Training Methods. Remember : FRCIFCP. Fartlek. Resistance Circuit Interval Flexibility Continuous Plyometrics Pilates / Fitball

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1 Remember : FRCIFCP Fartlek Resistance Circuit Interval Flexibility Continuous Plyometrics Pilates / Fitball

2 Fartlek: A variation of continuous training with bursts of speed so the anaerobic system is also trained but to a lesser degree. Benefits: Fartlek training allows overload in a number of ways :Increase no/duration/distance of sprints * Increase distance covered. Etc Sample session : 6 km run with 200m sprint every 1km. A target time may be set for each sprint and for the total run. As indicated there could be a range of combinations used. A key point to remember however is that there are no rest periods during fartlek training.

3 ResisitanceTraining : Involves a series of exercises which use either machine or free weights. There are three types of weight training: Isotonic - the actual load or weight remains the same but the resistance on the muscle changes due to joint angle and the effect of gravity. Isotonic weight training can be used to develop certain fitness components such as muscular strength, power, endurance or size depending on the weight use, the rep scheme and the execution technique. Appropriate combinations of sets, reps, weights and technique are as follows:

4 ResisitanceTraining cont Isometric Training - The muscle is under tension but does not change length. Suggested to hold a contraction in a static position for 6-10 sec for 10 sets. Isokinetic Training - Involves expensive equipment where the load changes allowing a constant resistance to be placed on the muscle throughout the entire range of the movement. Isokinetic resistance training is recognised as the most effective type of training. However, due to the cost of equipment it is used mainly at the elite level. Weight training terms to remember: Repetition (Rep): A single performance of an exercise. Set : Performing repetitions continuously a given number of times. Weight or Resistance : The load to be moved Repetition maximum (RM) : The maximum number reps that can be completed for a given weight or resistance.

5 Circuit Training This form of training involves a series of stations were various exercises are performed for one or more circuits. There are 3 types of circuit training : 1. Fixed load. Each station or activity has a set number of repetitions to be completed before the athlete moves to the next station for example, 100 skips. 2. Fixed time. The athlete completes as many repetitions as possible in the allotted time at each station for example, as many skips as possible in one minute. 3. Individual load. Each individual designs the circuit to suit their strengths and weaknesses. The individual performs the maximum repetitions at each station for one minute. These are halved, and the athlete completes the circuit three times to determine an initial time. The target time is two- thirds of the initial time. When the athlete reaches the target time, they can overload the circuit by: increasing the repetitions increasing the number of circuits increasing the weights changing the length and nature of their recovery periods.

6 Interval Training : Interval training is a widely used form of training given it s versatility. It is based on bouts of work interspersed with periods of rest. This allows a greater volume of work to be done with less fatigue. A range of parameters can be modified to change the emphasis of the training such as the length of the work bout, the length of the rest period, the distance covered, the choice of activity etc. All three energy systems can be effectively trained using interval training. (See table 4)

7 Flexibility Training : Flexibility is considered an important part of any training program. There are four types of flexibility training: Static\Passive stretching. This involves a slow stretch of the muscle to its limit which is then held for a period of seconds. Each particular muscle group should be stretched for 6-10 repetitions. Slow active stretching (SAS) This involves moving the body part as far as possible then slowly contracting the agonist while relaxing the antagonist. The muscle relaxes and the movement is repeated. P.N.F. Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation. Muscle is taken to greatest range -Contract the muscle against an immovable resistance -Release contraction and increase the range passively. This is continued until full range is reached. Considered the most effective. Ballistic/Dynamic stretching. This involves a bouncing technique which is now recognised to invoke the myotatic stretch reflex while the individual is attempting to stretch the muscle, which increases dramatically the risk of injury. This technique has a high injury risk and should only be used by well trained athletes.

8 Continuous Training : Used to improve aerobic capacity. Activities of 20min(minimum) up to 2hrs. LSD- Long slow distance.(70% + of heart rate max) Maximal aerobic training. (85% + of heart rate max\ around anaerobic threshold so lactic acid begins to accumulate) Training slightly past the anaerobic threshold is also recognised to assist with aerobic capacity and is referred to as lactate threshold training. The training sensitive zone % MHR refers to the Aerobic training zone. Above this is the anaerobic training zone.

9 Plyometric Training : This form of training is designed specifically to develop muscular power and involves various leaping, bounding, hoping and depth jump exercises. The technique invokes a short eccentric contraction of the muscle followed by a forceful concentric contraction. The forceful contraction is brought about by the protective mechanism called the 'myotatic stretch reflex'. This method of training is very stressful and should be developed very gradually. A sound strength base is recommended before undertaking plyometrics. Benefits: Plyometrics is an effective means of developing very specific muscular power where movements in performance can be replicated in training. Minimal equipment, usually the subjects own body weight is used. Some sample plyometric activities are as follows:

10 Plyometric Training Sample exercises : Psycho-metrics!!!!

11 Pilates & Fitball Exercises. The Pilates method of training is a system of muscle stretching and strengthening that tones and strengthens muscles, develops flexibility and balance and improves posture. It is the uniting of the mind and body to improve fitness. A range of controlled exercises using a Fitball operate off the same principles. Both methods have the following Key benefits: Low impact Quality of movement is emphasised rather than quantity or the repetition of the movement. Pilates benefits the body by increasing lung capacity and circulation, Development of strength and flexibility (particularly of the back and abdomen) Improvement in bone density and joint health. Concentrates on the larger, muscles, but also the smaller, weaker ones, which are often forgotten.

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