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3 AEROBIC CAPACITY Aerobic capacity refers to the maximum amount of oxygen that the body can utilize in an exercise session It is possible to improve aerobic capacity over time, and it is also possible to see a decline in aerobic capacity in response to a variety of factors, including declines in physical activity, chronic illness, and aging. For athletes, aerobic capacity, sometimes known as VO2 max, is an important aspect of their physical health.

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5 Cardiovascular exercise is used to improve aerobic capacity by strengthening the heart muscle and developing the rest of the cardiorespiratory system. As an individuals fitness program continues, their aerobic capacity improves, allowing them to exercise more vigorously and for longer periods of time.

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7 MUSCULAR STRENGTH Muscular strength is the amount of force that your muscles can exert against resistance. The endocrine system, not physical activity, helps determine muscles size. When lifting heavy weight, you increase strength, muscle size and connective tissues such as ligaments and tendons.

8 WHAT AFFECTS MUSCULAR STRENGTH? Type of Muscle Fiber One of the most influential factors is muscle fiber type. We have two basic types of muscle fibers, often referred to as "slow twitch" and "fast twitch." Slow twitch muscle fibers are best used for cardiovascular (aerobic) activities. They produce small levels of force for long periods of time and thus are better suited for endurance activities. Fast twitch fibers are best used for anaerobic activities. They produce high levels of force for short periods of time and are best suited for power activities such as weightlifting. Most men and women have an equal combination of both slow twitch and fast twitch fibers. However, some people inherit a high percentage of slow twitch fibers that enhance their performance in endurance activities, such as long distance runners. Most world class marathon runners have a very high amount of slow twitch fibers. World class sprinters or football players, for example, have relatively more fast twitch muscle fibers. Although both fiber types respond positively to strength training exercises, the fast twitch types experience greater increases in muscle size and strength, and thus may obtain greater

9 Age Another factor over which we have little control is age. Studies show that people of all ages can increase their muscle size and strength as a result of a safe and effective strength training program. However, the rate of strength and muscle gain appears to be greater from age 10-20, the years of rapid growth and development. After reaching normal physical maturity, muscular improvements usually don't come as quickly.

10 Gender Gender does not affect the quality of our muscle, but does influence the quantity. Although men's and women's muscle tissue are characteristically the same, men generally have more muscle tissue than women do because muscle size is increased by the presence of testosterone, the male sex hormone. The larger the muscles, the stronger the person; this is why most men are stronger than most women.

11 Limb and Muscle Length Another strength factor that is naturally determined is limb length. Persons with short limbs tend to be able to lift more weight because of advantageous leverage factors (arms and legs). Similarly, differences in strength development may come about because of variation in muscle length. Some people have long muscles, and some people have short muscles. Persons with relatively long muscles have greater potential for developing size and strength than persons with relatively short muscles.

12 Point of Tendon Insertion Muscle strength is also influenced by the point of tendon insertion. For example, let's say Jim and John both have the same arm and muscle length. However, Jim's biceps tendon attaches to his forearm farther from his elbow joint than John's does. This gives Jim a biomechanical advantage: he is able to lift more weight than John in biceps exercises such as the Biceps Curl.

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14 Muscular endurance is the ability of a muscle or group of muscles to sustain repeated contractions against a resistance for an extended period of time Muscular endurance is very important for people playing sports and who have to sustain an activity for long periods of time

15 EFFECTS OF MUSCULAR ENDURANCE Muscle Glycogen Regular endurance training can increase the muscle glycogen stores, thus providing more energy to complete the activity. Muscle glycogen is the glucose that is stored in the muscles and are used for energy. These glycogen levels can improve or decline overt ime. After four weeks of detraining, competitive swimmers had a decrease in muscle glycogen by 40 percent, according to Jack H. Wilmore and David L. Costill, authors of the "Physiology of Sport and Exercise." Regular strength training can maintain and improve glycogen stores, resulting in improve muscular endurance.

16 Lactate Threshold Lactic acid build-up is a common reason for muscular fatigue. Regular endurance training increases your lactate threshold. By training at a higher rate of work, over time your body will increase its lactate threshold by improving its ability to remove lactate produced by muscle. It will also produce less lactate at the same work rate, Wilmore and Costill write. This long-term adaptation will improve overall muscular endurance by allowing you to perform more repetitions at the same load.

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18 flexibility has been defined as the range of motion about a joint and its surrounding muscles during a passive movement

19 BENEFITS By increasing this joint range of motion, performance may be enhanced and the risk of injury reduced. The rationale for this is that a limb can move further before an injury occurs.

20 TYPES OF FLEXIBILITY AND STRETCHING 1. Dynamic flexibility -- the ability to perform dynamic movements within the full range of motion in the joint. Common examples include twisting from side to side or kicking an imaginary ball. Dynamic flexibility is generally more sport-specific than other forms of mobility.

21 2. Static Active flexibility -- this refers to the ability to stretch an antagonist muscle using only the tension in the agonist muscle. An example is holding one leg out in front of you as high as possible. The hamstring (antagonist) is being stretched while the quadriceps and hip flexors (agonists) are holding the leg up.

22 3. Static Passive flexibility -- the ability to hold a stretch using body weight or some other external force. Using the example above, holding your leg out in font of you and resting it on a chair. The quadriceps are not required to hold the extended position.

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24 Body composition is the body s relative amount of fat to fatfree mass. Body fat includes essential fats, such as lipids, and nonessential body fats, these fats make up around five percent of total body weight for men, and up to 12 percent for women. Nonessential fat is found mainly within fat cells and adipose tissue, below the skin and surrounding major organs. Assessing body mass index (BMI) is a commonly-used method of measuring body fat. While BMI does not measure body fat directly, it helps to assess health risks related to body mass. Ways to assess your body composition, and body fat percentage, more directly include measurement with calipers and tests such as underwater body fat test, the BodPod, DEXA Scan, and Bioletrical Impedence.

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27 Ability to contact muscles with speed and force in one explosive act Muscular power is the relative strength of the muscles. However, there is more to power than just strength. Other factors include balance (muscles are more powerful when balanced), flexibility (large, inflexible muscles aren't very powerful), and endurance (smaller, weaker muscles can be more powerful if they can last longer).

28 EXPLOSIVE STRENGTH TRAINING Once a plateau in strength has been reached, more sport-specific types of power training are required. One of these training methods is a variation of traditional resistance training. As mentioned earlier, maximal power production occurs when moderate loads of about 30% 1-RM are used.

29 BALLISTICS During a ballistic action, the force far outweighs the resistance so movement is of a high velocity. The resistance is accelerated and projected. Examples include a medicine ball throw and a jump squat. The aim is to reach peak acceleration at the moment of release projecting the object or body as far as possible.

30 PLYOMETRICS Plyometric drills involve a quick, powerful movement using a pre-stretch or countermovement that involves the stretch shortening cycle (1). Classical plyometric exercises include various types of jump training and upper body drills using medicine balls.

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32 Speed is the quickness of movement of a limb, whether this is the legs of a runner or the arm of the shot putter. Speed is an integral part of every sport and can be expressed as any one of, or combination of, the following: maximum speed, elastic strength (power) and speed endurance.

33 HOW IS SPEED INFLUENCED? Speed is influenced by the athlete's mobility, special strength, strength endurance and technique.

34 ENERGY SYSTEM FOR SPEED Energy or absolute speed is supplied by the anaerobic alactic pathway. The anaerobic (without oxygen) alactic (without lactate) energy system is best challenged as an athlete approaches top speed between 30 and 60 metres while running at 95% to 100% of maximum. This speed component of anaerobic metabolism lasts for approximately eight seconds and should be trained when no muscle fatigue is present (usually after 24 to 36 hours of rest)

35 HOW TO DEVELOP SPEED: The technique of sprinting must be rehearsed at slow speeds and then transferred to runs at maximum speed. The stimulation, excitation and correct firing order of the motor units, composed of a motor nerve (Neuron) and the group of muscles that it supplies, makes it possible for high frequency movements to occur. The whole process is not very clear but the complex coordination and timing of the motor units and muscles most certainly must be rehearsed at high speeds to implant the correct patterns.

36 HOW TO DEVELOP SPEED.. Flexibility and a correct warm up will affect stride length and frequency (strike rate). Stride length can be improved by developing muscular strength, power, strength endurance and running technique. The development of speed is highly specific and to achieve it we should ensure that: Flexibility is developed and maintained all year round Strength and speed are developed in parallel Skill development (technique) is pre-learned, rehearsed and perfected before it is done at high speed levels Speed training is performed by using high velocity for brief intervals. This will ultimately bring into play the correct neuromuscular pathways and energy sources used

37 THE FOLLOWING IS SEVEN STEP MODEL FOR DEVELOPING PLAYING SPEED. Basic training to develop all qualities of movement to a level that will provide a solid base on which to build each successive step. This includes programs to increase body control, strength, muscle endurance, and sustained effort (muscular and cardiovascular, anaerobic and aerobic) Functional strength and explosive movements against medium to heavy resistance. Maximum power is trained by working in an intensity range of 55 to 85% of your maximum intensity (1 RM) Ballistics to develop high-speed sending and receiving movements Plyometrics to develop explosive hopping, jumping, bounding, hitting, and kicking Sprinting form and speed endurance to develop sprinting technique and improving the length of time you are able to maintain your speed Sport loading to develop specific speed. The intensity is 85 to 100% of maximum speed Over speed training. This involves systematic application of sporting speed that exceeds maximum speed by 5 to 10% through the use of various over speed training techniques

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39 Agility is the ability to move and change direction and position of the body quickly and effectively while under control.

40 HOW TO IMPROVE AGILITY Agility can be significantly improved if we understand and apply some basic principles/concepts: Skill - Open skill occurs when the movement goal is unknown. In a closed skill the movement is pre-programmed. The progression in agility training usually proceeds from closed to open skills. Reaction versus reflex - Reaction is the response to a stimulus to initiate movement. It is a conscious act that can be improved through training. Reflex, on the other hand, occurs at the sub cortical level and cannot be trained. Speed as a motor task - A motor task can be learned; therefore speed can be taught if the motor tasks involved are clearly defined. Practice Massed - the skill is practiced until learnt without taking a break. These sessions are good for athletes with high level of fitness and experience and are most suited to fixed practice. Distributed - practice is interspersed with breaks which can either be rest or another skill.

41 The following table shows the relationship of the strength qualities to the components of agility. Basic Strength Speed Strength & Plyometrics F O O T W O R K Balance, Body Control and Awareness Starting and Acceleration Speed Angles & Vectors Power Endurance Complex Footwork Maximum Strength Change of Direction, Stopping

42 COORDINATION Motor coordination is the combination of body movements created with the kinematic (such as spatial direction) and kinetic (force) parameters that result in intended actions. Such movements usually smoothly and efficiently work together

43 Coordination is a complex skill that requires good levels of other fitness components such as balance, strength and agility

44 EXAMPLES OF COORDINATION TRAINING Multi-directional forms of running, jumping and skipping Single leg balancing games Mirror games (mirroring each other s movements) Known exercises starting or finishing in new positions (start sprints from belly or one knee; end with hands up or on all fours) Opposite arm circles (right hand circles forward, left backwards) Simultaneous arm and leg circles Jump in place with 180 or 360 turns while in flight Balance exercises on a low balance beam Cross step-over running or carioca Somersault to balance (somersault to standing one legged balance) Skipping A, B and C s Obstacle running (place hurdles directly on floor and have athlete run over them)

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46 A biological system that enables us to know where our bodies are in the environment and to maintain a desired position. Normal balance depends on information from the inner ear, other senses (such as sight and touch) and muscle movement. Our sense of balance is specifically regulated by a complex interaction between the following parts of the nervous system: The inner ears (also called the labyrinth) monitor the directions of motion, such as turning or forward-backward, side-to-side, and up-and-down motions. The eyes observe where the body is in space (i.e., upside down, right side up, etc.) and also the directions of motion. Skin pressure receptors such as those located in the feet and seat sense what part of the body is down and touching the ground. Muscle and joint sensory receptors report what parts of the body are moving. The central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord) processes all the bits of information from the four other systems to make some coordinated sense out of it all.

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