1 HCV-related liver cirrhosis and chronic kidney disease. Difficulties in diagnostics on the example of a clinical case. Speaker: Oluwasayo M. V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine Scientific adviser: ass. prof. Litvin A.S. Oluwasayo Motunrayo Head of Department: prof. Yabluchansky M.I.
2 Introduction Hepatitis C is an contagious disease caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) that primarily affects the liver. During the initial infection have mild or no symptoms Spread by blood-to-blood contact, sexually and perinatally. No vaccine available to prevent hepatitis C. About million persons are infected worldwide. More than people die every year.
3 Extrahepatic manifestations Mixed cryoglobulinemia vasculitis - is a small vessel vasculitis involving mainly the skin, the joints, the peripheral nerve system and the kidneys. Most common are: - Purpura - Arthralgia - Glomerulonephritis - Widespread vasculitis - Diabetes type 2
4 Our patient Name: S. A. B. Sex: Male Age: 53 Years Location: Kharkiv Occupation: Lawyer Name of referral institution: Kharkiv Hospital #13 Date of admission: Patient was treated as inpatient.
5 Complaints Swollen face, lower extremities, abdomen. General weakness, fatigue, malaise. Temperature increase to subfebrile numbers in the evening. Blunt pain in the left flank of abdomen, left flank of the lumbar region.
6 Anamnesis Morbi Considers himself ill since when weakness appeared in combination with dry cough and febrile temperature (up to 39 o C). Was hospitalized to Kharkiv hospital #13 where community acquired right sided pneumonia was diagnosed according to the results of X-ray. Additional investigations revealed signs of renal failure (blood biochemistry: serum creatinine 321 mcmol/l, urea 11,2 mmol/l) and liver pathology (USI of abdomen: Ascites. Hepatomegaly. Parenchymatous dystrophy of liver, II stage).
7 Anamnesis Morbi During staying in hospital haematuria added (urinalysis: RBC 5-10 in HPF). Patient suffers from CKD on a background of chronic pyelonephritis, secondary arterial hypertension for about 15 years. Was treated for many times due to exacerbations. After pneumonia been treated, the patient was directed to Kharkiv Emergency Hospital for further treatment and investigation.
8 Anamnesis Vitae Was born in a full family, developed according to age. Works as a lawyer. Feeds regularly and adequately. Denies malaria, tuberculosis, diabetes mellitus, dermatovenerologic diseases and viral hepatitis. Denies allergic reactions to drugs. Denies smoking, alcohol intake and drug addiction. Parents have history of cardiovascular diseases. Didn t follow doctor s recommendations in treatment and prophylaxis of chronic pyelonephritis.
9 Status Presence Condition is satisfactory, clear consciousness, active and emotionally stable. Hypersthenic type of body constitution (BMI = 28.4 kg/m2) Skin and visible mucous membranes are pale pink and clean. Signs of periorbital edema, shin edema and ascites. Muscoloskeletal system examination unremarkable.
10 Status Presence Respiratory System: Percussion normal lung sound on the left side, slight dullness below VI rib on the right side; Auscultation vesicular breathing on the left side, weakened breathing below VI rib on the right side. Breathing rate = 17/min.
11 Status Presence Cardiovascular system: Heart borders extended to the left on 2,0 cm of midclavicular line, HR = Ps = 73 bpm, regular. No pulse deficiency. Heart sounds are muted, accent of the II tone above the aorta. BPdex = BPsin= 150/90 mm Hg (on the background of antihypertensive therapy due to secondary hypertension).
12 Status Presence Gastrointestinal system: Abdomen is distenced due to ascites, painless. No visible peristalsis. Liver edge is hard, painless, palpated at the costal arch. Spleen and pancreas are not palpable. Stool is normal.
13 Status Presence Urinary system: Kidneys are not palpable. Pasternatsky s sign negative on both sides. Urination is normal.
14 CBC Urinalysis Plan of survey Biochemical panel (bilirubin, ALT, glucose, creatinin, lipids) Coagulogram Chest X-ray ECG EchoCG Abdominal USI
15 CBC ( ) Parameters Result Normal range Hemoglobin 103 M g / l Erythrocytes 3.1 M T / l Color Index Leukocytes ,0 9,0 g/l ESR 23 M 2-12 mm/h Stab neutrophils % Segmented neutrophils % Eosinophils 1 0,5-5,0% Basophils - 1-1,0 % Lymphocytes % Monocytes % Platels g/l Conclusion: anemia, leukocytosis, increased ESR.
16 Serum iron level Parameters Result Normal range Serum Ferrum 8.6 M mcmol/ L Conclusion: decreased serum iron level. serum Fe + RBC = Iron deficiency anemia.
17 Urinalysis ( ) Parameters Result Normal range Specific gravity Reaction Protein g / l Glucose Absent Absent Erythrocytes >50/HPF, unchanged 0-2 Leucocytes 10/HPF 6-8 Epithelium 1-2 Not detected Bacteria Not detected Not detected Conclusion: proteinuria, macrohematuria, leukocyteuria. Massive hematuria + Proteinuria (<3,5 g/l) + ////////////Hypertension = Nephritic Syndrome.
18 Biochemical blood test ( ) Parameters Results Normal range AlAt 51 <41 u/l AsAt 43 <37 u/l Total bilirubin ,7-21,0 mmol/l Creatinine mcmol / L Urea 25.2 <8.3 mmol/ L Total protein g/ L Glucose 5.3 4,2-6,1 mmol / L Conclusion: -increased AlAt and AsAt, bilirubinemia (markers of liver affection); -increased creatinine and urea (markers of renal insufficiency).
19 GFR (Cockrauft-Gault) GFR = 19 ccs/min => CKD 4
20 Coagulogram ( ) Parameters Results Normal range Protrombine index % Fibrine g/ L Recalcification time Conclusion: all parameters are in normal range.
21 Focal and infiltrative changes in the lungs were not identified. Signs of venous hypertension Heart aortic configuration, extended to the left. Aorta is sclerotic in the arcus region. Chest X-Ray
22 ECG Conclusion: Sinus rhythm. Heart rate = 87 bpm. Left ventricle hypertrophy. Diffuse disturbances of repolarization. No acute pathology.
23 Sonography Echocardiography: Aortocardiosclerosis. LV hypertrophy. Dilation of all heart chambers. Signs of pulmonary hypertension. EF = 68% Abdominal USI: Hepatomegaly. Diffuse liver cirrhosis. Signs of portal hypertension. Chronic pyelonephritis. Contracted right kidney. Ascites (up to 3 L).
27 Diagnosis HCV-associated liver cirrhosis, decompensation phase. Ascites. CKD IV, chronic glomerulonephritis. Secondary arterial hypertension. Secondary contracted right kidney. Hypochromic iron deficiency anemia. Ischemic heart disease, cardiosclerosis.
28 Treatment No sense in etiotropic treatment due to late stages of the development of the process. The goal is to compensate organic insufficiency (renal and hepatic).
29 Treatment Lisinopril 10 mg 1 tab per day in the evening p/o under the control of BP. Furosemide 40 mg 2 times per day IV drop. Verorospiron (Spironolactone) 100 mg 1 time per day p/o in the morning. Carboline (sorbent) 1 spoon 2 times per day p/o. Ferrum Lek 1 tab. 3 times per day (protractedly) p/o.
30 Recommendations Supervision of local gastroenterologist, nephrologist, cardiologist. Low-salt and low-protein diet Regular treatment with uroantiseptics (Nitroxolone, Palin, Canephron). Intestinal dialysis with Young s solution. Consultation of infectionist. Consultation in Urologic Centre about hemodialysis and kidney transplantation. Check liver cancer markers.
31 Prognosis Prognosis for life - non-satisfactory The prognosis for recovery - unfavorable
32 Conclusion Our clinical case is an example of the importance of wide diagnostic search and exclusion of all possible pathologies in each case and individual approach to each patient. It s exceptionally important to provide a timely evaluation of such diagnosis and modern appropriate therapy.
33 Conclusion The patient have low compliance, didn t pay enough attention to his health which lead to very late diagnostics of Hepatitis C (after development of Cirrhosis. In case of this patient, early diagnostics of HCV would have prolong his life and significantly increase quality of his life by avoiding such complication as development of Cirrhosis and HCV associated Chronic kidney disease.
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