6/23/2009. Inversion Recovery (IR) Techniques and Applications. Variations of IR Technique. STIR, FLAIR, TI and TI Null. Applications of IR

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1 The Anatomy of Basic R Pulse Sequences Inversion Recovery () Techniques and Applications Chen Lin, PhD Indiana University School of edicine & Clarian Health Partners agnetization Preparation Section Chemical Shift Selective Saturation & Excitation Spatial Selective Saturation agnetization Transfer (T) Inversion Recovery () Data Acquisition Section Slice/Slab Selective Excitation Phase Encoding(s) Echo Generation Spin Echo (SE), Fast/Turbo SE (TSE), Single-shot FSE (HASTE) Gradient Recalled Echo (GRE), Single-shot GRE (EPI) Diffusion Weighting (DWI/D) and Gradient oment Nulling (GN) Frequency Encoding Filling of K-space agnetization Recovery Section End of Sequence Spoiling Driven Equilibrium Increment Phase Encoding agnetization Preparation by Variations of Technique 180 RF GS GP GR ADC Inversion Options: Non-selective Slice-selective Spectral selective Acquisition Options: Unlimited (TSE and TFL are common) 2D and 3D 0 Tissue magnetization Inversion Recovery Acquisition Adiabatic Flow-induced Adiabatic Combination of multiple inversions View ordering and correction of k-space modulation can be important. Applications of Selectively suppress tissue / background signal based on T 1 differences SR FLA SPA Improve T 1 contrast (Phase Sensitive Recon) P-RAGE, -SPGR, -TFE T1 FLA T1 T 1 easurement / T 1 apping Tagging / Labeling Non-CE perfusion with Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL) SR, FLA, and Null SR: Short Tau Inversion Recovery, TRI FLA: FLuid Attenuated Inversion Recovery, Dark Fluid Signal Inversion RF Pulse null (Fat) Fat signal Fluid signal null (Water) Time 1

2 Relative z(t) 6/23/2009 T 1 of Various Tissue Types Tissue T 1.5T (msec) T 3.0T (msec) CSF W G Blood uscle Fat null = 0.69 x T1 Dependence on Inversion Flip Angle and TR As the inversion flip angle or TR decreases: Null also decreases. Suppression becomes less selective T1 (ms) Interleave of Inversion & Acquisition SR FLA T ACQ1 ACQ2 ACQ3 ACQ4 ACQ ACQ1 ACQ2 ACQ3 ACQ4 ACQ ACQ4 ACQ5 ACQ1 ACQ2 ACQ3 In-sensitive to B 0 inhomogeneity ore reliable than FATSAT for large FOV and off-center works at lower field strengths High visibility for fluid long T1 bright on SR long T2 bright on SR, given long enough TE ore about SR Lower SNR improved with shorter TE (17-48 msec ) Bad idea with Gd shorter post-contrast tumor T1 Red marrow signal can obscure subtle edema use TE= to suppress marrow SR versus FATSAT in the Presence of etal Hardware 81 year old female, right hip prosthesis SR T1 TSE with FATSAT Cor CT Cor FSE T2 with FATSAT Cor SR 2

3 Courtesy of Drs. Gaa, Bink Kijowski, R. et al. Am. J. Roentgenol. 2005;185: /23/2009 odified SR for SK Water Saturation plus SR for Imaging Silicone Implant Water Fat 220Hz Silicone Implant 320Hz SR odified SR TE=50-100; 1.5T Improved SNR and excellent fluid sensitivity in soft tissues Freq FLA (Dark Fluid) for Brain T1 FLA (odified FLA) 2D FLA 3D SPACE FLA High Res T1 FLA with 3D 3.0T Used short TR and than conventional FLA Suppress CSF and provides T1 contrast SPA SPectrally Adiabatic Inversion Recovery Conventional vs Adiabatic Inversion Adiabatic Spectral Selective Null Water signal Fat signal SPA uses an adiabatic frequency selective inversion pulse. Insensitivity to inhomogeneity (better for 3.0T) Takes longer time and generates higher SAR than conventional ChemSat B 1 3

4 B1 Sensitivity C-Spine with SPA TSE w. SPA Breast DCE with SPA Breast T2 with SPA at 3.0T VIBE with SPA VIBE with FATSAT T2 SPC w. FatSat T2 SPC w. SPA Abdominal Applications Double (D), Dark Blood Data acquisition 1 segment = 7 lines Nonselective Slice Selective yocardium signal Blood signal DW b=50 w. SPA HASTE w. SPA Null 4

5 Korosoglou G, et al. JRI 2008 ay;27(5):1175 Dark Blood for Cardiac Applications Cardiac orphology with D W/O DB With DB W/O DB With DB T1 with Dark Blood T2 with Dark Blood D for Brain Inversion-Recovery for ON-resonant water suppression (ON) Dark Fluid Dark Fluid & Dark W D to suppress fat & onresonance 1H R-Lymphography using ON & SPIO Triple (R) or DB SR D versus R Data acquisition 1 segment = 7 lines Nonselective Slice Selective Freq Selective yocardium Fat Blood Null Null 5

6 D Optimization for Cardiac Adjust according to Heart Rate or TR (Lock Contrast) TR too short : systolic motion reduces myocardial signal TR optimized TR too long : blood signal begins to recover Faster HR Shorter RR Less Recovery Shorter Heart Rate BP RR msec TR msec msec T1 In-sensitive DB with Quad Small FOV with Quad Q D Pre arnykh VL, uan C ay;55(5):1083 Post arnykh VL, uan C. R 2002 Nov;48(5):899 Background Suppression with in Renal RA Improve Tissue Contrast with Inversion Inflow Imaging P-RAGE 3T; 0.9x0.9x0.9 mm 3 ; TA: 4:31 J. Carr. Northwestern University 6

7 P-RAGE, -SPGR, -TFE P-RAGE versus P-EFGRE at 3.0T z(w) z(g) Contrast P-RAGE -SPGR P-EFGRE Sequential Centric Recessed EC Central Views TD P-RAGE 9:14 P-EFGRE 6:30 T1-weighted FLuid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery (T1FLA) T1-weighted Imaging for 3.0T Axial T1 3T with TR/TE//ETL = 2100/9.5/900/3 2D SE 60 2D T1 FLA 2D FLASH 3D FLASH 3D PRAGE Improves T1 contrast at 3.0T High SAR limits number of slices and coverage IQ=4 IQ=6 IQ=4 IQ=5 IQ=5 IQ: The median perceived overall image quality Lin C et al ISR2008 Poster2003 yocardial Viability (Delay Enhancement) Suppress Normal yocardium with Increased distribution volume of contrast within necrotic myocardium. Necrotic tissue has faster T1 recovery than normal tissue following an pulse. Adjusting the to null normal myocardium gives maximum image contrast between necrotic and normal myocardium tissues. Necrotic Normal ECG Trigger R Non-selective 180 o inversion n... data ms R Necrotic Normal R Non-selective 180 o inversion... 7

8 FLASH/TruFISP/EPI for Delayed Enhancement T 1 Scout Signal Contrast Reversal Blood yocardium Time Inversion Suppress the signal from normal myocardium Finn, J. P. et al. Radiology 2006;241: with Phase Sensitive (PS) Recon True (Real ) for Brain Signal Blood yocardium Time Inversion PS T1 Phase Sensitive Reconstruction An image reconstruction option, no additional scan time Improve contrast ay produce artifact. PS T1 T1SE T2 FLA Ask for both magnitude recon and PS recon images. Hou et al. AJNR (6):

9 Look-Locker for T1 mapping Summary Inversion Recovery () is a useful technique to improve tissue contrast based on their T1 differences. The improvement typically come with a cost of lower SNR and longer time. ultiple s targeting different species can be combined in a single acquisition. Kimelman T et al. Invest Radiol Feb;41(2):198 Thank you! 9

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