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1 International conference

2 Periodization training: from traditional version till block structured models Vladimir B. Issurin, Ph.D., Professor

3 Plan Classic approach: basics and restrictions Nowadays versions Block periodization properly

4 Theory of training periodizaton Classic version

5 Boris Kotov Olympic sport, St-Petersburg, 1916 Kotov subdivided annual cycle into three periods directed to general, specific preparation and tuning towards competition. He also conceptualized the term peak-performance state

6 Lev P. Matveyev Problem of periodization of athletic training Moscow, FiS Publisher, 1964

7 Classic version of annual periodization (Matveyev,1964)

8 Sources of criticism and needs for reforming Appearance of previously unknown facts and concepts Experience and desires of top-level athletes Creativity and ambitions of prominent coaches

9 The trends in contemporary High-Performance Sport

10 Traditional Model Typical Changes 100% VO 2max 90% Muscle mass AnT 80% Preparation period Competition period

11 General volumes of annual preparation Gymnastics-R Running-MD Fencing Wrestling Volleyball Synchro.Swimming Rowing Kayaking Swimming Hours

12 Total number of competition days per year Cycling-Road Running-MD Fencing Wrestling Judo Sailing Rowing Kayaking Swimming Number of days

13 Annual volumes of exercises in endurance sports (thousands km) Swimming Kayaking Rowing Cycling-R

14 Sergei Bubka: Performance trend in season Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep18 Source: Suslov, 2003

15 Marion Jones: Performance trend in season Running Long jump 1 11 Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Source: Suslov, 2003

16 Question Should many abilities be trained at the same time?

17 Facts: Simultaneous development of many abilities decreases effectiveness of training Body cannot simultaneously adapt to many training stimuli

18 Past and Present in High- Performance Training Past Presence Competitions less more Total workload more less Pharmacology liberal hard limitation Development mainly mainly simultaneous consecutive

19 Basic limitations of traditional model Low stimulation producing by mixed training Conflicting physiological responses Excessive fatigue accumulation Inability to take part in many competitions

20 Nowadays versions Alternative approach: blocks and stages

21 Terminology Block training cycle of highly concentrated specialized workloads

22 Prof. Yuri V. Verkhochansky USSR, Russia, Italy

23 Yuri V. Verkhochansky The concentrated unidirectional block training

24 A block of concentrated strength/power workloads, B block of specialized technical work and recovery Verkhoshansky, 1985 (cited from 2005)

25 A block of concentrated strength/power workloads, B block for developing metabolic and functional abilities C - block of specialized technical work and recovery Verkhoshansky, 1985 (cited from 2005)

26 Summary of studies of concentrated unidirectional block training Sample Training description Source 20 shoot boxers, control and EXP group 8 elite basketball players; one group 11 elite handball players; one group 21 male elite soccer players, one group Three high-level swimmers 15wks macrocycle: traditional VS. block design Two macrocycles (23 and 19 wks) divided to 3 stages 16 wks block structured program: strength, power, speed; specific technique Block structured concentrated strength training within the season 18 wks block structured program: strength, power, and speed/technique. Villani&Ges uale, 2003 Moreira et al., 2004 de Souza et al., 2006 Campeiz and de Oliveira, 2007 da Silva Marinho, 2008

27 Block Periodized Training: multi-targeted model

28 Anatoli Bondarchuk, track and field, hammer throwing Block Periodized system that includes: developmental mesocycle, competitive mesocycle, restoration mesocycle. Duration of training stage 9-10 weeks Preparation outcomes - gold-, silver-, and bronze-medals attained at the 1988 and 1992 Olympic Games Publication: Bondarchuk, 1986,1988

29 Gennadi Touretski, swimming Block Periodized system that includes: general, specific, and competitive mesocycles. Duration of training stage 6-10 weeks Preparation outcomes numerous gold medals of Alexander Popov and Michael Klim attained at the Olympic Games and World Championships Publication: Touretski, 1993, 1998

30 Vladimir Issurin & Vassili Kaverin, Canoe-Kayak Block Periodized system that includes: accumulation, transformation and realization mesocycles. Duration of training stage 6-10 weeks Preparation outcomes 3 gold and 3 silver medals of USSR National Team at the Seoul Olympic Games; 8 and 9 gold medals at World Championships of 1989, 1990 Publication: Issurin, Kaverin, 1985,1989

31

32 Issurin VB, Kaverin VF Planning and construction of annual cycle in canoe/kayak paddlers preparation

33 The principal methodic demands to BP training were almost identical: 1) mesocycles-blocks where focused on minimal number of targets; 2) the total number of proposed blocks is relatively small; 3) the single mesocycle-block s duration ranges within two-fore weeks; 4) joining of single mesocycles forms training stage; 5) a number of training stages forms annual cycle

34 Annual Preparation Chart Block Approach Winter Trials Spring Trials Trials Targeted competitions Realization R R R R Transmutation T T T T Accumulation A A A A A Stage I Stage II Stage III Stage IV Stage V Preparation period Competition period

35 Annual preparation of Alexander Popov towards the Atlanta Olympic Games 1 st stage 2 nd stage 3rd stage 4th stage 5th stage 6th stage By Courtesy of Gennadi Touretski

36 Michael Phelps athlete of 21 st century

37 Annual Preparation Chart of Michael Phelps Competitions, Trials World Cup Christmas Meet (Source: Mujika, 2009) National Trials World Cup National Selection National Trials Grand Prix World Ch-p US Nationals Volume, km/wee Totally 2570 km 20 Stages 0 Sept-25 Oct-16 Nov-06 Nov-27 Dec-18 Jan-08 Courtesy for Bob Bowman, personal coach Jan-29 Feb-19 Mar-12 Apr-02 Apr-23 Mai-14 Jun-04 Jun-25 Jul-16 Aug-06 Aug-27

38 Block Periodization vs. Traditional Theory TT Simultaneous development of motor abilities and skills Medium (low) concentration of training loads Focus training periods Background cumulative training effect BP Consecutive development of motor abilities and skills High concentration of training loads Focus blocks-mesocycles Background cumulative and residual training effect

39 Training blocks taxonomy

40 Taxonomy of blocks-mesocycles Types Accumulation Abilities-targets Basic motor and technical abilities: aerobic endurance, muscular strength, basic coordination Transmutation Specific motor and technical abilities: anaerobic endurance, strength endurance, proper technique Realization Integrative preparedness: maximal speed and quickness, event specific readiness

41 Residual training effects

42 Prof. James Counsilman great coach and scientist

43 Prof. James Counsilman great coach and scientist

44 Terminology Residual training effect: - retention of changes in the body state and motor abilities after the cessation of training beyond certain time period Important

45 Residual training effects Aerobic endurance Maximal strength Anaerobic endurance Strength endurance Alactic ability Maximal speed Days number

46 Peaking

47 Terminology Peaking - obtaining the best athletic conditions at a particular moment

48 Superposition of Residual Training Effects Timing Blocksmesocycles Competition Accumulation Transmutation Realization Residuals days days 8-14 days

49 The latest studies of Block Periodized training

50 Summary of BP studies in endurance sports Garcia-Pallares et al.(2009) Annual preparation of elite kayakers Breil et al.(2010) BP aerobic program of alpine skiers Ronnestad et al.(2012a,b) BP program of elite cyclists Storen et al. (2012) BP preseason training of elite cyclist Bakken al. (2013) BP training of cross-country skiers

51

52 Saul Craviotto and Carlos Perez (ESP) - Olympic Champions

53 Effects of block periodization training versus traditional periodization training in trained cross country skiers Timo Andre Bakken Week BP group HIT TRAD group HIT Improvements in VO2max and time to exhaustion were seen in the BP group, but not in the TRAD group. This effect was seen despite both groups had similar total volumes of HIT and LIT during the five week intervention period.

54 Ronnestad et al. Block Periodization in elite cyclists 2012

55 Summary of BP studies in team and duel sports Stolen et al.(2005) BP aerobic mesocycle of soccer players Porta, Sanz (2005) Annual BP preparation of Carlos Moya Newton et al. (2006 ) BP structured training in volleyball Mallo (2011 and 2012) BP in-season training of elite soccer players

56 Summary of BP studies in strength/power sports Herrik & Stone (1996) 15 wks program- 3 subsequent blocks Hartmann et al. (2009) 14 wks program- 2 subsequent blocks Smith (2011 ) BP annual program for bodybuilders Painter et al. (2012) 10 wks BP fitness program in track and field

57 How to accomplish these knowledge?

58

59

60

61

62 What people are saying?

63 Improvement rate of the certain ability over the block-mesocycle Improvement Ivan Klementiev Olympic champion, seven-time world champion, member of national parliament of Latvia Never before the coaches receive such practical and useful information on training methodology and enhancement of athletic mastery. Using this knowledge the coaches and athletes will be able to reach new heights and greater success. There is no science fiction everything is absolutely realistic. Weeks

64 Conclusion Block Periodization as an alternative training approach is worthy for learning and implementation in the preparation of high-performance athletes

65 Thank you for your attention

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