Chapter 10 Measurement of Common Anaerobic Abilities and Cardiorespiratory Responses Related to Exercise

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1 Chapter 10 Measurement of Common Anaerobic Abilities and Cardiorespiratory Responses Related to Exercise Slide Show developed by: Richard C. Krejci, Ph.D. Professor of Public Health Columbia College

2 What Will You Learn in this Chapter Important linkages between discipline of exercise physiology & measurement Current concepts about performing & evaluating common anaerobic abilities related to exercise Current concepts about performing common cardiorespiratory response evaluations related to exercise

3 Physiologic Factors that Influence Exercise Performance Figure 10.1

4 Essential Exercise Testing Considerations Laboratory tests: Exercise physiology-related tests that are very controlled & focused on one client at a time Physiologic variables are measured using invasive & non-invasive techniques, whereas Exercise performances are directly measured Field tests: Exercise physiology-related tests that are conducted in more practical settings Multiple clients can often be tested at one time Performance times or distances are measured & related to estimated physiologic measures

5 Essential Exercise Testing Considerations Validity: Ability of a selected test to evaluate what you want it to test Reliability: Ability of a test to repeatedly measure performance abilities or physiologic variables & provide the same result Objectivity: Tests that have a defined scoring system, are administered by trained personnel, & where at least 2 trained testers score same test & get similar scores

6 Essential Exercise Testing Considerations Outcomes of this type of testing can be used for the following four exercise science applications: 1. Placement - classify clients by abilities 2. Diagnosis - classify weaknesses, strengths, & health problems 3. Evaluation of achievement - used to evaluate improvement & provide feedback 4. Prediction - used to predict future performance

7 Essential Exercise Testing Considerations Program evaluation - used to determine program effectiveness Motivation - used to provide incentives for improvement Education - used to teach clients to perform exercise more effectively

8 Essential Exercise Testing Considerations Normative values: Based on performance of a group of people & are often expressed as percentages (within 10 th -90 th percentile) Criterion-referenced values: Based on an individual score & are often expressed as pass/fail or achievement of a health standard (BP 140/90 mm Hg)

9 Essential Exercise Testing Considerations Test interpretation: Ability to explain exercise physiology testing results to your clients is essential Oftentimes ignored or provided superficially If you do not or cannot explain test results & provide your clients with effective messages to improve their exercise performance You are probably better off not testing at all

10 Anaerobic Activities Anaerobic Exercise Physical activity in which the body develops an oxygen deficit. Examples Sprinting, weight lifting High intensity activities of short duration, usually lasting only about 10 seconds to 2 minutes.

11 Anaerobic Metabolism Major sources of energy Resting levels of ATP Phosphocreatine mechanism Anaerobic glycolysis Oxygen Deficit Oxygen Debt The amount of extra oxygen required by muscle tissue during recovery from vigorous exercise.

12 Oxygen Deficit and Debt

13 Excess Postexercise Oxygen Consumption VO 2 Does not return to resting values immediately After mild exercise Recovery VO 2 /time relationship fits a single exponential curve after mild exercise More complex double exponential after moderate-to-maximal exercise

14 Overview of Testing for Anaerobic Power and Anaerobic Capacity Anaerobic power tests Should last 10 seconds or less Performed at maximum intensities Table 10.1 contains examples of common laboratory & field tests to Determine anaerobic power abilities of your clients

15 Common Laboratory and Field Tests of Anaerobic Power

16 Computerized Isometric Dynamometry

17 Example Using the Wingate Test P= W/T Figure 10.2

18 Anaerobic Lab Tests Anaerobic power The fastest rate that a person is able to generate force anaerobically (e.g. Margaria Test) Anaerobic capacity The total work that a person can perform anaerobically (e.g Wingate Bicycle Test)

19 Common Laboratory and Field Tests for Anaerobic Capacity

20 Practical Considerations for Anaerobic Exercise Testing Anaerobic performance depends heavily on: Individual s ability to recruit, rate code, & synchronize a large number of fast-twitch fibers rapidly Limiting factors associated with anaerobic performance include: Individual s genetic (amount of fast-twitch fibers) Individual s training state Age Sex

21 Practical Considerations for Anaerobic Exercise Testing Many of these tests, such as VJ, 40-yd dash, & some sport-specific assessments Do not correlate well with more accepted laboratory anaerobic measures However, when multiple traditional field tests are given to clients & results are evaluated collectively They do provide better predictability of anaerobic performance than any single test

22 Overview of Measuring Aerobic Power and Aerobic Capacity Maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2 max): Measured using general principle of progressively increasing workloads Measuring increase in VO 2 until a plateau of VO 2 is achieved (VO 2 max) that increases no further despite a continued increase in workload See next slide

23 Measuring CR Fitness (VO 2 Max test) Tests of Maximum Oxygen Uptake can even be administered in the water!

24 Measurement of Maximal Oxygen Uptake Figure 10.3

25 Measurement of Maximal Oxygen Uptake Achievement of VO 2 max is accompanied by: Large increases in venous blood [La-] (10 20 mm) Sampled 3 to 5 minutes into recovery Respiratory exchange ratio (RER - VO 2 /VCO 2 ) greater than 1.1 at time subject is unable to continue

26 Measurement of Maximal Oxygen Uptake In laboratory, traditional method of measuring amount of O 2 used Requires the collection of a volume of expired air in a Douglas bag at 1-min intervals

27 Measurement of Aerobic Capacity Assessment of aerobic capacity requires Tests that last minimum of minutes Activities: Running a fast time for 3 miles 1-hour cycling time trial Participating in a competitive triathlon that requires high aerobic capacities ( 85% of VO 2 max) Usually tests of aerobic capacity are: Activity specific Would most likely be performed as field tests in a time trial situation

28 Measurement of Aerobic Capacity Velocity at VO 2 max (vvo 2 max): Performance speed of an athlete Such as running at which VO 2 max occurs Exercise economy: Energy required to perform work divided by actual energy cost measured performing the work Critical power: Work rate at which a person can maintain a constant submaximal power output for several minutes without fatigue

29 Practical Considerations for Aerobic Exercise Testing (Laboratory) Duration of test in young healthy adults should be: > 2 minutes No longer than 6-7 min (see next slide ) Specific to the type of exercise performed by a client Assessment of peak performance (testing) Aging, sedentary lifestyle, and/or disease risk individuals may require longer tests

30 Maximum Oxygen Uptake Figure 10.10

31 Incremental Load Exercise Testing Principle of progressively increasing workload (metabolic rate) at specific time intervals results in Progressive increases in breath-by-breath respiratory responses until a maximal effort is achieved or, as in some cases Exercise needs to be stopped because of clinical symptoms See next slide

32 Clinical Test Termination Criteria (ACSM) Fatigue & loss of gait (or coordination) Severe dyspnea Syncope Elevated blood pressure ST-segment depression >1.5 mm Consistent arrythmia RPE at 19+ Unable to communicate

33 Measures of Oxygen Uptake and Heart Rate Identification of work rates associated with ventilation threshold Together with equivalent VO 2 & HR Has led to development of a qualitative description of work intensities See next slide

34 Classification of Work Intensities

35 Rating of Perceived Exertion Scales

36 Submaximal Exercise Tests Harvard step test: Developed by Harvard Fatigue Laboratory to assist army recruiters in identifying fitness of recruits at recruiting stations before World War II Individual is required to step on & off a 20 high step 30x/min until exhaustion is reached or until 5 min has elapsed Immediately after exercise is stopped, subject sits on step & recovery HR is palpated at wrist for 30 sec between recovery time of 30 to 60, 90 to 120, & 150 to 180 sec

37 Submaximal Exercise Tests Master s Step Test A less strenuous clinical modification of Harvard step test developed by cardiologist Arthur Morris Master Used primarily for evaluation of cardiac function & coronary insufficiency Individual ascends & descends two, 9 high steps while connected to an ECG

38 Common Aerobic Fitness Tests and Evaluations

39 Common Aerobic Treadmill Tests Bruce Balke Ellestad Naughton

40 Non-Exercise Test (PAR) Jackson et al. (1990) developed a method to estimate your aerobic capacity by using the Physical Activity Rating (PAR) Scale and your weight and height. First, find the number (0 to 7) that best describes your level of physical activity as outlined in the following PAR scale. I don't participate regularly in programmed recreation, sports, or heavy physical activity. 0 - I avoid walking or exertion (e.g., I use an elevator instead of stairs; I drive when possible instead of walking. 1 - I walk for pleasure, routinely use stairs, occasionally exercise hard enough to perspire or breathe heavily. I participate regularly in recreation or work requiring modest physical activity (such as golf, horseback riding, calisthenics, gymnastics, table tennis, bowling, weight lifting, yard work). 2 - This activity takes 10 to 60 minutes per week 3 - This activity takes more than 60 minutes per week I participate regularly in heavy physical exercise (such as running or jogging, swimming, cycling, rowing, skipping rope, or engaging in vigorous aerobic activity such as playing tennis basketball, or racquetball). 4 - I run less than 1 mile per week or spend less than 30 minutes per week in comparable activity. 5 - I run 1 to 5 miles per week or spend 30 to 60 minutes per week in comparable physical activity. 6 - I run 6 to 10 miles per week or spend 1 to 3 hours per week in comparable physical activity. 7 - I run over 10 miles per week or spend over 3 hours per week in comparable physical activity. Now plug your PAR number into the following equation. Estimated VO2 max (ml/kg/min) = (1.921 x PAR) (0.381 x age in years) (0.754 x [weight in pounds / 2.2]) / (height in inches x ) 2 + ( x gender [female = 0; male = 1]) The standard error for this equation is 5.70 ml/kg/min. For example consider a 21 year old female who weighs 130 pounds, is 5 feet 4 inches tall, and has a PAR of 4: Estimated VO2 max (ml/kg/min) = (1.921 x 4) (0.381 x 21) (0.754 x [130/ 2.2]) / (64 x ) ( x 0) + 0 The answer for this example is : Evaluate your estimated VO2 using the Estimating Your Aerobic Capacity = ml/kg/min

41 Cardiorespiratory Fitness Categories Table 10.7

42 One Mile Walk Test (Rockport)

43 1.5 Mile Run Test

44 Astrand-Rhyming Submaximal Bicycle Test

45 Astrand-Rhyming Test Correction Factors

46 In Practice: Health/Fitness What tests would you run? Carla How would you interpret the test results? What type of training would you recommend and why? How would you help your client achieve their goal of completing their first 10K run in 60 min?

47 In Practice: Medicine Kelsey What type of graded exercise tests could you have your client perform? What physiological variables could be measured? What should be done with a high risk medical patient?

48 In Practice: Athletic Performance Lauren Anaerobic tests? Aerobic tests? How is success determined? Why test your athletes? What tests would you use to assess football players at the beginning of the offseason?

49 In Practice: Rehabilitation Jasmine & Sharlise What tests do you run? How are results interpreted? What equipment is used to assess? What type of exercises should be performed after surgery? How is progress evaluated? What should therapists and trainers do to assess someone with ACL injury?

50 The End Slide Show developed by: Richard C. Krejci, Ph.D. Professor of Public Health Columbia College

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