Sensory Receptors. Special Senses (Part A-1) Module 8 -Chapter 15. React to stimuli or changes Within body or outside environment 2 Major Types

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1 Special Senses (Part A-1) Module 8 -Chapter 15 Susie Turner, M.D. 1/9/13 Overview Eye Fibrous tunic Vascular tunic Sensory tunic Other structures Ear Outer Ear Middle Ear Inner Ear Hearing Equilibrium Sensory Receptors React to stimuli or changes Within body or outside environment 2 Major Types General Senses Special Senses 1

2 Receptors for General Senses Scattered throughout body More concentrated in skin. Simple in structure Pain Touch Temperature Stretch Vibration Pressure Changes in position Complex organs or small localized group of receptors Vision Sight Olfaction Smell Audition Hear Equilibrium Balance Gustation Taste Special Senses 2

3 Internal Structures of Eye Wall of Eye 3 Coats or Tunics Fibrous Tunic Sclera Cornea Vascular Tunic Choroid Ciliary Gland, Iris, Lens, Pupil Neural Tunic Pigmented Epithelial Layer Neural Layer Fibrous Tunic Outer layer of eyeball Consists of sclera, cornea, and conjunctivia Sclera White of the Eye Outer Layer Covering Posterior & Lateral Eye Tough layer 3

4 Cornea Anterior Transparent Allows light to enter Conjunctivia Thin vascular membrane Covers the outer eye and inner eyelids Not cornea Fibrous Tunic Middle Layer is Vascular Tunic Also called the uvea Vascular Tunic Choroid is the posterior part Very Vascular Nourishes the back of the eye Also contains pigmented cells 4

5 Vascular Tunic Anterior Part of Vascular Tunic Contains; Ciliary Body Circular smooth muscle Holds lens in place by suspensory ligaments. Lens Focuses light on retina Iris Color of eye Regulates light entering eye Contains smooth muscle Constricts & dilates pupil Pupil Dark hole for light Opening in center of iris Retina 2 layers Pigmented Epithelial Layer Chemical reaction with light Neural Layer Sensory Receptors Optic nerve Nerve fibers from retina come together in back of eye Optic Disc Area where optic & blood vessels enter eye Causes a Blind Spot Sensory Tunic 5

6 Rods & Cones Rods Functions in Dim, night vision See Shades of gray Cones Functions in Light vision See Colors Macula Lutea Central portion of retina Rich in cones Fovea Centralis Slight pit Center of macula Contains only cones Area of highest visual acuity Photopigment Visual pigment is chemical in rods & cones Chemical change takes place when light hits it. Photon Basic unit of visible light *Light strikes photopigment a chemical change occurs that stimulates rods & cones produces impulses that are transmitted through the optic nerve to the brain interpreted as vision Vision 6

7 Eye Cavities Anterior Cavity In front of lens Contains Aqueous Humor Watery fluid Provides nourishment for lens & cornea 2 Divisions Divided by Iris Anterior Chamber Posterior Chamber Aqueous Humor Anterior Cavity Produced continuously produced by ciliary body Drained thru small opening Called canal of Schlemm 7

8 Posterior Cavity Behind lens Contains Vitreous Humor Vitreous Humor Means pertaining to glass. Jelly-like substance Supports eye & holds retina in place Posterior Cavity Eye Cavities Refractile Structures of the Eye Vitreous humor, lens & aqueous humor Focus rays sharply on the retina If do not function properly; Vision is impaired Cannot focus properly. 8

9 Name for all supporting structures of eye globe 1. Extrinsic Eye Muscles Skeletal muscles 6 Control Eye Movement 2. Lacrimal Apparatus Gland, Sac, Nasolacrimal duct Adnexa of Eye Adnexa of Eye 3. Palpebrae Eyelids Contain eyelashes & glands 4. Lateral & Medial Canthus Corners of Eyes 5. Conjunctivia Mucous membrane Lines inner eyelid & outer eyeball to cornea 9

10 Tests visual acuity at a distance Sharpness of vision Compares person to what the normal eye can see at 20 feet. Snellen Eye Test Peripheral Vision Also called visual field Focus straight ahead & can still see to sides Important for driving 10

11 Eye Dominate Which eye you use to mainly focus with. Using a camera Using a gun 11

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