1 Exercise Stress Testing: Cardiovascular or Respiratory Limitation? Marshall B. Dunning III, Ph.D., M.S. Professor of Medicine & Physiology Medical College of Wisconsin
2 What is exercise? Physical activity that results in an energy demand above the resting metabolic demand. The goal of exercise testing is to evaluate the physiologic response of those organs and systems (e.g., heart, lungs, muscles) involved, to an increase in physical stress. ATS/ACCP
3 Clinical exercise testing is plagued by a lack of standardization...there is a lack of agreement as to how an exercise test should be carried out, what measurements should be made, how to interpret the results, and what clinical use can be made of them. Norman L. Jones, M.D. McMaster University Hamilton, Ontario
4 Indications for exercise testing: 1) Shortness of breath on exertion 2) Determination of functional capacity 3) Exercise-induced asthma 4) Maximum oxygen consumption studies 5) Evaluation of patients with cardiovascular disease 6) Evaluation of patients with respiratory disease 7) Exercise prescription for pulmonary rehabilitation
5 EXERCISE MODALITIES Stair Climbing Master Two-Step Test 6 Minute Walk Test Treadmill Cycle Ergometer Shuttle Walking
6 EXERCISE PROTOCOLS Cycle Ergometry Incremental or ramp Approximately 10 minutes Pedaling frequency of 60 rpm 1-3 minutes resting data 1-3 minutes unloaded pedaling Increase at 5-30 W/minute Treadmill Speed constant and grade is increased (Balke Protocol) 2 mph, 0% grade and than the grade is increased 2-3% every minute Speed and grade are both increased (Bruce Protocol) 1.7 mph, 10% grade and than increased by 0.8 mph and 2% grade every 3 minutes
7 . Comparison of Cycle versus Treadmill Cycle Treadmill VO 2 max lower higher Leg muscle fatigue often limits less limiting Work rate quantification yes estimation Weight bearing in obese less more Noise and artifacts less more Safety issues less more
8 During exercise there are increases in: Heart rate Oxygen extraction Cardiac output Oxygen uptake Carbon dioxide output Arterial blood pressure Minute ventilation Alveolar ventilation Oxygen pulse RQ and RER METS During exercise there are decreases in: V D /V T
9 f and V T increase to about 70-80% of peak exercise, thereafter f Watts V T plateaus at 50-60% of VC Respiratory response to incremental work or exercise (Source: Physiology Secrets, 2 nd ed., Raff H, Hanley & Belfus, Inc., Philadelphia, 2003)
10 Maximal Oxygen Uptake (VO 2 max) Represents the highest VO 2 reached for a given form of exercise, as evidenced by a failure for VO 2 to increase further despite an increase in work rate. VO 2 max is best index of aerobic capacity and gold standard for cardiopulmonary fitness. Maximum Oxygen Uptake (VO 2 peak) Represents the highest VO 2 reached for a given, presumed maximal exercise effort. Generally VO 2 max and VO 2 peak are used interchangeably.
11 Oxygen Consumption: the amount of oxygen used per minute 250 ml/min at rest (3.5 ml/min/kg) 5,000 ml/min at strenuous exercise (>70 ml/min/kg) Cost of Ventilation: that portion of total oxygen consumption utilized by the respiratory muscles. 2-5% of VO 2 at rest. >30% of VO 2 during exercise Respiratory steal phenomenon
12 Ventilatory Equivalents.... V E /VO 2 V E /VCO 2 Effect of exercise on oxygen consumption and ventilatory rate. (Redrawn from Gray JS: Pulmonary Ventilation and Its Physiological Regulation. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas, Figure 84-6, Guyton, pg. 1061
13 ANAEROBIC THRESHOLD Exercise VO 2 that marks the transition between no change or little change in arterial lactate concentration and the sustained increase in concentration of lactate. Lactate Threshold Lactic Acid Threshold Gas Exchange Threshold Ventilatory Threshold Estimates the onset of metabolic acidosis caused predominantly by the increased rate of arterial lactate during exercise. ATS/ACCP
14 Fig 2-2. Gas Exchange During Aerobic and Anaerobic Exercise (Source: Principles of Exercise Testing and Interpretation, Wasserman et al, Lea & Febiger Publishers, Philadelphia, 1994)
15 ANAEROBIC THRESHOLD (AT) AT is generally referenced to the VO 2 at which the change occurs, i.e., the rate of change in arterial lactate rapidly rises. Normal: % of VO 2 (35-80% range) Blood lactate concentration as a function of incremental exercise (Source: Physiology Secrets, 2nd ed., Raff H, Hanley & Belfus, Inc., Philadelphia, 2003)
16 V-Slope Method VO 2 at which the change in slope of the relationship of VCO 2 to VO 2 occurs S 1 = VCO 2 increases as a relatively linear function of VO 2 S 2 = increase in CO 2 due to buffering of lactic acid
17 Respiratory Quotient (RQ) -ratio of CO 2 production to oxygen consumption -used to estimate fuels used for metabolic processes RQ = 1.0 primarily carbohydrates RQ = 0.7 carbohydrates and fat RQ = 0.8 carbohydrates and protein Respiratory Exchange Ratio (RER) -ratio of CO 2 output by the lungs to O 2 uptake -in homeostasis will equal RQ
18 RQ = CO 2 production = VCO. 2 O 2 consumption VO 2 RQ = 0.20 L/min = L/min RQ = 3.85 L/min = L/min RER = CO 2 output O 2 uptake.
19 METS Metabolic equivalent: used to estimate the metabolic cost of physical activity 1 MET = 3.5 ml of O 2 uptake/min/kg 1 MET rest 4 METS housework, bowling 6 METS farming, tennis 8 METS heavy manual labor, skiing 12 METS hockey 18 METS rowing, swimming
20 Cardiovascular responses to incremental exercise or work (Source: Physiology Secrets, 2 nd ed., Raff H, Hanley & Belfus, Inc., Philadelphia, 2003)
21 OXYGEN PULSE. O 2 pulse = VO 2 = 250 ml/min = 3.5 ml O 2 /beat HR 72 bpm. O 2 pulse = VO 2 = 3450 ml/min = 20.9 ml O 2 /beat HR 165 bpm Used to estimate stroke volume
22 Fig Breath-by-Breath Measurements During Exercise (Source: Principles of Exercise Testing and Interpretation, 4 th ed., Wasserman et al, LWW Publishers, Philadelphia, 2005)
23 VENTILATORY LIMITATION V E (70-80%) f (<60) BR (20-30%) CARDIOVASCULAR LIMITATION ECG Blood pressure response O 2 pulse GAS EXCHANGE LIMITATION SaO 2 or SpO 2 (<4%) PaO 2 (<10 mmhg) A-a gradient (<35 mmhg)
24 Maximal or submaximal stress test? Subjective; Chest pain Fatigue Shortness of breath Objective; Heart rate (>90% of predicted) RQ (>1.15)
25 Did patient reach AT???? Direct: increase in lactate >4 mmol/l or meq/l Indirect: decrease in HCO 3 >4 mmol/l or meq/l V-slope RER (RQ) >1.1
26 Heart Rate Reserve HRR (bpm) = Pred HRmax HR at max HRR (%) = Pred HRmax HR at max X 100 Pred HRmax Predicted Heart Rate = 185 HR at maximum exercise = 165 HRR (bpm) = = 20 bpm HRR (%) = X 100 = 11% 185 (Normal = 0)
27 Breathing Reserve BR (L/min) = MVV V E BR = = 25 L/min BR (%) = MVV V E X 100 MVV BR = X 100 = 20% 125 (Normal = 20-30%)
28 Variable Normal Clinical Significance VO 2 max (peak) >84% Decreased in heart failure, COPD, ILD, obesity, pulmonary vascular disease, and deconditioned. AT >40% VO 2 max Decreased in heart failure, COPD, ILD, pulmonary vascular disease, and deconditioned. Normal in obesity. Heart Rate Heart Rate Reserve >90% <15 beats/min Decreased in COPD, obesity, pulmonary vascular disease, and deconditioned. Normal in heart failure. Oxygen Pulse >80% Decreased in heart failure, COPD, ILD, pulmonary vascular disease, and deconditioned. Normal in obesity. V E max Frequency Ventilatory or Breathing Reserve 70 80% <60 bpm 20 30% Increased or normal in heart failure, COPD, ILD, obesity, pulmonary vascular disease, and deconditioned.
29 Variable Normal Clinical Significance SaO 2 >95% <4% decrease Decreased in ILD and pulmonary vascular disease. Normal in heart failure, obesity and deconditioned. PaO 2 >80 mmhg <10 mmhg fall Decreased in ILD and pulmonary vascular disease Normal in heart failure, obesity and deconditioned. P(A-a)O 2 <35 mmhg Increased in COPD, ILD, and pulmonary vascular disease. Normal in heart failure and deconditioned. V D /V T <0.28 Increased in heart failure, COPD, ILD, pulmonary vascular disease, and normal in obesity and deconditioned. V E /VCO 2 (at AT) <34 Increased in heart failure, COPD, ILD, and pulmonary vascular disease. Normal in obesity and deconditioned.
30 CASE STUDY #1 Normal Exercise Limitation: normal VO 2, HR, O 2 pulse, V E, fr, V E /VCO 2, and SpO 2 American Thoracic Society/American College of Chest Physicians: Statement on cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 167: , 2003.
31 CASE STUDY #2 Cardiovascular Exercise Limitation: decreased VO 2 and O 2 pulse, normal V E and fr, increased V E /VCO 2 at AT (i.e., V/Q mismatch) American Thoracic Society/American College of Chest Physicians: Statement on cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 167: , 2003.
32 CASE STUDY #3 Ventilatory Exercise Limitation: decreased VO 2, increased V E (i.e., no ventilatory reserve) with normal fr, increased V E /VCO 2 at AT (i.e., V/Q mismatch), decreased SaO 2 and PaO 2 with exercise American Thoracic Society/American College of Chest Physicians: Statement on cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 167: , 2003.
33 CASE STUDY #4 Ventilatory Exercise Limitation: decreased VO 2, increased V E (i.e., 7% ventilatory reserve) with normal fr, increased V E /VCO 2 at AT (i.e., V/Q mismatch), decreased SaO 2 and PaO 2 with exercise American Thoracic Society/American College of Chest Physicians: Statement on cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 167: , 2003.
34 CASE STUDY #5 Cardiovascular with Borderline Ventilatory Exercise Limitation: decreased VO 2 and O 2 pulse, normal V E with increased fr, increased V E /VCO 2 at AT (i.e., V/Q mismatch), borderline decrease in SaO 2 and PaO 2 American Thoracic Society/American College of Chest Physicians: Statement on cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 167: , 2003.
35 Case #1: A 38 year old male was seen in the Pulmonary Clinic with complaint of shortness of breath on exertion. Pulmonary function tests (spirometry, lung volumes and diffusing capacity) were within normal limits. At rest arterial blood gases were also normal. Chest x-ray was normal. A CPET was ordered on the patient.
38 VO 2 at AT = 77%
39 The results of the CPET: 1) are within normal limits 2) reveal a ventilatory limitation to exercise 3) reveal a cardiovascular limitation to exercise 4) reveal a gas exchange abnormality
40 CPET is within normal limits: V E 70-80% (75%) SaO 2 <4% decrease (96.1 to 95.2) RR or respiratory rate <60 (49) PaO 2 <10 mmhg decrease (92.9 to 88.6) BR 20-30% (25) A-a gradient <35 mmhg (19.4) O 2 pulse >10 ml O 2/ beat (14.1)
41 Case #2: A 29 year old male was seen in the Asthma/Allergy Clinic complaining of recent shortness of breath on exertion. Pulmonary function tests revealed normal spirometry and lung volumes, with a mild decrease in the diffusing capacity. At rest arterial blood gases on room air were normal. Chest x-ray was normal. A CPET was ordered on the patient.
42 The results of the CPET: 1) are within normal limits 2) reveal a ventilatory limitation to exercise 3) reveal a cardiovascular limitation to exercise 4) reveal a gas exchange abnormality
43 CPET is reveals a gas exchange abnormality: V E 70-80% (75%) SaO 2 <4% decrease (95.5 to 91.9) RR or respiratory rate <60 (52) PaO 2 <10 mmhg decrease (87.8 to 77.7) BR 20-30% (25) A-a gradient <35 mmhg (21.9) O 2 pulse >10 ml O 2 /beat (11.6)
44 Case #3: A 76 year old female was seen in the Pulmonary Hypertension Clinic with complaints of shortness of breath with mild exertion for at least 6 months. Negative smoking history. Pulmonary function tests revealed mild airflow obstruction on spirometry, normal lung volumes, and a mild decrease in the diffusing capacity. A 6-minute walk test was normal with no desaturation. At rest arterial blood gases on room air revealed slight hypoxemia with normal acid-base status. A CPET was ordered on the patient.
45 The results of the CPET: 1) are within normal limits 2) reveal a ventilatory limitation to exercise 3) reveal a cardiovascular limitation to exercise 4) reveal a gas exchange abnormality
46 CPET is reveals a cardiovascular limitation to exercise: V E 70-80% (52%) SaO 2 <4% decrease (95.1 to 95.6) RR or respiratory rate <60 (36) PaO 2 <10 mmhg decrease (78.7 to 87.6) BR 20-30% (48) A-a gradient <35 mmhg (20.0) O 2 pulse >10 ml O 2 /beat (5.5)
47 REFERENCES 1) American Thoracic Society/American College of Chest Physicians: Statement on cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 167: , ) Jones NL: Clinical exercise testing. Philadelphia, WB Saunders Co., ) Wasserman K, Hansen JE, Sue DY, Stringer WW, Whipp BJ: Principles of exercise testing and interpretation. 4 th ed, Philadelphia, LWW, ) Weisman IM, Zeballos RJ: Clinical exercise testing. Basel, Karger, 2002.
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