Presented by Lori P. Michiel

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1 Presented by Lori P. Michiel NASM Certified Personal Trainer Fifty Plus FitnessTM

2 Learn how to build a functionally fit, strong and stable body for active, healthy aging: 1. Evaluate the unique benefits associated with functional fitness exercise as it relates to improving balance and stability. 2. Review training principals specific to developing neuro-muscular fitness that will enhance quality of independent living. 3. Discuss & perform specific exercises and learn how to develop and implement a one-on-one or small group strength and balance training program using a variety of equipment options.

3 General benefits are many and include (but not limited to): Increases bone density and strength, Enhances mobility, Increases stamina, Enhances quality of sleep, Reduces joint stiffness and pain, Increases lean muscle mass, Enhances metabolism; body composition, Decreases risk for aging related injuries and diseases Increases opportunities to meet and socialize with people and function independently and participate interdependently. Specific benefits associated with functional exercise include (but limited to): Improves posture and muscular balance, Improves body control and coordination, Improves ability to move more effectively and efficiently, Improves ability to perform Activities of Daily Living (ADL s). Help prevent risk of overuse injury and falls, Reduces fear of falling commonly associated with declining visual, vestibular and somatosensory systems (balance system), Increases confidence and quality of life.

4 Defined as: Integrated, usable strength, both mobile and stable in involving the agonist, antagonist, synergist, stabilizer and neutralizer muscles. Strength is not just about muscle. It is about facilitating neuromuscular coordination within whole body strength maneuvers to target movement patterns and specific skill sets to better serve the client s specific goals. Functional strength is real strength, the ability to maintain stability at any given joint at any given time and the ability to maintain ones base of support (balance) in any given static (still) or dynamic (moving) posture.

5 Strength and Stability Strength (Resistance) training increases: 1. Lean (skeletal) muscle mass and physical capacity; metabolism, body composition, aerobic capacity, bone density etc. 2. Muscular strength and endurance, 3. Mobility; coordination, proprioception and skill.

6 Strength and Stability Stability training increases: 1. Balance: static and dynamic. 2. Strength of core/postural muscles, 3. Spinal alignment and integrity, *Strength training alone has only a moderate effect of improving balance. The ability to maintain balance involves a complex set of process that require successful melding of multiple systems including the sensory system (visual, vestibular and somatosensory) which are not typically influenced by traditional strength training methods.

7 Static Balance: ability to control posture/position over it s base of support while standing stationary. Dynamic Balance: ability to react to changes in balance and to anticipate changes as the body moves including maintaining balance while walking, stepping or running. More complex interaction between brain (CNS) and body. Visual system: provides information about a person s position and movement through the environment. Vestibular system: located in the inner ears provides information about head movement and body position in space. Somatosensory system: monitors the body s position and contact with other objects (including the floor) using muscle and joint receptors that detect limb position and body movement; skin receptors that relay information about touch and vibration.

8 Agility, Ability to perform ADL s independently, Strength-endurance, stability, power, quickness, coordination ROM (mobility & flexibility) Foundation- postural alignment (core), gait, proprioception, mind-body awareness

9 Active Healthy Aging: Ability to participate in society as fully as possible according to their desires and needs; a lifelong process optimizing opportunities for improving and preserving health and physical, social and mental wellness, independence and quality of life. Level 1: Isolate & Educate: Focus on muscle isolation training participants to selectively contract individual muscle groups; increasing awareness and confidence and basic levels of muscle function, adequate strength and flexibility. Level 2: Add External Resistance: with lever length, weights, resistance tubing or bands introducing minimal amounts of stabilization and core alignment introduced. Level 3: Add Functional Training Positions: Progress from lying (prone and supine) to sitting or standing positions so that base of support is reduced and the stabilizer challenge is increased as stabilizers. Level 4: Combine Increased Function with Resistance: from gravity, external weights, or bands and tubes is maximized and overload is increased on the core stabilizer muscles in functional positions. Level 5: Multiple Muscle Groups in Increased Resistance and Core Challenge: integrated total body movement with external resistance and dynamic positions. Level 6: Add Balance, Increased Functional Challenge, Speed and Rotational Movements that will challenge each fitness component: training on unstable surfaces with external resistance and dynamic positions.

10 Progression One: static/slow/stabilized Low resistance exercises using gravity, light resistance i.e. tubing, Externally stabilized, performed from a seated or supine position, Performed with a slow and controlled cadence May or may not involved joint movement. Progression Two: moderate/mimic/multi-joint Low to moderate resistance using machines or dumbbells, May or may not involve external stabilization, sitting, all fours, standing position, Involves either single or multi-joint movement, Performed at a moderate assimilated to life/functional need and speed, Involves a moderate amount of balance. Progression Three: dynamic Multiple joint movement, assimilation to ADL s, Involves internal stability factors, Performed in standing position; variable linear, multi-planar and rotational positions; higher level movement exercises, Performed a variable speeds, Mostly free weight exercises; also resistance tubing, balance training equipment, Involves a great amount of balance.

11 LOWER BODY: Static standing to staggered and tandem standing to standing on one leg (with arms out to side, on hips, overhead), (with change in head position), (with one eye or both eyes closed with/without head movement) March with alt knee lift in position; moving forward and backwards, while tossing ball side to side, overhead Lunge backward and forward stepping to walking lunges forwards and backwards with torso rotation, with knee lift progress to lunges on a balance beam (or tandem on floor) Squats with arms lifting front, down, up, diagonal or while standing both feet or one foot on a unstable surface progress to single leg squats and figure 4 and pistol squats progress to jump stick squats. Other ideas:

12 UPPER BODY: Scapular press-ups progress to chest push-ups to planks progressed to unstable surface Scapular dips on bench or unstable surface with knees bent progressed to unstable surface Seated to standing to bent over rows with tubing, dumbbells, med balls progresses to kneeling or standing on unstable surface Dynamic chest pass standing on two feet; one foot; on unstable surface with both or one foot progress to squat and arabesque position. Other ideas:

13 CORE: Supine hip bridge progressed to unstable surface Standing leaning tower forward/back/lateral (with both arms overhead); one two feet; one foot (with one knee lifted) progress with Standing lean n lift (reach) from standing with both hands, with alternate reach (one arm forward; opposite leg behind) progress onto unstable surface Medicine ball tosses side to side, under to over, diagonal wood chop, progress to unstable surface and partner tosses Other ideas:

14 Chair Bench Body Resistance- at the wall, on the floor (supine, side-lying, prone) Stability Ball and small inflated balls Resistance Tubing/Bands- variety of colors (intensity levels) Dumbbells Med/Plyo balls BOSU/Ballast Fitness Trainer Towels or scarves Wobble boards, foam rollers, Fit Balance Discs Gliders Water-Aquatic Exercise

15 Educate: Importance and relationship to everyday life activities (ADL s), Benefits that relate to maintaining independent living, Proper exercise attire and footwear, Ways to reduce safety hazards in the home or other environments that may results in falls or other injuries, Alternative functional fitness experiences: Yoga, Pilates, Tai Chi, Water Fitness etc. Motivate: Group or partner training Short term programs Music Props: chair/counter/cane/wall for support, ballet bar, scarves, paper plates, balloon, beach ball (air-filled) etc Communicate: Ways to conduct training at home or away; independently Options for accommodating all levels of ability Sensitive to marketing and advertising methods (testimonial, newspaper, advertisements, internet) Create social communication network

16 Rose, Debra J., Fall Proof- A Comprehensive Balance and Mobility Training Program, Human Kinetics 2003 Van Norman, Kay A., Exercise Programming for Older Adults, Human Kinetics Publisher, 1998 The Journal on Active Aging International Council on Active Aging Thank you.

17

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