron 1 Action potential arrives at axon terminal. 2 Voltage-gated Ca2+ channels open and Ca2+ enters the axon terminal. Ca2+ Ca2+ Mitochondrion Ca2+ Ca2+ 3 Ca2+ entry causes neurotransmittercontaining synaptic vesicles to release their contents by exocytosis. Axon terminal Synaptic cleft Synaptic vesicles 4 Neurotransmitter diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific receptors on the postsynaptic membrane. Postsynaptic neuron

67 Neurotransmitter Disposal

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