Fitness Intro. Freshmen PE

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1 Fitness Intro Freshmen PE

2 Physical Fitness Are you able to get through your day easily without tiring? Does your body respond quickly when it needs to? Are you mentally alert in class? Do you feel good about your body? Can you climb five flights of stairs without getting tired?

3 Why should you exercise? Appearance Self-esteem Way to socialize Mental alertness Handle stress better Less fatigue Sleep better Positive attitude Cardiovascular health Better weight control Metabolism Breathing capacity Flexibility Endurance Strength Proper nutrition

4 Physical Fitness Your level of physical fitness affects all aspects of your health and your life. Your level of physical fitness affects your physical, mental, and social health. If you are fit, you look good, you have energy, and you generally feel good about yourself.

5 Physical Fitness Not every person s level of physical fitness is the same. A teen that lifts weights probably has good muscular strength, but may lack the cardiorespiratory endurance of a classmate who is a long distance runner. Having total fitness means achieving a healthy level in each of the five areas of health-related fitness.

6 Physical Fitness To get started and stick with it you will need a plan of action. If you have previously failed or become discouraged you have to ask yourself why you stopped being active. Then you must figure out what changes you need to make to avoid those roadblocks from getting in your way again.

7 What affects your attitude toward fitness? Lack of athletic ability Past experience with sports Heredity may play a role Media influences

8 What are the 5 components of health related fitness? 1.Cardiorespiratory endurance 2.Muscular strength 3.Muscular endurance 4.Flexibility 5.Body composition

9 Physical Fitness Physical Fitness Is the ability to carry out daily tasks and have enough reserve energy to respond to unexpected demands. Maintaining a high level of fitness is a lifelong challenge.

10 Basic components of Fitness Body Composition Flexibility Muscular Strength Muscular Endurance Cardiorespiratory Endurance

11 Body Composition The Percent of Body Fat, lean muscle, bone, connective tissue, water, etc.. Measured with calipers, hydrostatic weighing, electrophoresis.

12 Body Composition When setting personal health-related fitness goals, your body fat percentage should be your focus not your body weight. When making health/fitness improvements you may actually see a slight increase in body weight even though your body appears to look like and feel like it s in better shape. This is due to the fact that muscle weighs more than fat.

13 Body Types Ectomorph Small bones, thin muscles, slender arms and legs, narrow chest, round shoulders, flat abdomen and small buttocks. Mesomorph Firm, well-developed muscles, large bones, broad shoulders, muscular arms, trim waist, muscular buttocks and powerful legs. Endomorph High body fat percentage, short neck, large abdomen, wide hips, round and full buttocks, short and heavy legs.

14 Body composition Body composition: the ratio of body fat to lean body tissue, including muscle, bone, water, and connective tissue. Everyone has a ratio of lean tissue to fat tissue in the body. For example, a person who has 10% body fat has 90% lean tissue (bone, muscle, organs, etc.).

15 Flexibility Measured by the sit & reach technique Average reach for males is inches Average reach for females is inches

16 Flexibility Flexibility: the ability to move a body part through its full range of motion. Although flexibility is specific to each joint, it is usually measured by the sit and reach test which is a test of hip and hamstring flexibility. Flexibility is improved by stretching the muscle-tendon structures responsible for controlling movement of the joint.

17 Types of stretching: Static stretching: Slowly moving the muscle to its endpoint. Stretching and holding this position for 30 seconds (it s an estimate less time is not enough more is a waste) Dynamic stretching: Involves similar position as static, but it is done in a slow, continuous and controlled manner. This is a great stretch if you need to use a stretch as a warm-up.

18 Types of stretching: Isostatic stretching: Initial phase in static as you extend the stretch to its limit and hold. After a few seconds, a partner pushes you beyond the initial limit when you relax. Communication is key with this type of stretch. If done correctly it is one of the most productive methods for improving flexibility. Ballistic stretching: Usually involves bouncing or jerky movements where the body s momentum is used. This method is potentially harmful because the stretchable limits of tissue may be exceeded and cause tearing or damage.

19 Why do I need to Stretch? It reduces muscular tension Assists in coordination of movement Prevents injuries Eases transition into high-intensity activities Develops body awareness Increases performance Improves circulation Relaxes the body (HR)

20 When should I Stretch? Before activity as part of a warm up After activity as part of a cool down During activity When feeling stiff After sitting for a long period of time

21 Muscular Strength Measured by upper & lower body. Examples bench press, leg press

22 Muscular Endurance Measured by different ways. Sit-up test Pull up & bent arm hang test

23 Muscular Strength and Endurance Muscular strength: is the amount of force a muscle can exert. Muscular endurance: is the ability of the muscles to perform a difficult physical task over a period of time without causing fatigue. Resistance training: Is a good way to tone muscles and improve muscular strength and endurance. There are three types of resistance training exercises: isometric, isotonic, and isokinetic.

24 Muscular Strength and Endurance Isometric exercises: Contracts or tightens your muscles but does not change their length. It is usually performed while working against an immovable object or self. Isotonic exercises: Muscles lengthen and shorten through their full range of motion while lowering or raising a resistance (free weights or pulley machines). Isokinetic exercises: Can be performed on specifically designed machines that allow you to overload a muscle with a maximum resistance throughout the muscle s entire range of movement at a constant speed (hydraulics).

25 Muscular Strength and Endurance What is a 1RM? A 1 rep max is the maximum amount of weight you can lift in a single repetition for any given exercise. What are reps? Rep is short for repetition. A repetition is one complete movement through an exercise. What are sets? A set is a group of repetitions. A typical set will be anywhere from six to twenty reps depending on your personal goals. The idea behind a set is to use a weight that will fatigue the muscles that you are exercising by the end of each set.

26 Muscular Strength and Endurance Myths about weight training You will develop a muscle-bound physique. Weight training isn t good for or appealing to females. You can turn fat into muscle.

27 Muscular Strength and Endurance Antagonistic muscle: All muscles work in pairs, when a muscle works it needs to have an agonist and an antagonist. An "antagonist" is a classification used to describe a muscle that acts in opposition to the specific movement generated by the agonist and is responsible for returning a limb to its initial position.

28 Muscular Strength and Endurance Muscle hypertrophy: Is the increase of the size of muscle cells. Strength training typically produces a combination of the two different types of hypertrophy: Contraction against 80 to 90% of the one repetition maximum for repetitions (reps) causes myofibrillated hypertrophy to dominate (as in powerlifters, olympic lifters and strength athletes. Several repetitions (generally 12 or more) against a submaximal load facilitates mainly sarcoplasmic hypertrophy (professional bodybuilders and endurance athletes). Muscle atrophy: the loss of muscle tissue.

29 Muscular Strength and Endurance Muscle fiber composition: Slow twitch muscle fiber: fiber that is slow to contract but has the ability to continue contracting for long periods of time. These fibers are best suited for aerobic or endurance activities. Fast twitch muscle fiber: fiber that contracts quickly and allows explosive muscular contraction. They are better suited for use in anaerobic (short burst energy) activities. Muscle contraction: A muscle will only pull it will not push. Contraction can either be eccentric (force used to decelerate a body part or lower a weight-muscle lengthens) concentric (force generated to overcome a resistancemuscle shortens)

30 Muscular Strength and Endurance Core strength: The power within the deep muscles of the torso that stabilize, align, and move the trunk of the body. Muscles involved are the abdominals, obliques, and back. Compound/Complex exercises: exercises that involve more than one joint and muscle group. Concentrated: exercises that involve only one joint and muscle group.

31 Cardiorespiratory Endurance The bodies ability to use oxygen as a source of energy. Measured two ways: 1. Mile run 2. 3 minute step test check pulse recovery rate after 30 seconds

32 Cardiorespiratory Endurance Your cardiorespiratory endurance is the ability of the heart, lungs, and blood vessels to send fuel and oxygen to the body s tissues during long periods of vigorous activity. Although there are many different exercises you can do all generally fall into one of two categories, aerobic or anaerobic.

33 Cardiorespiratory Endurance Aerobic activity: A low-intensity, high-endurance activity that requires oxygen for production of energy and continuous work performed over long distances or periods of time. Any type of vigorous activity that uses a continuous supply of oxygen would apply. Anaerobic activity: High intensity activity which uses up oxygen more quickly than the body can replenish it in the working muscles. The word anaerobic means without oxygen. Short burst activities lasting 2 min. or less in duration are anaerobic activities (weight training, sprinting, etc.).

34 Cardiorespiratory Endurance Anaerobic threshold: It is the point at which you begin working your muscles without oxygen. At his level of effort, lactic acid levels begin to rise and performance decreases. Resting heart rate: A person s heart rate when they are at rest (awake but lying down and not having immediately exerted themselves). Target heart rate: Is a desired range of heart rate reached during aerobic exercise which enables one s heart and lungs to receive the most benefit from a workout. The target rate can be calculated as a range of 65%-85% of your maximum intensity rate. Maximum heart rate: The highest heart rate a person should have (calculated as: 220-age)

35 Cardiorespiratory Endurance

36 Starting an exercise program Set a goal What is the right way to accomplish your goal Determine when you will exercise and where.

37 EXERCISE Exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health. What are the benefits of exercising? Improved appearance Improved body image Improved self-concept Improved health Increased muscular strength and endurance Improved physical performance Helps cope with stress Increased life expectancy

38 Types of exercise you can use Aerobic Exercise vigorous activity that uses continuous oxygen. Running, Swimming, Biking Anaerobic Exercise Intense physical activity in which the body s supply of oxygen to produce energy does not meet the demand. Weight lifting, Sprinting, etc.

39 Weight Training Isometric muscle contraction with no movement in the joint

40 Weight Training Isotonic muscle contraction with movement of the joint.

41 Weight Training Isokinetic resistance is moved through an entire range of motion

42 The Workout What are the 3 basic stages of an effective workout? 1.Warm-up 2.Workout 3.Cool down

43 The Workout Warm-Up Warming-up is a minute period of time during which you prepare your mind and your body for vigorous activity. Why do we warm-up? Helps you mentally focus and makes you feel like moving. Increases your heart rate and blood supply to your muscles which prepares your cardiovascular and muscular systems for a workout. Generates heat in your muscle and joint tissues which make them more flexible and resistant to injury. How to warm-up Large muscle activity such as biking, slow jogging, or running in place. Light stretching (preferably dynamic stretching). Your warm up ends when the lower limit of your target heart rate has been reached (this will not take place until 5-10 minutes after you have begun your activity).

44 F.I.T Formula To be effective activity also needs to follow the F.I.T. Formula. Frequency-How often you exercise using the FIT method Frequency times a week Intensity-How hard you work (Lbs., reps, resistance, etc.) Intensity % of THR Time-How long you exercise (duration, laps, time, etc.) Time...at least minutes in target heart rate

45 The Workout Cool Down Cooling-down is a minute period of mild exercise that follows your training session and allows your heart rate to return slowly to its resting rate. Why do we cool-down? Helps to prevent blood from pooling in the muscles. Prevents tightened muscles from becoming sore. Allows the heart rate to return back to resting rate. Assists in preventing injury. How to cool-down: Walk slowly or some other light activity to prevent blood from pooling in the muscles that were used. Your cool down period should continue until your recovery heart rate is about 100bpm. Second phase of a cool down should focus upon the same stretching exercises that were used during the warm-up period. What are some injuries that occur if people don t warm-up or cool down properly? Muscle soreness Blisters Shin splints Stitch-in-the-side (Ischemic cramp) Sprained ankle

46 ACTIVITY PYRAMID The Activity Pyramid provides you with a guideline for regular physical activity. How closely do you follow it? What changes can you make to your current lifestyle habits?

47

48 Principles of Training Workout (Training) There are 3 necessary principles that need to be followed if your workout is going to be beneficial. Each is equally important and if utilized properly will help you reach your fitness goals. Principle of Overload Various systems of the body will become stronger and function better if increased demands (overload) are placed on them. You must continually challenge yourself.

49 Principles of Training Principle of Progression As you continue on with your program you must increase the amount of work for improvement to occur.

50 Principles of Training Principle of Specificity You must do specific exercises to improve specific components of physical fitness in specific body parts

51 Your assignment Put together a workout plan in which you can follow using the FIT method!

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