Year 9 Options PE. Knowledge Book

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1 Year 9 Options PE Knowledge Book

2 Topic 3 - Physical Training - Definitions and relationships between terms Grade 1-3 Grade 4-5 Grade 6-9 Curriculum Content Students will be expected to know and understand: definitions of fitness, health, exercise and performance the relationship between fitness, health, exercise and performance. Understand the terms and how they influence each other, for example, exercise can increase health and fitness. Higher levels of fitness can impact positively on performance. The reverse, of course, can also be true and learners should be aware of this. Students will be expected to apply their knowledge. by considering suitable exercise to increase health, fitness or performance. Students will be expected to analyse and evaluate. the possible impact of exercise on health, fitness or performance.

3 Exercise improves health and develops fitness, which enhances performance in physical activities. Exercise: A form of physical activity which maintains or improves health and/or physical fitness. Health: A state of complete meant, physical and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity. Fitness: Ability to meet the demands of the environment. Performance: How well a task is completed. It is possible to be fit but not healthy. For example Sir Steve Redgrave, 5 times an Olympic gold medallist for rowing has diabetes and a severe bowel condition. There are 6 INFLUENCES on taking part in physical activity: People Image Cultural Resources Health & wellbeing Socio-economic Family Fashion Age Availability Illness Cost (Golf compared to running) Peers Media Disability Location Health Status Coverage problems Role models Gender Access Race Time

4 Topic 3 - Physical Training Measuring and improving the components of fitness Grade 1-3 Grade 4-5 Grade 6-9 Curriculum Content Students will be expected to know and understand: The components of fitness: cardiovascular fitness (aerobic endurance) strength muscular endurance flexibility body composition agility balance coordination power reaction time speed. Students will be expected to apply their knowledge. by selecting appropriate components of fitness for a given scenario, e.g. a squash player who experiences fatigue in the final game, or the swimmer who needs to improve their start. Students will be expected to analyse and evaluate. the relative importance of the components of fitness to performers in a range of physical activity and sport.

5 Components of Health Related Fitness Cardiovascular fitness (Marathon and tennis) Muscular strength (Weightlifting and rugby scrum) Muscular endurance (Tennis, running and swimming) Flexibility (Gymnastics, high jump, badminton) Body composition (Ectomorph: high jump Mesomorph: weight lifting Endomorp: sumo wrestling) The ability to exercise the entire body for long periods of time The amount of force a muscle can exert against a resistance The ability to use the voluntary muscles many times without getting tired The range of movement at a joint The percentage of body weight that is fat, muscle and bone These 5 elements help us to stay physically fit and healthy. Power (1oom sprint start and triple jump) Coordination (Hand-eye: Tennis, Foot-eye: Kicking a ball, Head-eye: football header) Reaction time (100m and badminton) Agility (Rugby and badminton) Balance (Static balance: archery Dynamic balance: basketball Static & Dynamic: gymnastics) Speed (Leg speed: 100m Hand speed: boxing) Components of Skill Related Fitness Power CRABS These 6 elements help people become good at physical activity. The ability to undertake strength performances quickly. Power = Strength x Speed The ability to use two or more body parts together The time between the presentation of a stimulus and the onset of movement The ability to change the position of the body quickly and to control the movement of the whole body The ability to retain the centre of mass (gravity) of the body above the base of support with reference to static (stationary), dynamic (changing) conditions of movement, shape & orientation The differential rate at which an individual is able to perform a movement or cover a distance in a period of time

6 Topic 3 - Physical Training: Fitness testing: values, protocols and data. Grade 1-3 Grade 4-5 Grade 6-9 Curriculum Content Students will be expected to know and understand: The reasons for fitness testing the purpose of fitness tests to measure specific components of fitness: Cooper 12 minute run/swim and Harvard Step Test for cardiovascular fitness (aerobic endurance) grip dynamometer for strength one-minute sit-up and one-minute press-up for muscular endurance Students will be expected to apply their knowledge. by selecting appropriate fitness tests for a given scenario, e.g. a squash player who experiences fatigue in the final game who needs to test their aerobic endurance, or the long jumper who needs to test their power because they are not getting the required flight from the board for a good jump. Students will be expected to analyse and evaluate. to make recommendations for areas of fitness needing improvement for a selected sport, based on fitness test rating results, giving a rationale/justification for recommendations the value of fitness testing in improving performance. 30 m sprint for speed vertical jump test for power sit and reach test for flexibility. the test protocol for each of these fitness tests how to use normative data tables.

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9 Topic 3 - Physical Training: Principles and methods of training Grade 1-3 Grade 4-5 Grade 6-9 Curriculum Content Students will be expected to know and understand: the principles of training (individual needs, specificity, progressive overload); FITT (frequency, intensity, time, type); overtraining; reversibility; thresholds of training (aerobic target zone: 60 80% and anaerobic target zone: 80% 90% calculated, using the basic Karvonen formula) factors to consider when deciding the most appropriate training methods and training intensities for different physical activities and sports (fitness/sport requirements, facilities available, current level of fitness) Students will be expected to apply their knowledge. by explaining a training method that should be utilised for a specific sports performer by demonstrating application of the principles of training for a specific sports scenario. Students will be expected to analyse and evaluate. the target zones and/or thresholds of training for performers in a given scenario the value of one training method compared to another to bring about specific training gains based on a scenario or fitness test results. training methods for specific components of fitness, physical activity and sport: continuous; Fartlek; circuit; interval; plyometrics; weight/resistance. Fitness classes for specific components of fitness, physical activity and sport (body pump, aerobics, Pilates, yoga, spinning) the advantages and disadvantages of different training methods.

10 Principles of Training Individual needs Specificity Progressive Overload Frequency Intensity Time Type Rest Recovery Reversibility Work out Maximum Heart Rate (MHR) FITT... The ways you can apply Progressive Overload. Matching training to the requirements of an individual. Matching training to the requirements of an activity. Gradually increasing the amount of overload so as to gain fitness without the risk of injury. How often you train. How hard you train. How long is each training session? Which methods of training are used? The period of time allotted to recovery. The time required to repair damage to the body caused by training/competition. Any adaptation that takes place as a consequence of training will be reversed when you stop training. Basic Karvonen formula Consider: First time marathon runner compared to an experienced marathon racer compared to a power lifter. To be successful at a particular sport/position you need to develop certain areas of fitness. A goal keeper will train differently to a midfielder. Working at an intensity that places demands on the body, but not too much that you cause injury. Working between 60% and 80% of your maximum HR will make sure you are overloading. Adaptation takes place during rest. Rest must be included in a training programme to allow the body time to Recover (repair & adapt) ready for the next session. If not enough rest time is taken, overtraining will occur, which could lead to a drop in performance, tiredness, fatigue and therefore: Reversibility. Fitness is lost about 3 times faster than it is gained! You will experience reversibility if you are; ill, injured, have a lack of motivation, stop or plateau your training. Reversibility will affect people at different rates, depending on how long they have trained for, how fit they are, and how bad the illness or injury is. 220 age =MHR

11 Methods of training Methods of training. There are 6 different training methods: Circuit Continuous Interval Fartlek Weight Cross ADVANTAGES Easy to set up and is flexible Can select activities specific for your sport Adaptable to team games and individual fitness levels Can develop both fitness and skills Allows a rest period in between stations for recovery. (Intervals) Develops both aerobic and anaerobic systems Can be set up to develop all areas of HRE & SRF. Easy to apply Progressive Overload and measure improvement. Methods of training: Circuit Training. DISADVANTAGES Can require lots of equipment depending on the type of circuit. Have to keep checking a stopwatch if you have no training partner. Can be difficult to maintain work rate. Methods of training: Continuous Training ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES You can work on your own or in a group. Can become boring and requires motivation to continue. Improves Aerobic fitness. Time consuming. Can take place in a variety of venues. It can be adapted to suit your individual needs Very cheap! Minimal equipment. Easy to monitor and apply Progressive Overload. Does not develop other components of fitness e.g. strength, agility.

12 Methods of training: Fartlek Training. ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES Takes place over short periods of time. Can become repetitive and requires motivation to continue. Includes active rest which allows recovery. Includes repetitions which raises the HR to near Maximal. Develops aerobic and anaerobic systems. Can develop other areas of fitness and skill agility, speed etc. Adaptable to team games and individual fitness levels Can be done almost anywhere on any terrain. Difficult to identify how hard an individual is working. Can be difficult to maintain work rate FARTLEK AND INTERVAL TRAINING ARE VERY SIMILAR FARTLEK TRAINING HOWEVER CAN TAKE PLACE OVER DIFFERENT TERRAINS AND CAN INCLUDE HILLS. Takes place over short periods of time ADVANTAGES Can improve Muscular Strength, Muscular Endurance and Power (Strength x Speed). Increase Muscle size or bulk. Improve muscle tone. Assist recovery after injury, rehabilitation. Can focus on specific areas/muscles in the body. Large variety of exercises. Easy to monitor and apply Progressive Overload. Methods of training: Weight Training. DISADVANTAGES Requires specialist equipment, which can be expensive. Requires knowledge of correct techniques to gain benefits and avoid injury.

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