BREMEN DISTRICT 228 DANCE/RHYTHMICS I STUDY GUIDE

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1 BREMEN DISTRICT 228 DANCE/RHYTHMICS I STUDY GUIDE INTRODUCTION: Education in dance is an important part of human history. It begins with an awareness of the movement of the body and its creative potential, and it promotes the recognition of and an appreciation of self and others. The purpose of a dance may reflect a culture s of religion, occupations, celebrations, war, courtship, weddings, and funerals. The term SOCIAL DANCE has been variously used to mean all dances designed to bring people together for group participation and enjoyment. Some examples of social dances are: Square Dance, Line Dancing, Ballroom Dancing, and Rock-n-Roll. FOLK DANCE, as its name implies, is the traditional dance of a people within a specific culture, evolved by them and showing their national or regional characteristics. JAZZ DANCE reflects the social history of the American people. It is interesting to note that while jazz dance itself is hardly more than 60 years old, it has been in the making for well over 200 years because of the ethnic influences, historical events, and cultural changes in America. MODERN DANCE has been developed in the last 90 years and is a method of selfexpression. It expresses ideas, thoughts, feelings, and moods of the body. Experience with dance can provide challenge, fun, and an understanding of the cultural lives of others. TERMINOLOGY: Five basic fundamental steps: 1. Walk - The weight is transferred from one foot to the other, alternately, one foot always being in contact with the ground. 2. Run - The speed of the walk is increased and there is a brief period when neither foot is in contact with the ground. 3. Leap - A kind of jump with a one foot take-off and a landing on the other foot. 4. Jump - Transfer of weight from one or both feet, but the landing is made on both feet at the same time. 5. Hop - The hop consists of a transfer of weight from one foot back to that same foot. Locomotor activities that are a combination of the basic steps: 1. Skip - A two-count step made up of a step and a hop. 2. Slide - Step-close to the side. 3. Gallop - Step-close forward done quickly. 4. Grapevine - A traveling step. One foot steps to the side; the other foot crosses behind the first. The starting foot again steps to the side; the other foot again crosses over, but this time it goes in front. 5. Step-touch - A forward movement progressing from a walk. Starts with a step onto the supporting foot; the other foot is brought in to touch next, behind, or in front of the supporting foot. (No weight is placed on the touching foot.) 6. Step-Close-Step - Step right, close left to right, step right. 7. Step-hop - Step on one foot and hop on the same foot.

2 BREMEN DISTRICT 228 FITNESS I STUDY GUIDE I. THE FIVE HEALTH-RELATED PARTS OF FITNESS: CARDIOVASCULAR ENDURANCE is the ability to exercise the entire body for long periods of time. It measures how long your heart and lungs can continue to work efficiently providing oxygen to your muscles. What Happens: muscles need extra oxygen during exercise; heart and lungs must work harder to supply extra oxygen; breathing becomes faster and deeper; and if you are out of shape you run out of oxygen and must stop. Activities: jogging, walking, running, jumping rope, roller skating/blading, roller hockey, cycling, aerobic dance, stair stepping, cross-country skiing, swimming, etc. Tests: Mile Run; Pacer Test; Step Test; etc. FLEXIBILITY is the ability of body joints to move through their full range of motion. It allows you to bend, twist and reach easily without straining muscles or joints. What Happens: stretching regularly helps protect you from getting bad posture, back problems and injuries to muscles and ligaments. Activities: static stretching for all activity, tumbling, gymnastics, dance, track, etc. Tests: Sit and Reach; Shoulder Stetch; etc. MUSCULAR STRENGTH measures the amount of force a muscle can exert in one contraction. What Happens: doing strength activities regularly help you to pull, push, lift and carry objects. Activities: weight lifting, wrestling, chin-ups, pull-ups, rope climbing, push-ups, isometric exercises, etc. Tests: Right Angled Push-ups; Pull-ups; Flexed Arm Hang; Modified Pull-ups; Modified Push-ups; Maximum Lifts of weights; etc. MUSCULAR ENDURANCE is the ability of the muscles to contract and relax repeatedly during exercise over a long time. It is the ability to lift light weights for more repetitions. What Happens: allows increased blood flow to the muscles; heart works harder to get oxygen to the muscles; regular exercise improves endurance for long periods without tiring. Activities: weight lifting, tennis, jogging, golf, bowling, swimming, surfing, cycling, hiking, rowing, etc. Tests: Partial Curl-ups; Sit-ups; etc. BODY COMPOSITION shows the relative amount of body fat to lean body mass. Lean body mass is muscle, tendons, ligaments and bones. Methods used to measure body fat are: 1) underwater weighing, 2) electrical impedance, 3) skinfold measurements; and 4) body circumference measurements. What Happpens: weight is gained or weight is lost depending upon the kind of food consumed and the level of activity expended. Nutriton supplies the body with needed energy. Eat plenty of fruits and vegetables, grains, cereals, milk, and protein. Drink plenty of water (eight glasses a day). Activities: Balance your nutrition with exercise. Tests: Skinfold measurements; Body Circumference measurements; Electrical Impedance (Body Fat Scale)

3 II. HEALTH-RELATED FITNESS STUNTS: A. In place running (cardiovascular) 1. run 180 steps in 1½ minutes (2 steps per/second). 2. rest one minute count your heart rate for 30 seconds. 3. record count. B. Push-up (strength) 1. push-ups with straight body (touch nose to floor). 2. record number done correctly. C. Two minute jump (muscular endurance) 1. keep hands (with fingers locked) behind head. 2. stand on line on floor right foot in front of line left food behind line. 3. jump in place switching feet each jump. 4. attempt 300 jumps in 2 minutes (equal 5 jumps every second). D. Two hand ankle grasp (flexibility) 1. heels together bend forward and reach with your hands BETWEEN legs and BEHIND your ankles. 2. clasp the hands in front of ankles at least interlock fingers. 3. feet must be kept still. 4. hold for a count of record (successful/unsuccessful). E. Body fat Instructor will do this test on each individual. It will be recorded and calculated into meaningful figures. III. THE SIX SKILL-RELATED FITNESS PARTS: A. Agility ability to change the position of your body quickly and to control movement of the whole body. B. Balance ability to keep an upright posture while standing still or moving. C. Coordination ability to use your senses, with other body parts together. Example: eyes/hands or hand/foot/eyes. D. Power ability to do strength performances quickly. Involves both strength and speed. Example: shot, discus, high jump, football, etc. E. Reaction time Amount of time it takes you to get moving once you see need to move. F. Speed ability to perform a movement or cover a distance in a short period of time. FACT: These can be improved with practice even though some people have more natural ability than others. These are not necessary for good health. IV. SKILL RELATED FITNESS STUNTS: A. line jump (agility) B. backward hop (balance) C. double ball bound (coordination) D. knees to feet (power) E. coin catch (reaction time)

4 F. double heel click (speed) V. FITNESS PRINCIPLES AND TERMS: The principles of fitness are applied to the five health-related components of fitness in different ways. As you study each component, these principles will be incorporated so you can understand proper training techniques. In addition, frequency, intensity and time (duration) will be adjusted differently in order to improve performance. Hyperkinetic means physically active. A hyperkinetic condition is a health problem caused by much physical activity. Hypokinetic means physically inactive or sedentary. A hypokinetic condition is a health problem caused partly by lack of exercise. Principle of Overload: To improve your level of physical fitness, you must increase the amount of activity or exercise that you perform normally. This can be accomplished by increasing the number of times you exercise over a period of time, increasing the duration (time) or length of time of each exercise period or increasing the intensity (how hard you work) during the exericse period. Principle of Progression: The best benefits of exercise are gained when starting slowly and gradually increasing the amount over a period of time. This applies to the rate you change frequency, intensity and time/duration of your exercise program. Principle of Specificity: Different exercises put different demands on your system. You must do specific activities to build specific parts of physical fitness. The amount of exericise varies among the health-related components of fitness. F.I.T. stands for Frequency, Intensity, and Time/duration which are the three components of the overload principle of training. Frequency is the number of activity or exercise sessions per period of time or simply how often one participates in activity or exercise. Intensity is the degree of exertion while exercising or simply how hard one is working. Time/Duration is the length of time spent in each exercise session or simply how long one performs continuous exercise. Threshold of Training is the minimum amount of exercise necessary to build fitness. For the best results, you must exercise above your threshold of training but within you Fitness Target Zone. To achieve fitness, you must 1) work near your target heart rate; 2) work at least three times per week; and 3) work for at least 20 to 30 minutes at one time. VI. ORGANS OF THE CARDIOVASCULAR AND RESPIRATORY SYSTEMS A. Respiratory system 1. Air passages breath in air 2. Lungs give oxygen to the blood cleans waste products from blood B. Cardiovascular system 1. Heart a MUSCLE that pumps blood into arteries on to muscles and other body cells pumps blood from veins back to lungs for lungs to clean 2. Arteries main vessels for oxygenated blood (clean) 3. Blood picks oxygen from lungs carries it to heart removes waste products from muscles 4. Veins returns blood containing waste, back to heart C. Changes due to regular exercise

5 1. Heart a. exercise makes muscles stronger heart is a muscle b. resting heart rate taken when still c. a healthy heart (muscle) pumps MORE blood with FEWER beats 2. Lungs a. need to be healthy to give good oxygen to blood b. things that cause the lungs not to be able to do this? 3. Arteries a. Blood forced through these by heart b. Atheroscierosis deposits on walls that clog and make it hard to push the blood through therefore, heart works harder. c. Exercise improves the functions of the arteries and valves in the heart and keeps the blood flowing freely. VII. WARM-UP AND COOL-DOWN: A. Your warm-up is a brief amount of mild exercise to prepare you for more vigorous exercise. The warm-up should be five to ten minutes long and include the following three stages: 1. Large muscle activity such as power walking, slow jogging or low impact aerobics. 2. Static stretching of muscles for 15 to 30 seconds and progressively to a point of strain NOT PAIN. 3. Specific components of warm-up related to the activity of choice. B. The purpose and benefits of your warm-up include: 1. gradual increase in heart rate 2. gradual increase in blood pressure 3. increased blood flow to muscles 4. increased muscle temperature 5. increased circulatory and respiratory functions 6. mental preparation for activity C. Your cool-down follows your exercise session and is about five minutes long. This phase of your worksout allows the body to gradually return to resting levels and includes the following two stages: 1. Light activity or walking to prevent blood from pooling in the limbs and muscles. You should continue light activity until your heart rate drops to 100 beats per minute. 2. Stetching exercises similar to those used in the warm-up. D. The purpose and benefits of your cool-down include: 1. gradual decrease in heart rate 2. gradual decrease in blood pressure 3. decreased blood flow to muscles to prevent cramps 4. decreased muscle temperature 5. decreased circulatory and respiratory functions VIII. SELF-EVALUATION A. Twelve minute run NOT a race. Record distance covered in 12 minutes

6 B. Step-test STAY IN COUNT 1. Step up with right foot, step up with left foot 2. Step down with right foot, step down with left foot 3. Repeat this four count stepping down with left foot 4. Do for 3 minutes sit down 5. Count pulse for 1 minute. Record pulse rate. IX. TWO WAYS TO HELP CARDIOVASCULAR FITNESS. A. Aerobic exercise means with oxygen. If exercise is not too fast and is rather steady, the heart can supply all the oxygen the muscles need. B. Anaerobic means without oxygen exercise done in short hard bursts. This cannot be done for very long because the heart can not supply blood and oxygen to the muscles properly. X. HEART RATE/PULSE RATE: A. Heart Rate (HR) The number of times your heart beats in a single minute. The higher your heart rate, the faster your heart is pumping blood through your entire body. Heart rate is most commonly taken for 10 seconds and the total multiplied by 6 to determine the HR per minute. B. Resting Heart Rate (RHR) The number of times the heart beats per minute prior to activity. Most accurate evaluation is taken in the morning prior to getting out of bed. A lower resting heart rate is common among physically active individuals which indicates that the heart muscle is strong and efficiently pumping blood through the entire body with fewer beats. C. Recovery Heart Rate The rate at which the heart beat eventually returns to normal heart rate after periods of strenuous activity. Recovery heart rate is usually a good indicator of cardiovascular fitness. After strenuous activity, a cool down should be continued until the recovery heart rate returns to the lower levels of your target heart rate zone. D. Maximum Heart Rate (MHR) The top most limits of heart beats per minute during exercise. To determine maximum heart rate, you must subtract your age from 220. Age is the factor that determines MHR. Formula: Example: 220 minus Age = MHR = 204 MHR E. Target Heart Rate Zone Also known as Active Heart Rate Zone. The ideal heart rate range for an individual to maintain during exercise in order to obtain the greatest cardiovascular benefits. This range can be calculated in several ways. The easiest calculation is not influenced by gender or level of fitness. It is related almost entirely to age. The maximum heart rate (MHR) must be determined and multiplied by the percentage of intensity desired. Sample Target Intensity Guide Inactive/Begninner 60% Moderately Active 70% Very Active 80% Formula: Example: 16 year old student 220 minus age MHR = 204 MHR Multiple by Intensity Level x 70% Lower Level of Target If the top of the intensity level is 80% (204 x ) then the Target Heart Rate

7 Zone for this 16 year old student would be Note: This is an estimate only accurate within beats per minute. F. Critical or Threshold Heart Rate This is the minimal heart rate which must be reached and maintained if maximum development of cardiovascular fitness is to result. It is a more accurate method of calculation which required knowledge of your resting heart rate. The resting heart rate (RHR) is subtracted from the maximum heart rate (MHR) and the difference multiplied by 60%. The resting heart rate is added to this number to obtain a specific heart rate. Formula: (MHR minus RHR) X 60% Plus RHR = Threshold Heart Rate Example: Age 16/RHR 70 ( age = 204MHR) 70 RHR = 134 X.60 = RHR = Note: To determine beats for 10 seconds, divide by 6. (150 / 6 = 25) BASIC RULES 1. 6 players per team BREMEN DISTRICT 228 VOLLEYBALL I STUDY GUIDE 2. GAME -- first team to reach 15 points with at least a 2 point advantage 3. The ball must be given immediate impetus at contact (no lifting, pushing, holding, etc.) 4. 3 hits per side except when the first hit is an attempted block (the team gets 3 more hits after the attempted block) 5. Any body part above and including the waist is legal when hitting the ball, as long as the ball doesn t come to rest on the body 6. Player may not hit the ball twice in succession (someone else must touch it first, unless the hit was an attempted block (blocker may hit the ball again) 7. Simultaneous hits (2 players contact the ball at the same time)--considered one play and either player may hit the ball again 8. Ball hitting the net is still in play, except on the serve 9. Players may not touch the net or step on or over the center line 10. Ball landing on boundary line is considered good 11. Back row player may not come to the net to spike the ball 12. Ball is playable if your team hits it on the ceiling above YOUR court and it rebounds back down onto your court--if THE BALL HITS THE CEILING ABOVE THE OTHER TEAM S COURT AFTER BEING TOUCHED BY YOUR TEAM, THE BALL IS DEAD 13. Ball is dead when it hits the standards, the bleachers, or the walls 14. It is legal to run out of bounds to save a ball 15. A re-serve is called for when 2 opponents commit a foul at the same time (both players are in the net, under the net, etc.) 16. A serving order with CLOCKWISE rotation must be followed by both teams 17. The ball cannot be contacted until it is directly above the net (player MAY NOT reach over the net and touch a ball BEFORE it has come above the net) 18. The server may not be supported by any object other than the floor while serving 19. Teams alternate terms of service--the LOSING TEAM DOES NOT AUTOMATI-

8 CALLY GET TO SERVE IN THE SECOND GAME--they do only if they didn t serve first in the 1st game--if a 3rd game is played, teams volley for serve 20. The serve is always delivered by the right back player from anywhere behind the baseline. 21. At the end of each game, a new order of rotation can be set up. Once an order is set up, it must be maintained throughout the game. 22. A player may follow through over the net following a spike or block, but the hands and body must not touch the net 23. Players should attempt to utilize their 3 hits per side by passing the ball to the left front or right front in order for them to SET THE BALL TO A TEAMMATE 24. Players rotate after side out (includes first serve) LEGAL WAYS TO HIT THE VOLLEYBALL 1. BUMP (FOREARM PASS) - legal method of playing ball at waist level or below; ball is contacted off the forearms, with the elbows locked; used to receive most serves and spikes; the hands must be interlocked. 2. DIG - an underhand attempt with a closed fist used as a last attempt to recover a hard serve, a spike, or for net recovery. 3. DINK - tipping the ball over the net with an open hand using the fingers or with a closed fist or with one or two hands; the object is to fake out the opponent at the net by placing the ball in an empty spot over the blocker or to the side of the blocker. 4. SET - usually 2nd play on the ball, volleyed high and close to the net so that a 3rd player can spike. 5. SPIKE - hard hit or smash across the net; an open hand should be used and the wrist snapped in order to get top spin (a fist is legal however); the spike is no good if the player falls into the net. ILLEGAL WAYS TO HIT THE VOLLEYBALL - this usually involves allowing the ball to rest in the hands or on the arms: 1. HOLDING - usually this refers to a 2-handed movement that allows the ball to rest momentarily in the hands while being hit; it usually occurs while attempting to volley or set the ball. 2. LIFTING - an underhand movement that causes the ball to rest in the hands and be carried upward; it usually occurs when a player uses open palms while attempting to bump the ball. 3. PUSHING - 2-handed movement that causes the ball not to be clearly hit; it usually occurs when the ball goes behind the player s head, or when a player is trying to set a ball from chest level instead of forehead level. 4. DOUBLE HIT - allowing the ball to hit more than one body part before going over the net; this usually occurs when the hands are apart when bumping, but can also occur if the ball hits the arms, and then the chest, or if the ball simply rolls up the arms. 5. Blocking the serve is illegal. OTHER VOLLEYBALL TERMS 1. ACE - a serve that hits the floor and/or cannot be returned by the receiver 2. BACKS - the players in the back court positions (defensive players) 3. BLOCK - defense used against the spike (player should face the net and go up with 2 hands) 4. CROSS COURT - a play in which the ball crosses the net diagonally 5. COVER - to protect an area of the court (players should play designated positions)

9 6. DEAD BALL - hits floor or fixture, lands out of bounds, hits the net on a serve, hits ceiling above OTHER team s court, 4th hit on a side 7. DOUBLE FOUL - when players on opposing sides commit a foul at the same time (both players are in the net, etc.) - results in a re-serve 8. KILL - a hard driven spike which is difficult or impossible to receive 9. MATCH - winning 2 out of 3 games 10. NET RECOVERY - saving a ball that rebounds out of the net by use of a dig or bump 11. PASS - to move the ball from one player to another 12. POINT - the receiving team fails to return the ball 13. RALLY - the play started with the service and ended with a point, side out, or dead ball 14. SERVICE - the initial hit that puts the ball into play 15. SIDE OUT - serving team fails to win its point or plays ball illegally ORDER OF ROTATION FROM FRONT TO BACK: Receiving position M or W formation HISTORY OF VOLLEYBALL Volleyball was invented in 1895 by William Morgan in the United States. It was one of the few sports to be U.S. born. It began as a game played by raising a tennis net and using the bladder of a basketball. This ball was too light, so a regular basketball was then used. It was found to be too heavy, so Spalding Brothers were asked to design what we know today as a regular volleyball. The United States Volleyball Association (USVBA) was founded in 1928, and the game has become more popular and more complex over the years. BREMEN DISTRICT 228 BASKETBALL I STUDY GUIDE GENERAL INFORMATION: Basketball, the All-American Sport, was originated in a Y.M.C.A. class in Springfield, Massachusetts by Dr. James Naismith in Originally the players, as many as fifty were allowed to bat, pass, and throw a football in an attempt to get the ball into the peach basket goals nailed to each end of the gymnasium balcony. Drastic rule changes took place within the first few years of its existence and as the game spread in popularity,

10 female participation grew. Due to some misinterpreting of rules and with hopes of eliminating some of the roughness of the sport, women s rules were designed around a three division court. It was not until 1936 when the two division court was established allowing three stationary forwards and three stationary guards but limiting their area to half a court and limited dribble that basketball for women made some progress. Twenty-five years later, the roving players were created and not until was the division between male and female basketball broken and women s rules changed to five players using full court as it is today. THE GAME: Basketball for girls and boys is a game played by two teams of 5 players. The team in possession of the ball is the offensive team, the team not in possession of the ball is the defensive team. Although each player has both offensive and defensive responsibility, the forwards are usually the best shooters, the guards better defensively because of their quickness and ball handling ability and the center forward usually the tallest for both close shooting and rebounding. The game is started with a jump ball in the center circle. In the event of a tie ball, teams alternate possession there are no more jump balls after the start of the regulation game, except to start overtime periods. The team having the most points at the end of regulation game time wins. If a tie game results, extra periods will be played until one team is ahead at the end of the 3 minutes or overtime period. Each player is permitted 5 personal fouls for which free throws may be awarded to the person he/she fouled. One disqualifying foul by the player can remove them from the game. A player not disqualified for fouls can reenter the game any number of times providing he/she checks in with the scorer and the official. THE COURT: SCORING: A. Field goal a ball that passes through the basket from above having been legally thrown or tapped by any player inside the court. Two points are scored if the shot or tap occurs from within the 3 point arc. Any shot, which is not assisted by another player, made from beyond the three point arc shall be scored as 3 points. If a player successfully makes a goal in the incorrect basket, the goal counts for the opponent for it was their basket. B. Free throw an unguarded shot at the basket from the free throw line awarded to the person fouled. The shooter stands behind the free throw line and all other players line

11 up along the side of the lane in alternating positions with the defending team closest to the basket. No player is allowed to change positions once the shooter has the ball. The shooter has 10 seconds to shoot. One point scored, if made. VIOLATIONS other team gets ball out of bounds at spot closest to the violation after: 1. 3 seconds in the lane by an offensive player 2. double dribble 3. illegal dribble (carrying, palming, using 2 hands simultaneously) 4. traveling (includes falling on the floor and lifting both feet from the floor) 5. over and back (throwing or dribbling ball from front court to back court) 6. using a moving screen 7. kicking the ball 8. holding the ball 5 seconds when closely guarded 9. taking longer than 10 seconds to get the ball past the center line 10. taking longer than 5 seconds to throw the ball in bounds 11. dribbling the ball in bounds instead of throwing it in 12. stepping over the line on a free throw attempt 13. jumper catching the ball on a jump ball FOULS involve physical contact with an opponent Individual fouls a player is removed from the game after 5 th foul A. Charging offensive player runs into a defensive player whose position was established first B. Blocking defensive player jumps into the path of an offensive player without giving them time or space to change direction C. Hacking slapping the arm or a player when attempting to get the ball D. Pushing E. Holding F. Tripping G. Elbowing PENALTY FOR FOULS If a player is fouled during the act of shooting, he/she is awarded 2 free throws or 3 free throws if he/she missed the field goal attempt (to compensate for the points he/she might have scored if they hadn t been fouled). He/she is awarded 1 free throw attempt if he/she made the field goal attempt. Rule 1 applies even if 7 team fouls have not been committed; you are always awarded a free throw when fouled during the act of shooting. OTHER TERMINOLOGY Act of shooting The act of shooting begins simultaneously with the start of the try and ends when the ball is in the air. Backcourt The half of the court that contains the opponents basket. Back Court Violation --- A team, after successfully bringing the ball to their front court, sends it to the back court, where a team member plays it before the opponent. Also called over and back. Bounce Pass A pass that is bounced to the floor and rebounds to the receiver.

12 Bonus Situation Free throw awarded for fouls (after the 7 th each half by a team). If the first free throw is made, a second free throw is awarded. If the first free throw is missed, the ball is in play if it touches the rim. Also called 1 and 1. Center Circle The circle with a 6-foot radius in the center of the court where jump balls are taken. Chest Pass A pass that is pushed with two hands to the receiver at about chest level. Cutting Tactic used by a player to move around an opponent to an open area to receive a pass. Defensive Player Any player not on the team in possession of the ball. Feint or Fake Tactic used by a player to pull guard off balance. It is a move in one direction followed by a quick shift of the body in the other direction. Front Court The half of the court that contains a team s basket. Man-To-Man Defense -- A type of defense in which each player has an assigned opponent with whom to stay and guard. Offensive Team A team or any member of a team in possession of the ball anywhere on the court. Own Basket The basket for which a team is shooting. Pass Throwing, batting, handing, bouncing, or rolling the ball to a teammate. Pivot A legal tactic in which a player holding the ball steps once or more than once in any direction with the same foot. The other foot, the pivot foot, keeps in initial contact with the floor. Post An offensive station around the free-throw lane of a team s front court. The player in the post position often called the pivot player, usually stands with his/her back to the basket in the passing attack. A low post is a position in the vicinity of the basket. A high post is a position near the free-throw line. A double post can be a combination of both, using two posts, but at different sides of the lane. Press A style of defense in which defenders play their opponents closely in all areas of the court forcing them to make mistakes. Screen A legal play to prevent or delay an opponent from getting into a desired place or position by positioning the body as an obstacle. A legal screen involves no body contact. Ten-Second Violation -- After a team gains possession of the ball in back court, they are permitted 10-seconds to bring the ball to front court. Zone Defense A type of defense in which players are responsible for guarding an area of the court rather than individual players. There are several types of zone defense. BASKETBALL SKILLS AND TECHNIQUES PASSING Quickest way to move the ball. CHEST PASS The ball held in both hands about chest high and released by extending the arms fully, snapping the wrists, and stepping in the direction of the pass. BOUNCE PASS Short distance pass used when the player is closely guarded. The ball should bounce at approximately two-thirds of the distance between players at waist high.

13 OVERHEAD PASS Used to pass over a defensive player. Ball is held with both hands over the head and as the passer steps forward and transfers his or her body weight the arms are brought forward and with a wrist snap throw. ONE HANDED OVERHEAD PASS (BASEBALL PASS) Used to cover long distances. The ball is brought back to the ear, close to the head, with fingers spread wide. The ball is released about a foot in front of the body. CLUES FOR GOOD PASSES: 1. Passes should be crisp 2. Always fake before each pass 3. Take a step in direction of the pass 4. Weight should be balanced when passing 5. Do not telegraph the pass; be deceptive with the eyes 6. Aim to hit the receiver between the waist and the shoulder 7. Put as little spin as possible 8. Pass to the side away from opponent 9. Always lead a running teammate 10. Learn to catch and pass in one motion. CATCHING AND HOLDING THE BALL attempt to catch every pass regardless of how it was thrown. Meet the ball with the hands held out in front of you. Catch with the pads of the fingers and bring the ball to the body to protect it before dribbling, passing, or shooting. CLUES FOR GOOD HANDLING OF THE BALL: 1. Provide a target. 2. Move the feet to meet the ball. 3. Hands should be spread and relaxed. 4. Watch the ball all the way into your hands. 5. Hold close for protection. DRIBBLING It is slower than passing so it should not be overused. USE IT TO: 1. Penetrate or drive for the basket. 2. Create a better passing lane. 3. Get out of a crowd. 4. Bring the ball down the court. TECHNIQUE with the hand cupped, the pads of the fingers control the direction of the ball, while the wrist and finger flexion provide the force. HIGH-SPEED DRIBBLE used when a player is unguarded and moving quickly... 1) leading a fastbreak; 2) driving to the basket; 3) bringing the ball down with no opposition. LOW-CONTROL DRIBBLE used when closely guarded. Keep both ball and body low. The more frequent contact, allows for control and change of direction. CROSSOVER DRIBBLE used when the person is loosely guarded. Rebounds to the opposite hand, must be done quickly with only one bounce. CLUES WHILE DRIBBLING: 1. Keep eyes and head up.

14 2. Be able to dribble with either hand. 3. Protect the ball with your body from your opponent. 4. Control the ball with the fingers. 5. Keep your knees bent for balance. 6. Dribble with the right hand going to the right, and the left hand, going to the left. SHOOTING Primary objective in basketball is to make baskets/score. Know your point of aim. There can be two targets: 1) the rim and 2) the backboard spot. ONE-HANDED SET SHOT Used for most long shots. Feet in forward backward stride position, ankles, knees, and hips should be slightly flexed.. Ball is held above the forehead (to aim for the basket). Held in the fingers, with the shooting hand behind the ball. Guide hand comes off when the wrist flexes forward. Follow-through is very important. JUMP SHOT is a very effective offensive weapon. Shooter jumps into the air by pushing off with both legs. Same action as the one-handed set shot. LAY-UP One of the high percentage shots of the game. This is due to the closeness of range. Uses the backboard to bank the ball in, the shooter comes diagonal to the basket. At the last dribble the ball is firmly grasped with the fingers of both hands, and carried above the head. The shooting arm and fingers extend upward to lay the ball against the backboard. CLUES THAT MAY HELP YOUR SHOOTING: 1. Knees should be bent for balance and power. 2. Focus your eyes on the target before, during, and after the shot. 3. Fingertips control every shot. 4. Maintain good body balance and control. 5. Angle shots should use the backboard. 6. Follow through with the shooting hand toward basket. 7. Backspin on the ball is desirable. 8. A higher arc on the ball generally assures greater accuracy. 9. Practice, practice, practice. REBOUNDING Approximately 60 percent of the field goals attempted are missed. Therefore, it is essential to any team to know how to rebound. THE KEYS: 1. Positioning 2. Aggressiveness 3. Timing the jump CLUES THAT MAY HELP: 1. Work hard to get and keep the inside position. 2. Don t get too far under the basket. 3. Be aggressive. 4. Jumping with the arms, bending the knees, and reaching with both hands. 5. Time the jump in order to grasp the ball as high as possible. 6. Go for the ball! 7. Keep a firm hold on it, and away from the others. 8. Land with the feet comfortably spread and elbows out.

15 BREMEN DISTRICT 228 TUMBLING I STUDY GUIDE Safety Factors: 1. No horseplay 2. No jewelry 3. No shoes 4. Always warm-up properly 5. Do not attempt new skills without the supervision of Instructor/Teacher. 1. FORWARD SQUAT ROLL TO SQUAT Technique: (Beg.) Feet and knees together with heels to butt. Palms reach forward beyond feet to accept body weight. Chin to chest. Raise butt, lower head and bend elbows to roll. Keep knees to chest during roll. (End) Keep feet and knees together DO NOT CROSS OR SEPARATE FEET. Reach forward with arms (place arm pits over knees). Spot: Kneel next to performer, place one hand on head to pull down toward chest. Second hand on back of thigh, lift during roll. 2. FORWARD STRADDLE ROLL TO SQUAT Technique: (Beg.) Stand with feet very wide and knees straight. Palms reach in front of body. Chin to chest. Bend arms to roll. (End) Same as #1. Spot: Difficult to spot. Spot from front ONLY IF NECESSARY spot Beg. only.

16 3. FORWARD PIKE ROLL TO SQUAT Technique: (Beg.) Stand with feet and knees together. Bend only at the waist. Palms reach in front of feet approximately 10 inches. Chin to chest. Bend elbows to roll. (End) Same as #1. Spot: Same as #1 4. LUNGE FORWARD TO ROLL TO SQUAT Technique: (Beg.) Stand with one leg forward, knee bent. Opposite leg back and straight. Bend forward to place palms beyond forward leg. Chin on chest. Bend elbows to accept body weight and roll. Keep back leg straight until inverted. (End) Same as #1. Spot: Same as #1 5. BACKWARD SQUAT TO SQUAT ROLL Technique: (Beg.) Feet and knees together with heels to butt. Chin down to chest. Place hands above shoulders, palms up with thumbs toward ears. Keep knees to chest and pull them over head as body rolls back. Hands push equally to allow body to roll over head. (End) Feet and knees together. As toes touch mat, push with hands to land on feet. DO NOT LAND ON KNEES. Spot: Kneel behind and to side of performer. Near hand on shoulder of performer, far hand on butt. As performer rolls back, lift hand that is on shoulder to allow head to pass. Assist with hips if necessary. DO NOT PUSH PERFORMER OVER. 6. BACKWARD STRADDLE ROLL TO STRADDLE Technique: (Beg.) Stand with feet very wide and knees straight. Chin on chest. Place palms on floor behind and under body. Lower body to floor. With legs still extended in wide straddle, roll back placing hands on floor under shoulders. Reach with feet over head for mat. Push with hands to complete roll. (End) Stand in a wide straddle with knees straight. KEY IS FOUND IN PLACING TOES ON MAT BE- FORE PUSHING WITH HANDS TO COMPLETE ROLL.

17 Spot: Difficult to spot because of extended legs. Stand to front side of performer. Grasp behind shoulders to lower body to floor. Switch grasp to hips and lift as performer completes roll. 7. BACKWARD SQUAT TO STRADDLE Technique: (Beg.) Same as #5. Feet and legs change to wide straddle during inverted position as hands push. (End) Same as #6. Spot: Same as #6 8. BACKWARD STRADDLE TO SQUAT Technique: (Beg.) Same as #6. Feet and legs change to squat as butt contact floor. (End) Same as #5. Spot: Same as #6 9. TRIPOD BALANCE DO NOT ALLOW HEADSTANDS YET! Technique: (Beg.) Kneel on floor. Place palms down approximately shoulder width apart and in a straight line. Lean forward and place head approximately 18 inches in front of hands (centered). Raise right knee to rest on right elbow and left knee to left elbow. Back should be straight with feet off mat. (End) Lean back to rest feet on mat in squat position. (Can also be done by placing knees on elbows before head is placed on floor. Body leans into balance.) Spot: Stand on back side of performer. Use side of leg (thigh) as balance Board. Grasp hips to assist lift. 10. TRIPOD FORWARD ROLL TO SQUAT DO NOT ALLOW HEADSTANDS Technique: (Beg.) Same as #9. (End) From balanced position, press with hands as head is tucked so chin comes to chest. Lean forward and roll to squat (Refer to #1). Spot: Same as #9 but spotter must move to allow performer to roll after balance. 11. TIP-UP BALANCE (2-POINT BALANCE) Technique: (Beg.) Kneel on floor. Place palms down approximately shoulder width apart. Rest knees on elbows. Lean forward, keeping head up to balance, with feet off floor, on two hands. (End) Lean back and return in squat position. Spot: Same as #9

18 12. TIP-UP FORWARD ROLL TO SQUAT Technique: (Beg.) Same as #11. Tuck head in balance position so chin comes to chest and lean forward. Bend elbows to roll. Spot: Same as # FORWARD SQUAT ROLL TO STEP-OUT Technique: (Beg.) Same as #1. (End) When body is inverted, extend one leg, keep opposite leg in squat. Place squat leg on floor, lean forward on to extended leg and stand so weight travels forward to lunge position with back leg straight. Spot: Same as #1 if necessary 14. FORWARD PIKE ROLL TO STEP-OUT Technique: (Beg.) Same as #3. (End) Same as #13 Spot: Same as #3 if necessary. 15. FORWARD PIKE ROLL TO SITTING PIKE Technique: (Beg.) Same as #3. (End) Keep pike position, lowering legs to sitting position with legs straight. Spot: Same as #3 16. FORWARD STRADDLE ROLL TO SITTING PIKE Technique: (Beg.) Same as #2. Feet and legs change from wide straddle to pike during inverted position. (End) Same as #15. Spot: Difficult to spot. 17. NO HAND FORWARD SQUAT TO ROLL Technique: (Beg.) Squat position with feet and knees together. Extend both arms to side at shoulder level. Chin to chest. Lean forward, rolling extended arms so as to place back of hand on mat ONLY IF NEEDED. (End) Same as #1. Spot: Spotter kneels to side and back of performer. Reach under extended arm of performer AND grasp back of head (neck). Place opposite hand on butt. Lower and assist by raising hips. 18. NO HANDS FORWARD STRADDLE ROLL TO SQUAT Technique: (Beg.) Same as #2 but extend arms to side at shoulder level. Lean forward and roll extended arms so as to place the back of hand on mat. (End) During inverted position, tuck legs to squat. Same as #1. Spot: Same as #17. Difficult to spot. Avoid straddle leg. 19. NO HAND LUNGE FORWARD ROLL TO SQUAT Technique: (Beg.) Same as #4 but extend arms to side at shoulder level. Bend forward leg and lean forward to place back of arms on mat. (End) Same as #4. Spot: Same as #17.

19 20. TRIPOD BALANCE TO HANDSTAND STEP DOWN Technique: (Beg.) Same as #9. From balanced tripod, raise legs to inverted balance, keeping feet and legs together and straight. (End) Bring one leg back toward floor as opposite leg remains inverted. Push body back to supporting leg on floor. Spot: Same as #9. Spot hips only from back side of performer. If performer is unbalanced, use shoulder to steady if possible. NEVER SPOT BY HOLDING PER- FORMERS ANKLES OR KNEES. 21. TRIPOD HEADSTAND WITH FORWARD ROLL TO SQUAT Technique: (Beg.) Same as #20. (End) During inverted balance, tuck knees to chest, (pike position for advanced performers) press with hands to allow head to tuck so chin is on chest. Roll to squat position. Same as #1. Spot: Same as #20. Spotter must move to allow performer to roll to squat. 22. PRONE FORWARD ROLL TO SQUAT Technique: (Beg.) Lie on stomach. Place palms on floor close to shoulders. Raise upper body to allow head to rest on floor. Tuck chin to chest. Pull lower body with straight legs, feet together up so as to roll body over head. (End) During roll, tuck to squat position, knees to chest. Same as #1. Spot: Spot from side to help raise hips OR spot head as in # PRONE FORWARD ROLL TO SITTING PIKE Technique: (Beg.) Same as #22. (End) Same as #15. Spot: Same as # BACKWARD SQUAT ROLL TO PRONE LAY-OUT Technique: (Beg.) Same as #5. (End) When the hands push to allow the body to roll over the head, the toes will touch the floor. Slide with feet back, allowing the legs to extend and lower body to prone position. Legs and feet are extended and together. KEY IS TO SLIDE FEET ALONG THE MAT WITH TOES POINTED. Spot: Same as # BACKWARD STRADDLE ROLL TO PRONE LAY-OUT Technique: (Beg.) Same as #6. (End) Same as #24. Spot: Same as #6 26. BACKWARD SITTING PIKE TO STRADDLE (OR SQUAT) Technique: (Beg.) Sit with legs and feet together and extended. Roll backward bringing extended legs over body and complete a backward roll as in #5. (End) During the inverted position, straddle legs, placing toes on mat as in #6. (Squat same as #5) Spot: Difficult to spot. Some students may not be able to perform. 27. BACKWARD SITTING PIKE TO PRONE LAY-OUT Technique: (Beg.) Same as #26. (End) Same as #24. Spot: Same as #5 (squat backward roll).

20 BALANCES 28. KICK-UP HEADSTAND TO STEP DOWN Technique: (Beg.) Bend to place hands and head on mat as for a tripod (#9). Without placing knees on elbows for balance, kick or lift one leg, then the other to a headstand. (End) Same as #20. Spot: Same as #9 or # KICK-UP HEADSTAND WITH FORWARD ROLL TO SQUAT Technique: (Beg.) Same as #28. (End) Same as #21. Spot: Same as #20 or # HANDSTAND STEP BACK DOWN Technique: (Beg.) Stand erect with arms extended over head: Place one foot forward, bend at waist and place hands on floor just in front of forward foot. DO NOT PUT HANDS TOO FAR IN FRONT OF FOOT AS IT DESTROYS BALANCE. As hands are placed on floor, shift body weight to arms (as in bridge-up exercise) and LIFT back leg as front leg supplies leverage. Bring both legs together extended over body. NOTE: A correct handstand is done with no arch and the head down. For most, this is very difficult but should be corrected if possible. (End) Hold balance momentarily. Bring one leg back to floor while second leg holds inverted, extended position. As first foot touches floor, push body back to foot and bring second leg down as body returns to erect stand. Spot: Same as #20. Stress to grasp hips, and only assist legs if necessary. 31. HANDSTAND FORWARD ROLL TO SQUAT Technique: (Beg.) Same as #30. (End) Same as #21 but tuck knees and pike at waist to shift body weight. Chin to chest. Bend elbows to lower body to roll. Spot: Same as #20. Stress that the spotter move to permit the roll but maintain grasp

21 on hips to assist in lowering body. 32. HANDSTAND FORWARD ROLL TO SITTING PIKE Technique: (Beg.) Same as #30. (End) Same as #31 and #15. Spot: Same as # CARTWHEEL Technique: (Beg.) Stand with arms apart and extended over head the same as in a hand stand. Bend leg in direction of wheel to place first hand on floor slightly rotated. Lift opposite (back) leg up as second hand reaches overhead to be placed on floor. Lift second leg. (Inverted position legs remain separate.) Legs continue to move in direction of wheel, with first leg contacting floor and bending to accept weight. First hand lifts off floor. Second leg moves to floor as second hand raises overhead. (End) Standing erect with arms overhead feet separated (many will stand sideward at first; this will be corrected later). Spot: Stand behind performer. Cross arms with top arm in the direction of wheel. Grasp hips of performer and move with the cartwheel. Lift and assist hips if necessary.

22 34. ROUND OFF Technique: Cartwheel Variation. (Beg.) Same as cartwheel. During inverted position, stop first leg until second leg comes to handstand position. ¼ turn, pike as hips and simultaneously push with hands and pull legs to floor. (There should be enough push with hands to bring body to a stretched position as feet contact floor for rebound upward. Spot: Similar to cartwheel for beginners. 35. BACKWALKOVER Technique: Stand with weight on one leg. Lead leg forward, toe and leg extended. Arms forward. Reach upward with arms stretching trunk. Head follows hands as they reach up, over and back. Lead leg lifts off floor as hands contact floor and body weight shifts to hands. Pull legs over as head continues to look forward then up. Second leg lifts off floor. An inverted handstand split is desired. As first leg touches floor, shift weight to stand, bringing arms up. Spot: Stand next to and slightly behind performer on lead leg side. Place one hand on performer s lower back and second hand under thigh to assist leg lift. Support back to prevent fall. 36. FORWARD ROLL (VARIOUS POSITIONS) TO STRADDLE Technique: Starting position can be squat, straddle, pike, etc. (End) During inverted position, change legs to side straddle position with knees very straight. Place hands between legs, as close to body as possible. As feet touch floor, force or drive the heels and inside of the feet down and push with extended arms to rebound from floor. Pull with the top of head forward. Spot: Difficult to spot because of extended legs. Can assist ending by standing in front of performer, grasping back of upper arms as performer attempts rebound and drive to straddle stand.

23 37. DIVE FORWARD ROLL (END MAY VARY) Technique: Stand, bend knees and extend in order to spring forward as body pikes at hips, head tucks to chest and arms reach forward for mat. Bend elbows to lower body to roll. (Distance and height are the goals.) Variation: Performed from a run and two foot take off. Spot: Difficult to spot. Spot the same as pike forward roll if necessary. 38. BACK PIKE ROLL (END MAY VARY) Technique: Stand tall, feet together. Place hands, palm down, next to side, chin on chest and pike at hips. Lean back keeping legs straight and reach for floor with hands. (If hands reach for floor and knees are kept straight in pike position, hands will touch floor to soften contact.) (End) Varies. 39. HEADSPRING Technique: (Can use tumbling aid but skill should be learned from floor eventually.) Place hands and head on top of tumbling aid in tripod position. Push off with the legs to a pike position and pull hips forward over head, kipping (whip motion) legs as hands push off. (End) Land on feet. Spot: Kneel down in front of tumbling aid. Place one hand on performer s shoulder to aid push-off. Other hand grasps lower back to keep hips up on landing. 40. PRONE HEADSTAND Technique: Lie on stomach, legs together and extended. Place palms on floor close to shoulder. Push with hands to raise upper body to place top of head on mat as for prone forward roll. Pull lower body to a pike position. Raise legs together to headstand. (End) Varied. Spot: Spot headstand. (End) As before.

24 41. BACK EXTENSION Technique: From squat, sitting pike or standing pike. Perform back rolls. During inverted position, extend legs upward and push with arms to handstand position. (End) Step down as from handstand. Spot: Stand next to and behind performer. As legs extend upward, grasp thigh and lift to assist handstand. 42. FRONT HANDSPRING Technique: From a short run, (maximum 3 steps) hurdle, stretching upward and forward with arms. Bend forward leg, placing hands on floor in front of foot (approximately 18 inches) blocking forward momentum with arms and shoulders. Drive the second leg upward and forward while pushing from the floor, and lifting the front leg. Both legs reach the inverted position as the legs and hips kip forward, simultaneously pushing with the shoulders. As feet reach forward to the floor, the upper body pulls forward. (Head should remain forward as long as possible throughout move and arms should never bend. Shoulder extension and kip are ingredients to a good handspring.) Spot: Same as headspring. Adjust position to performers run. Grasp shoulder and lower back. 43. FRONT WALKOVER Technique: Stand with one leg forward, weight balanced on back leg. Arms are ex-

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