BELL RINGER List 4 voluntary and involuntary muscles or muscle actions. List 4 similarities between voluntary and

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1 List 4 voluntary and involuntary muscles or muscle actions. List 4 similarities between voluntary and involuntary muscles. List 4 differences between voluntary and in voluntary muscles. TSWK the difference between voluntary and involuntary muscle contractions TSWBAT list differences between voluntary and involuntary muscles. TSWBAT explain what attaches muscles to bone. 1

2 List 2 voluntary and 2 involuntary muscles or muscle actions. Explain how we use these voluntary and involuntary muscles in physical activity. TSWK the difference between voluntary and involuntary muscle contractions TSWBAT how we use voluntary and involuntary muscles in physical activity. TSWBAT stay active for the identified period of time. 2

3 Get an article off of the projector about the obesity gene. Answer these questions: 1) Is there an obesity gene? 2)What is it called? 3)What population of people did they study? 4)Why would they choose this population over any other? TSWK A variation of exercises designed to build cardiovascular endurance TSWBAT participate in different exercises that build muscular and cardiovascular endurance TSWBAT Track and record their active heart rates over a class of activities. 3

4 Get an article off of the projector about the color of blood. We learned Friday what color blood is, however, why do our veins appear a different color? What are three specific thing the article points out? TSWK what color blood is and why it appears another color under the skin. TSWBAT explain what the four training principles are TSWBAT participate in activity that will effect all the HRFC. 4

5 Get an article off of the projector about stretching. Read the article and answer these questions: 1) Does stretching hurt or help you if you are a power athlete? 2)Can stretching weaken your muscles? 3)What type of athletes need to stretch for benefit in their sport/s. TSWK what each part of the FITT principle means TSWBAT explain how the FITT principle works TSWBAT participate in activity that will effect all the HRFC. 5

6 Timmy was running and rolled his ankle. It started to swell immediately and then the next morning it had changed all kinds of colors. Timmy knew what a bruise was but couldn't figure out why his ankle was a rainbow of colors. 1) Tell Timmy why his ankle swelled. 2) Explain to Timmy why his ankle was changing colors. 3) Just so Timmy doesn't get confused tell him what color his blood really is and why his veins appear blue. TSWK the difference between voluntary and involuntary muscle contractions TSWBAT list differences between voluntary and involuntary muscles. TSWBAT explain what attaches muscles to bone. 6

7 What does the article from MIT Medical infer about a persons weight? According to this article are we able to substantially change our weight? What exactly is the set point theory? What does the article say about people whose weight is within their set point? TSWK the difference between voluntary and involuntary muscle contractions TSWBAT list different voluntary and involuntary movements or actions. TSWBAT list several differences and similarities in voluntary and involuntary muscles 7

8 Although we have been told a lot that stretching prevents injury, this is only true if we do what first? Unless we do this first what are we really making our body more susceptible to? Do you know the THR formula? Write it out if you do. TSWK why age has an effect on your THR. TSWBAT explain why stretching is important and what it doesn't really prevent. TSWBAT find their Target Heartrate (THR). 8

9 Get the article "Nine ways to stay healthly in bad weather" off of the cart. Read the article. Which of these activities do you find would be something you could possibly do at home? Explain why you chose that one or more of them. Why is this season of the year so difficult for people to be active in? Please elaborate on your reasoning. TSWK what body composition is. TSWBAT explain the different ways of measureing body composition. TSWBAT List and define the 5 Health Related Fitness Components. 9

10 Your little sister is playing softball in a summer league, but she is becoming discouraged because she is having trouble hitting the ball. a. List three elements you will look for in her batting technique that could be the cause of her problem. b. Explain in specific terms how improving each would help her hit the ball. TSWK the characteristics that classify a muscle TSWBAT list the types of mucles and examples of each TSWBAT explain what connects muscle to bone. 10

11 Define aerobic activity. List any aerobic activities you have participated in over the last 6 months. Add three that you haven't to the list. TSWK the 5 HRFC (Health Related Fitness Components). TSWBAT Give examples of ways to measure the HRFC. TSWBAT explain which way to measure Body Composition is the most accurate. 11

12 Get the article "Beating the Obesity Gene" off of the cart. Read the article and answer these questions. 1)Is obesity geneitic? 2) Extrapolate information from the article to support your answer to question 1. 3) What one population of people did they use for their study? 4)Analyze why this population of people had the results they did. 5) If they had used the population of average American how do you think the results would have been different TSWK what body composition is. TSWBAT explain the different ways of measureing body composition. TSWBAT List and define the 5 Health Related Fitness Components. 12

13 Using your heart rate charts, create a line graph and answer the questions or finish the statements. 1)What does the chart say about your heart rate during our activity? 2) If your chart has a curve, a peak, multiple peaks, or a gradual incline or decline what does that mean? 3) If your THR plot is above all of your active HR's then you... 4) If your THR plot is below all of your active HR's then you... TSWK how to read a graph and extropolate data. TSWBAT use data from a chart they created and asnwer questions pertaining to their personal fitness intensity. TSWBAT distinguish when they are being intense enough or not being intense enough in the activity. 13

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15 F.I.T.T. Principle: This a principle by which you can determine the progression you should have in order to gain optimal fitness results. F= Frequency How often you exercise (5 7 days a week) I= Intensity How hard you exercise (Within your target heart rate THR) T= Time How long you exercise (At least 30 minutes a day) T= Type Which of the HRF components your exercising Target Heart Rate (THR) Formula 220 age = X X(60% to 80%)= THR The higher the percentage you multiply by the higher level of aerobic activity you will be performing. Muscular Activities Gymnastics, cheering, dance, track and field sports, weight lifting or calisthenics, wrestling or martial arts, softball, baseball, rock climbing. Flexibility Activities Martial arts (tai chi), stretching yoga, ballet, gymnastics, pilates. Aerobic Sports Field sports (soccer, lacrosse, field hockey), court sports (basketball, volleyball, hockey), racquet sports, sports during Physical Education. Aerobic Activity Aerobic dance, aerobic gym equipment, aerobic activities (bicycling, running, skating), aerobic activity in physical education Life Long Activities Walking, bicycling, or skateboarding, housework or yard work (shoveling, raking, push mowing), playing active games or dancing, active job, bowling, canoeing, kayaking, golf, tennis. 15

16 Muscular System Your body has approx. 600 muscles making up about 50% of your total weight. Skelatal muscles account for 40% of your total body weight and the other 10% is primarily involuntary muscle. All human movement is the result of muscle contraction. All muscle contractions are either voluntary or involuntary. Voluntary movements are movements you can control Involuntary movements are movements you cannot control Muscular Characteristics Extensibility Extensibility refers to the ability of muscle tissue to be stretched. Elasticity Elasticity is the ability of muscle tissue to return to its normal resting length and shape after being stretched. Excitability Excitability refers to the ability of muscle tissue to receive a stimulus from the nervous system. Contractility Contractility is the quality that really sets muscle tissue apart. This is the muscles ability to contract or shorten when it receives a stimulus. Types of Muscle Tissue Cardiac Cardiac muscle is found only in the heart and is considered involuntary because you cannot conciously contract this muscle. Smooth Smooth muscle primarily lines hollow internal structures such as blood vessels and the digestive tract. Smooth muscle is involuntary. Skeletal Skelatal muscle is attached to bones and move the skeletal system and is voluntary. Structure of Skeletal Muscle Tendons Tendons attach the muscle to the bone and is a connective tissue. 3 cat. of connective tissue 1) Epimysium: connective tissue that surrounds the entire muscle 2) Perimysium: surrounds the muscle bundle of fibers 3) Endomysium: surrounds the muscle fiber Within each muscle fiber there are long thread like structures called myofybrils. Each myofybril consists of many sarcomeres attached end to end. 16

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18 Muscles only contract and relax. Muscle tissue cannot push it only pulls or contracts. All exercises involve muscles pulling on bones across joints. Isometric Contraction (picking up a truck) Iso means equal and metric is talking about distance, therefore isometric contractions are ones where the muscle maintains an equal length. Isotonic Contraction (full bicep curl) Tonic means to tone or tension, therefore isotonic contractions are ones where muscle tension remains the same. Concentric Contraction (positive motion) The shortening of the muscle/contracting Eccentric Contraction (Negative motion) The lengthing of the muscle. Isokinetic Contraction (speed lift) Kinetic means motion, so isokinetic contraction is a constant speed contraction. Motor Unit A motor unit consists of a single motor nerve and all the muscle fibers it sends impulses to. Motor units can be in great number or in few but never work alone. The movements that only require a few motor units are called fine motor movements. The movements that require a great number of motor units are called gross motor movements. This principle of no motor units working alone is call the All or None Principle. Basically means either all of the units fire or none of them do. A single motor unit firing is a muscle twitch. Motor unit recruitment The force a muscle exerts is determined primarily by the size and number of motor units recruited for a task. Hypertrophy means large muscle growth or large size Atrophy means small muscle or shrinking. Hyperplasia means growth in cell number. Doesn't happen after birth. 18

19 Bell Ringer: Make a list of all the muscles that you can see from this view that are on the test. 19

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24 Physical Fitness : The ability of one's heart, blood vessels, lungs and muscles to function at their best. Physically Fit : Capable of doing daily routines and having energy left over. Physical Fitness Plan : A written plan of physical activities to develope each of the components of fitness and a schedule for doing them. Health Components : Physical health, social health, and mental/emotional health Health Related Fitness Components (HRFC) Body Composition:A comparision or ratio of muscle mass to body fat Three ways to measure body composition 1) Hydrostatic Analysis Measures weight out of water and underwater 2) Electrical Impedence Sends a light electrical wave through the body 3) Skinfold Test measured with a pinch caliber and by another person Cardiovascular Endurance: The heart and lungs ability to pump oxygenated blood to the muscles. Flexibility: The joints ability to move through the full Range of Motion (ROM) Muscular Endurance: The muscles ability to do work for a period of time Muscular Strength:The muscles ability to do a specific amount of work Training Principles Overload: Working the body harder than it normally works such as through repitions of a certain excercise. The increased workload causes the body to go through changes that result in greather muscular strength and overall fitness. Progression: The gradual increase in exercise overload that you need in order to continue improving your fitness. For example, you may have to run faster or longer, or increase the number of push ups or sit ups you do as your body adapts to each level of training. Specificity: Do exercises and or activities that are designed for your desired outcome or goal. Reversability: Use it or lose it. 24

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