STRETCHING. Benefits of stretching

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1 STRETCHING Benefits of stretching Most individuals and athletes, never take stretching seriously. They have what we refer to as a weight lifting mentality. The misconception is that if you do not feel the pain, or get a good pump during your workouts, you are not doing any good. This could not be further from the truth when it comes to stretching. ing before and after your workouts have many benefits. It will improve your range of motion, increase power, reduces post exercise muscle soreness, and reduce fatigue. It will also improve your posture, develop body awareness, improve co-ordination, increase energy, promote circulation, improve relaxation and stress relief. A prime example occurs on a daily basis when I am conducting PSTs. I have never seen anyone stretching before conducting their pushups, setups, or Pull-ups, or even worse, not stretching before their swim or run. How many of you would jump right in to a heavy bench press of workout without doing a warm-up/stretching? Warm up and stretch Before you start your stretch, you need to warm up the muscles that you are going to stretch. If you are going to do a run, do a light jog for a few minutes before your stretch. If you are going to swim, do a few slow laps to warm up before you stretch. If you are doing calisthenics it could be a good idea to do jumping jacks to warm-up before your stretch. If you are conducting a PST, your swim will work as a warm-up before you stretch for your pushups, sit-ups, and pull-ups. Later on in this instructional guide, I will give you specific stretches to do for your PST exercises. ing Levels Level I Hold the stretching position for 5-10 seconds. Rest for 5 to 10 seconds between each stretch. Repeat each stretch two times. Use an intensity level on the scale from 1 to 3, with light pain. Duration is 15 to 20 minutes each session. two or three times per week. Level II Hold the stretching position for 10 to 15 seconds. Rest for 10 to 15 seconds between each stretch. Repeat each stretch three times. Use an intensity level on the scale from 2 to 4, with light to moderate pain, one or two times per week. Use an intensity level on the scale from 1 to 2, one or two times per week. Duration is 20 to 30 minutes each session. three or four times per week. 1

2 Level III Hold the stretching position for 15 to 20 seconds. Rest for 15 to 20 seconds between each stretch. Repeat each stretch four times. Use an intensity level on the scale from 4 to 6, with moderate pain, two or three times per week. Use an intensity level on the scale from 1 to 4, two or three times per week. Duration is 30 to 40 minutes each session. four or five times per week. Level IV Hold the stretching position for 20 to 25 seconds. Rest for 20 to 25 seconds between each stretch. Repeat each stretch five times. Use an intensity level on the scale from 6 to 8, with moderate to heavy pain, two or three times per week. Use an intensity level on the scale from 1 to 6, two or three times per week. Duration is 40 to 50 minutes each session. four or five times per week. Level V Hold the stretching position for 25 to 30 seconds. Rest for 25 to 30 seconds between each stretch. Repeat each stretch five or six times. Use an intensity level on the scale from 8 to 10, with heavy pain, two or three times per week. Use an intensity level on the scale from 1 to 8, two or three times per week. Duration is 50 to 60 minutes each session. four or five times per week. Types of stretching 1. stretches a. stretching b. Passive stretching c. Active stretching d. PNF stretching e. Isometric stretching 2. Dynamic stretches a. Ballistic stretching b. Dynamic stretching c. Active isolated stretching 2

3 1. stretches a. stretching A static stretch is performed by placing the body into a position, without movement, holding the stretch for a specific amount of time, were by the muscle, or group of muscles, to be stretched is under tension. Both the antagonist (apposing muscle) and agonist muscle (muscle to be stretched ), are relaxed. This type of stretching is safe and effective with a limited threat of injury. It is a good choice for pre-exercise stretching and for beginners. b. Passive stretching Passive stretching is very similar to static stretching; the difference is a person or apparatus is used to help stretch the muscles. When using a partner it is imperative that no jerking or bouncing force is applied to the stretched muscle. This type of the stretching will help to attain a greater range of movement, but with a slightly higher risk of injury. It can be used effectively as part of a rehabilitation program or as part of the cool-down. c. Active stretching Active stretching involves using only the strength of our apposing muscles (antagonistic) to generate a stretch within the targeted muscle group (agnostic). Active stretching is performed without any aide or assistance from an external force. An example of active stretching is to stand up and lift one leg straight out in front of you. Your quadriceps are the opposing muscles, they will help relax the targeted muscles, the hamstrings. This type of the stretching exercise is usually quite difficult to hold and maintain for long periods of time and therefore the stretching position is usually only held for 10 to 15 seconds. This type of stretching is used as a rehabilitation tool and a very effective form of conditioning before moving on to dynamic stretching exercises. d. PNF stretching Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation or facilitated stretching, is a more advanced form of flexibility training that involve both the stretching and contracting of the muscle group being targeted. PNF stretching is excellent for targeting specific muscle groups, increasing flexibility, increasing range of movement, and also improves muscular strength. For this type of stretch, the athlete and partner assume the position for the stretch, then the partner extends the body lamb until the muscle is stretched and tension is felt. The athlete contracts the stretched muscle for 5 to 6 seconds and a partner must inhabit all movement. The muscle group is relaxed, then immediately and cautiously, pushed 3

4 past its normal range of movement for about 30 seconds. Allow 30 seconds recovery before repeating the procedure. e. Isometric stretching Isometric stretching is a form of passive stretching similar to PNF stretching, but the contractions are held for a longer period of time. Depending on the level of intensity used to stretch, it is recommended allowing at least 48 hours rest between isometric stretching sessions. Only perform one isometric stretching exercise per muscle group in a session. To perform an isometric stretch; assume the position of the passive stretch and then contract the stretched muscle for 10 to 15 seconds. Then relax the muscle for at least 20 seconds. This procedure should be repeated 2 to 5 times. 2. Dynamic stretches The term and dynamic stretches refers to stretching exercises that are performed with movement. The individual uses a swinging, bouncing, and rebounding motion to extend their range of movement and flexibility. There are three different types of dynamic stretching exercises. a. Ballistic stretching Ballistic stretching is an outdated form of stretching that uses of momentum generated by rapid swinging, bouncing and rebounding movements to force a body part past its usual range of movement. Other than potential injury, the main disadvantage of ballistic stretching is that it fails to allow the stretched muscle time to adapt to the stretched position and instead may cause a muscle to tighten up by repeatedly triggering the stretch reflex. b. Dynamic stretching Dynamic stretching uses a controlled, a soft politics were swinging motion to move to a particular body part to the limit of its range of movement. The force of the bounce or swing is gradually increased but should never become radical or on control. Dynamic stretching is slow, gentle and very purposeful. At no time during dynamic stretching should a body part be forced past the joints normal range of movement. Unlike ballistic stretching which is much more aggressive, and its purpose is to force the body part beyond the limit of its normal range of movement. 4

5 c. Active isolated stretching Rules for safe stretching Active isolated (AI) the stretching is a new form of stretching. It works by contracting the operas in muscle group, which forces the stretched muscle group to relax. The procedure for performing AI stretching is as follows. 1. Choose the muscle group to be stretched and then get into a position to begin the stretch. 2. Actively contract the opposing muscle group. 3. Moved into the stretch quickly and smoothly. 4. Hold for 1 to 2 seconds and then release the stretch. 5. Repeat 5 to 10 times. 1. Warm-up prior to the stretching. a. Trying to stretch muscles that had not been warmed up is like trying to stretch old, dry rubber bands: they may snap. 2. before and after exercise. 3. all major muscles and their opposing muscle groups. 4. gently and slowly. 5. only to the point of tension. 6. Breathe slowly and easily while stretching. SPECIFIC BODY PART STRETCHES * We will use layman terms for the targeted muscles. Leg es IT Band Stand and place the non-stretching leg over the front of the leg to be stretched. Lean away from the leg you are stretching. (ITB) Iliotigial Band, Gluteus medius, Tensor fasciae latae, Sartorius Abductor Hipflexor and outside of thigh 5

6 Hip External Rotator & Back Extensor Sit on ground with legs straight. Place foot of leg to to be stretched over opposite knee. Cross opposite elbow over opposite knee and gently pull the knee across the lower leg. Gluteus Medius, & Maximus, Latissimus Dorsi Butt and Back Lying Knee roll-over Lie on your back, keep your knees together and raise them slightly. Keep your arms out to the side and then lift your back and hips rotate with your knees. Semispinalis thoracis. Spinalis thoracis. Longissimus & Iliocostalis thoracis. Iliocostalis lumborum. Gluteus maximus, medius and minimus. Along the center of the back, your Buttocks, and the back side hip. Standing Hamstring with bent Knee Stand with one leg on a chair or platform. Drop the heel and keep the leg slightly bent. With the back straight, lower your chest to your knee. Semimembranosus, Semitendinosus, & Biceps Femoris Hamstring and the Soleus, inside below the Calf. 6

7 Double Lean-Back Quad Set your buttocks back on your heels and place your hands or elbows behind you. Lift up with your hips and hold. Recus femoris, Vastus medialis, lateralis & intermedius. Thighs and hip flexors Sitting Knee-up Rotation Sit with one leg straight and the other leg crossed over your knee. Turn your shoulders and put your arm onto your raised knee to help rotate your shoulders and back. Semispinalis thoracis. Spinalis thoracis. Longissimus & Iliocostalis thoracis. Iliocostalis lumborum. Gluteus maximus, medius and minimus. Along the center of the back, your Buttocks, and the back side hip. Sitting Toe Pull Calf Sit with one leg straight and toes pointed up. Lean forward and pull your toes back towards your body. Gastrocnemius. Semimembranosus. Semitendonosus. Biceps femoris. Tibialis posterior. Inside back of leg and calf 7

8 Standing Reach Hamstring Stand with your feet shoulder-width apart. Bend forward and reach towards the ground. Semimembranosus, Semitendinosus, Biceps femoris. Gastrocnemius, Gluteus maximus. Buttocks, Hamstrings and calfs Standing Toe Raised Calf Stand with one leg straight out in front of you on he floor or a chair. Point your toes toward your body and lean forward. Keep your back straight and rest your hands on your bent knee. Semimembranosus, Semitendinosus, Biceps femoris. Gastrocnemius, Gluteus maximus. Hamstrings and calfs Lying Cross-over Knee Pull-up Lie on your back and cross one leg over the other. Bring your foot up to your opposite knee. With the opposite arm pull your raised knee down-ward and towards your chest. Gluteus maximus. Semimembranosus, Semitendinosus, Biceps femoris. Buttocks, out side of thigh. 8

9 Lying Leg Cross-over Lie on your back and cross one leg over the other. Keep both legs straight and arms out to the side. Let your back and hips rotate with your leg. Semispinalis thoracis. Spinalis thoracis. Longissimus thoracis. Iliocostalis thoracis. Iliocostalis lumborum, Multifidus. Gluteus Maximus, Minimus, and Medius Buttocks and IT Band Sitting Side Reach Sit with one leg straight out to the side and your toes pointed up. Bring your other foot up to your knee and let your head fall forward. Reach towards the outside of your toes with both hands. Semispinalis thoracis. Spinalis thoracis. Longissimus thoracis. Iliocostalis thoracis. Iliocostalis lumborum, Multifidus.Obliques Inside thighs, obliques, and along spine Lying Double Knee-to-chest Lie on your back and draw both knees to your chest with your hands. Gluteus maximus. Iliocostalis lumborum Buttocks and lower back 9

10 Lying Knee-to-Chest Lie on your back and keep one leg flat on the ground. Use your hands to bring your other knee into your chest. Gluteus maximus. Iliocostalis lumborum Lower back and Buttocks Lying Bent Knee Hamstring Lie on your back, lift one leg, grab behind the knee and slowly pull the leg towards the chest. Biceps femoris. Semitendinosus. Semimembranosus. Gluteus maximus Hamstring and Buttocks Lying Partner Assisted Hamstring Lie on your back and keep both legs straight. With your toes pointed, have a partner lift the leg and slowly rise it up towards your head. Tell the partner when to stop, and hold. Biceps femoris. Semitendinosus. Semimembranosus. Calf and Hamstring PNF (Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation) 10

11 One leg standing hip flexor & Knee Extensor Stand upright with weight balanced on one leg keep your foot pointing straight forward and then the knee almost straight. Place hand on wall for balance. Bend the other knee and grab the foot or ankle tightly and pull the heel backward and slightly upward towards the butt. Vastus medialis, intermedius, and lateralis, middle and upper Sartorius, rectus femoris, psoas major iliacus and tensor fascia lata. Outside and front of the thigh. Lying Quad Lie face down and pull one foot up behind your buttocks. Rectus femoris. Vastus intermedius, medialis, lateralis. Iliacus Quadriceps Stand on both feet, grab one knee and pull up towards your chest while standing straight up. Gluteus maximus, Iliocostalis lumborum Buttocks and lower back 11

12 Sit with your legs straight and wide apart. Keep your back straight and lean forward. Adductor longus, brevis and magnus. Gracilis. Semimembranosus. Semitendinosus. The groin area and inside the thighs. Your foot and ankle in all directions Ankle Rotation Raise one foot off the ground and slowly rotate your foot and ankle in all directions. Soleus. Peroneus longus. Tibialis anterior. Peroneus brevis Inside and outside of shins Shin Raise the top of your foot and toes and hold and lower, repeat. Or walk on your heels. Soleus. Peroneus longus. Tibialis anterior. Peroneus brevis Inside and outside of shins 12

13 Seated Hamstring Sit with legs together and knees bent. Grab your toes and straighten out your knees. Semimembranosus, Semitendinosus, Biceps femoris & Soleus Hamstring and Muscle below the Calf 13

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15 One-leg Kneeling Knee Extensor Step forward with your left knee and bend the knee at about a 90 angle. Extend the right leg behind the torso and touch the floor with the right knee. Move the hips forward, pushing the left knee in front of the left ankle and dorsiflexing that ankle. (R) Vastus Medialis, Intermedius and Lateralis, Middle and upper right Sartorius, Outside front and side of thigh 15

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18 Neck es Lateral Neck Look forward while keeping your head up. Slowly move your ear towards your shoulder while keeping hands behind your back. Trapezius (Traps) and Levator scapulae Side of neck 18

19 Rotating Neck Stand upright while keeping your shoulders still and your head up. Slowly rotate your cin towards your shoulder. Sternocleidomastoideus, Splenius capitis, Semispinalis capitis, and Longissimus capitis. Front / Side of neck Neck Protraction Stand upright while keeping your shoulders still and your head up. Slowly push your chin out and keep your head forward. Semispinalis cervicis, Spinalis cervicis, Longissimus cervicis, Splenius cervicis Side of neck Shoulder Reverse Shoulder Stand with your back to a bench or chair, and your hands on the edge, lower your body. Anterior deltoid, Pectoralis major and minor Outer shoulder, chest, and secondly the biceps. Passive 19

20 Parallel Arm Shoulder Place one arm at 90 degrees, across the front of your body, pull your elbow towards the opposite shoulder. Latissimus dorsi, Trapezius, Rhomboids, Posterior deltoid. Upper back and traps, front shoulder Bent Arm Shoulder Place one arm at 90 degrees, across the front of your body, pull your elbow towards the opposite shoulder. Latissimus dorsi, Trapezius, Rhomboids, Posterior deltoid. Upper back and traps, front shoulder 20

21 Cross Over Shoulder Stand with your knees bent and cross your arms and grab the back of your knees. Then start to rise upwards until you feel tension in your upper back and shoulders Latissimus dorsi, Trapezius, Rhomboids Upper back and traps 21

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