1 SYNCHRO CANADA MONTREAL SEPTEMBER 18,2016 ISTVAN BALYI SPORT FOR LIFE SOCIETY ADVANCED TRAINING & PERFORMANCE LTD -ATP
2 Objective of the Workshop Review the concept of competition calendar planning Review the concept of periodization of the competition calendar Review what is periodization? Review the process of how to periodize? Review the concept of ultra short interval or race pace training Review the concept of segmental speed and speed training Review growth and maturation puberty Workshop to identify Synchro s priorities Conclusion
3 Planning and Periodization Canadian National Teams Alpine Canada ( ) Freestyle Canada ( ) Athletics Canada ( ) Tennis Canada ( ) Men's Soccer ( ) Men's Water polo ( ) Women's Water polo ( ) Men's Basketball ( ) Women's Basketball ( ) Triathlon Canada ( ) Team BC ( ) Speed Skating Canada ( ) Hungarian Short Track ( Curling Womens (
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6 I am not here to tell you what to do! I am here to challenge the way you are thinking
15 Change is speeding up!
17 Periodization Periodization of the 5Ss Periodization of nutrition Periodization of body composition Periodization of recovery, regeneration Periodization of mental preparation Periodization of the competition calendar
18 Periodization for whom? Prepubertal male of female? Pubertal male of female? Post pubertal male of female? Adult male of female?
20 Single, Double, Triple Periodization Multiple Periodization
21 Phases of the Annual Plan General Preparatory Phase (GPP); Specific Preparatory Phase (SPP); Pre-Competitive Phase (PCP); Competitive Phase (CP); Transition Phase (TP); GPP SPP PCP CP TP
22 Periodization of the competition calendar Why? To optimize adaptations Randomly selected competitions? Human biology, physiology, skill acquisition and psychology should dictate the scheduling of the meets How long it takes to prepare a swimmer for an important meet? Training age of swimmer
23 Size attained as % of postnatal growth Paradigm 7 Trainability Different patterns of system growth during childhood Neural Age (years) General Genital Adapted from Scammon, 1930
24 Delayed Onset of Training Effect Diminishing Returns / Adaptation Reserves (Balyi, 1997) Schematical Illustration of Long-term Adaptation to Tra Training Age Shorter delay Longer delay
25 Delayed Onset of Training Effect Diminishing Returns / Adaptation Reserves (Balyi, 1997) FUN L2T T2T T2C L2W P2W Schematical Illustration of Long-term Adaptation to T 110 Training Age Shorter delay Longer delay
26 Adaptation to training Aerobic adaptations Strength power adaptations Speed adaptations Skill adaptations Flexibility adaptations
27 Pubertal Periodization Bio Markers and Trainability Strength 1 AC AP Strength 2 Speed 1 Skill Suppleness Speed 2 AC - Aerobic Capacity AP - Aerobic Power
28 AS F L2T T2T T2C T2W Aerobic capacity Balyi, Way 2005 modified after C..Williams 2005
29 Ultra Short Interval Training 1980 s very popular training method Fades away in the 90 Coming back very strongly in a lot of sports, 2010 s: swimming, cycling, rowing, canoe/kayak I have copies of key articles
31 13 year old boys Swimming Canada
32 Swimming Canada 14
33 14 year old Speed skaters
34 13 year old Basketball players Developmentally Appropriate Programmes!
36 Measuring and interpreting PHV ( How to PHV? )
38 The orbitale (O) is located on the lower or most inferior margin of the eye socket. The tragion (T) is the notch above or superior to the tragus or flap of the ear, at the superior aspect of the zygomatic bone. This position corresponds almost exactly to the visual axis when the subject is looking directly ahead.
45 Female Athletes and Hormonal Menstrual cycle Adaptations Follicular phase Luteal phase Dr. Vicki Harber The Female Athlete Perspective
46 Hormonal Predisposition
48 Australian Sport Commission Daly: Hormones (I have an electronic copy)
49 Australian Sport Commission, swimming
50 Chapters: Body Image Menstrual Cycle Self Esteem Pressure, Depression and Parenting
52 Chrono-nutrition Chrono-hydration Timing of the nutritional intake regarding the beginning of the training session or competition and at the training session or competition.
59 Proper recovery and regeneration is Fatigue Management! What kind of Fatigue Management techniques are you using now? What is your protocol?
61 10 Steps of Periodization How to compile an annual training, competition and recovery programme?
62 Steps of the Planning Process - Step 1 Step 1: Identifying the first competition of the annual cycle. In individual sports, coaches or athletes can select the competition(s) which are the best suited for the individual athlete. In team sport there is a dictated competition schedule. Choices can be made with exhibition games and friendly matches. Training Load 1 Month
63 Steps of the Planning Process - Step 2 Step 2: Identifying the last competition of the season. This will provide the Competitive phase of the overall annual cycle. Training Load 1 2 Month
64 Steps of the Planning Process - Step 3 Step 3: Determining the length of the Transition Phase. Traditionally, it is 2-4 week long, including some passive rest and active rest. During the Transition Phase athletes should be active after a brief rest. Participating in complementary sports (using the same energy systems) provides for mental recovery and to avoid detraining. If the Transition Phase is too long, detraining will take place. Training Load Month
65 Steps of the Planning Process - Step 4 Step 4: Determining the length of the Pre-Competitive Phase. The meaning of the period is to place athletes and players into competitive shape. The Pre-Competitive Phase is traditionally 3 to 5 weeks or micro cycles long. This period includes the taper for the selected competition Training Load Month
66 Steps of the Planning Process - Step 5 Step 5: Determining the length of the Specific Preparatory Phase. For beginner athletes, the phase is shorter, and for intermediate and elite athletes, it is longer. More sport-specific work is advantageous to improve capacities and performance, but beginners do not have the capacity to do so, they need more general preparation. Training Load Month
67 Steps of the Planning Process - Step 6 Step 6: Determining the length of the General Preparatory Phase. Due to specific need, it is longer for the beginner athlete and shorter for the intermediate and elite athlete. Training Load Month
68 Steps of the Planning Process - Step 7 Step 7: Plotting the volume of training. Progressive overloading of the volume of training happens during GPP. After entering SPP, the volume progressively decreases (due to the increasing specificity and intensity of training) and enters maintenance mode during PCP and CP. Training Load Month
69 Steps of the Planning Process - Step 8 Step 8: Plotting the intensity of training. As illustrated, very steady intensity plotting during GPP is due to the progressive increase in volume of training. Entering SPP, the intensity increases gradually and the volume of training declines. PCP and CP are characterized by high intensity and relatively low (maintenance) volume. Major and minor peaks can be identified during CP if necessary. Training Load Month
70 Steps of the Planning Process - Step 8 Step 8: Plotting the intensity of training. As illustrated, very steady intensity plotting during GPP is due to the progressive increase in volume of training. Entering SPP, the intensity increases gradually and the volume of training declines. PCP and CP are characterized by high intensity and relatively low (maintenance) volume. Major and minor peaks can be identified during CP if necessary. Training Load Month
71 Training Load Steps of the Planning Process - Step 9a Meso Cycle Planning PCP CP TP
72 Training Load Steps of the Planning Process - Step 9b Meso Cycle Planning SPP PCP CP TP Weeks
73 Training Load Steps of the Planning Process - Step 9c Meso Cycle Planning GPP SPP PCP CP TP Weeks
74 Steps of the Planning Process - Step 9 Step 9: Elaborating meso and micro cycle distribution. This is done by planning backwards from the beginning of CP, and considering physiological and empirical coaching guidelines During GPP, due to general workload, high volume and low intensity 4:1 and 3:1 meso cycles are recommended. During the SPP, 3:1 and 2:1 meso cycles are recommended. Since specific training places higher demands on the organism, recovery micro cycles are planned more frequently. During PCP, mostly 2:1 and 1:1 meso cycles are implemented to provide better recovery, lesser fatigue, and better performance. After the meso cycles are identified, a careful overview is warranted to identify the Christmas Season, exams, school breaks, and other holidays, ensuring the plan is optimized.
75 Training Load 120 Steps of the Planning Process Step TP CP PCP SPP GPP 20 Stamina Strengh Speed Skill Suppleness
76 Step 10: The quantification process is based on individual test and performance records, and normative data. Using the Five Ss of training, the proportions of emphasis or priority of training can be determined. For example, a 50% emphasis on stamina is identified since test results demand a major improvement in endurance. But if endurance is well established, it could receive a 20% allocation and strength could have a 50% allocation. The percentages can also be distributed among the other Ss based upon actual needs of the athlete. So, during GPP, 50% endurance, 20% strength, 5 % speed, 20% skills, and 5 % flexibility is the distribution of the workload. During SPP, endurance is reduced to 30%, strength maintained at 20%, speed increased to 10%, skills increased to 35%, and flexibility maintained at 5%. During PCP and CP, endurance and strength is maintained at 10%, whereas speed increases to 15%, skills to 60%, and flexibility to 5%.
77 Micro Cycle Planning Select One Micro Cycle from Each Phase Weeks
79 Learning to Compete (ST Elite) Dates MONTHS Apr-09 May-09 Jun-09 Jul-09 Aug-09 Sep-09 Oct-09 Nov-09 Dec-09 Jan-10 Feb-10 Mar-10 Apr-10 Mondays Holidays XMAS arch Brea PHASE Transition General Specific Pre-Comp Competition Tranistion Periods Domestic Comp E1 E2 CDN jr SEL#2 E3 E4 CI CT International Comp W JC Race Simulations X X R R R R Camps Dry Ice Ice Testing X X X X Physical Preparation (%) Stamina Strength Speed Skill Suppleness Volume & Intensity MICROCYCLE Volume % ## ## Intensity % \ Mental Training Recovery and Regeneration Schooling Exams Summer Vacation Exams Break arch Brea Professional support network MICROCYCLE
80 Athletics Jumps - Annual Plan Stage 5 Training to Compete
81 Competition calendar planning All the above discussed concept should be taken into consideration when designing a competition calendar Is the same calendar schedule works for all ages all stages? Mini-maxi mode of competition calendar
82 Conclusion We reviewed the concept of periodization of the competition calendar Reviewed what is periodization? Reviewed the process of how to periodize? Reviewed the concept of ultra short interval and race pace training Reviewed the concept of segmental speed and speed training Reviewed growth and maturation Conclusion
83 Small Group Discussion Workshop Jen, you can add the slide or slides here, the way you want to run the workshops
93 Definitions Growth refers to observable step-by-step changes in quantity, measurable changes in body size, for example, height, weight, fatness. (Malina, 1986) Maturation refers to qualitative system changes, both structural and functional in nature, in the organism s progress toward maturity, for example, the change of cartilage to bone in the skeleton. (Tihanyi, 1990)
94 Development refers to the interrelationship between growth and maturation in relation to the passage of time. The concept of development also includes the social, emotional, intellectual and motor realms of the child. (Tihanyi, 1990)
95 Chronological age refers to the number of years and days elapsed since birth (Haywood, 1993) Skeletal age refers to the maturity of the skeleton determined by the degree of ossification of the bone structure. (Haywood, 1993)
96 Critical periods of development: A critical period refers to a point in the development of a specific behaviour when experience or training has an optimal effect on development. The same experience, introduced at an earlier or later time, has no effect on, or retards later skill acquisition. (Zaichkowsky, Zaichowsky and Martinek, 1980)
97 Trainability Malina and Bouchard (1991) defined trainability as the responsiveness of developing individuals at different stages of growth and maturation to the training stimulus..
98 Malina and Bouchard (1991) also referred to readiness and critical periods of trainability during growth and development of young athletes, thus the stimulus have to be timed to achieve optimum adaptation with regard to motor skills, muscular and/or aerobic power.
99 Adaptation refers to a stimuli or a series of stimuli which induces functional and/or morphological changes in the organism. Naturally, the level or degree of adaptation is dependent on the genetical endowment of an individual. However, the general trends or patterns of adaptation are identified by physiological research and the facts and guidelines of the different adaptation processes, such as adaptation to muscular endurance or maximum strength, are clearly delineated. Diagnostics before and after maturation Moving scales during PHV
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