1 CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY 81 Case 15 Hypovolemic Shock: Regulation of Blood Pressure Mavis Byrne is a 78-year-old widow who was brought to the emergency room one evening by her sister. Early in the day, Mrs. Byrne had seen bright red blood in her stool, which she attributed to hemorrhoids. She continued with her daily activities: she cleaned her house in the morning, had lunch with friends, and volunteered in the afternoon as a "hugger" in the newborn intensive care unit. However, the bleeding continued all day, and by dinnertime, she could no longer ignore it. Mrs. Byrne does not smoke or drink alcoholic beverages. She takes aspirin, as needed, for arthritis, sometimes up to 10 tablets daily. In the emergency room, Mrs. Byrne was light-headed, pale, cold, and very anxious. Her hematocrit was 29% (normal for women, 36%-46%). Table 2-3 shows her blood pressure and heart rate in the lying (supine) and upright (standing) positions. TABLE 2-3 Mrs. Byrne's Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Parameter Lying Down (Supine) Upright (Standing) Blood pressure 90/60 75/45 Heart rate 105 beats/min 135 beats/min An infusion of normal saline was started, and a blood sample was drawn to be typed and crossmatched to prepare for a blood transfusion. A colonoscopy showed that the bleeding came from herniations in the colonic wall, called diverticula. (When arteries in the colon wall rupture, bleeding can be quite vigorous.) By the time of the colonoscopy, the bleeding had stopped spontaneously. Because of the quantity of blood lost, Mrs. Byrne received two units of whole blood and was admitted for observation. The physicians were prepared to insert a bladder catheter to allow continuous monitoring of urine output. However, by the next morning, her normal color had returned, she was no longer light-headed, and her blood pressure, both lying and standing, had returned to normal. No additional treatment or monitoring was needed. Mrs. Byrne was discharged to the care of her sister and advised to "take it easy." QUESTIONS 1. What is the definition of circulatory shock? What are the major causes? 2. After the gastrointestinal blood loss, what sequence of events led to Mrs. Byrne's decreased arterial pressure? 3. Why was Mrs. Byrne's arterial pressure lower in the upright position than in the lying (supine) position? 4. Mrs. Byrne's heart rate was elevated (105 beats/min) when she was supine. Why? Why was her heart rate even more elevated (135 beats/min) when she was upright? 5. If central venous pressure and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure had been measured, would you expect their values to have been increased, decreased, or the same as in a healthy person?
2 82 PHYSIOLOGY CASES AND PROBLEMS 6. What is hematocrit? Why was Mrs. Byrne's hematocrit decreased, and why was this decrease potentially dangerous? 7. Why was her skin pale and cold? 8. If Mrs. Byrne's urinary Na" excretion had been measured, would you expect it to be higher, lower, or the same as that of a healthy person? Why? 9. How was the saline infusion expected to help her condition? 10. Why did the physicians consider monitoring her urine output? How do prostaglandins "protect" renal blood flow after a hemorrhage? In this regard, why was it dangerous that Mrs. Byrne had been taking aspirin? 11. Had her blood loss been more severe, Mrs. Byrne might have received a low dose of dopamine, which has selective actions in various vascular beds. In cerebral, cardiac, renal, and mesenteric vascular beds, dopamine is a vasodilator; in muscle and cutaneous vascular beds, dopamine is a vasoconstrictor. Why is low-dose dopamine helpful in the treatment of hypovolemic shock?
4 84 1 PHYSIOLOGY CASES AND PROBLEMS FA ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS 1. Shock (or circulatory shock) is a condition in which decreased blood flow causes decreased tissue perfusion and 0 2 delivery. Untreated, shock can lead to impaired tissue and cellular metabolism and, ultimately, death. In categorizing the causes of shock, it is helpful to consider the components of the cardiovascular system that determine blood flow to the tissues: the heart (the pump), the blood vessels, and the volume of blood in the system. Shock can be caused by a failure of, or deficit in, any of these components. Hypovolemic shock occurs when circulating blood volume is decreased because of loss of whole blood (hemorrhagic shock), loss of plasma volume (e.g., burn), or loss of fluid and electrolytes (e.g., vomiting, diarrhea). Cardiogenic shock is caused by myocardial impairment (e.g., myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure). Mechanical obstruction to blood flow can occur anywhere in the circulatory system and cause a local decrease in blood flow. Neurogenic shock (e.g., deep general anesthesia, spinal anesthesia, spinal cord injury) involves loss of vasomotor tone, which leads to venous pooling of blood. Septic or anaphylactic shock involves increased filtration across capillary walls, which leads to decreased circulating blood volume. 2. Mrs. Byrne had a gastrointestinal hemorrhage and lost a significant volume of whole blood. How did this blood loss lead to decreased arterial pressure? Although it is tempting to picture blood pouring out of the arteries as the direct cause of her decreased arterial pressure, this explanation is an oversimplification. A number of intervening steps are involved. Recall that because the capacitance of the veins is high, most of the blood volume is contained in the veins, not in the arteries. Therefore, when a hemorrhage occurs, most of the blood volume that is lost comes from the veins. A decrease in venous volume leads to a decrease in venous return to the heart and a decrease in end-diastolic volume (preload). A decrease in end-diastolic volume leads to a decrease in cardiac output by the Frank-Starling mechanism (the length tension relationship for the ventricles). A decrease in cardiac output leads to a decrease in arterial pressure, as expressed by the familiar relationship: Arterial pressure = cardiac output x total peripheral resistance (symbolically, P,, = cardiac output x TPR). Thus, after blood loss, the fundamental problem is decreased venous volume and venous return, leading to decreased cardiac output. In textbooks, you will see references to "filling pressure," "venous filling pressure," or "cardiac filling pressure." All of these terms refer to the relationships between venous volume, venous return, cardiac output, and (ultimately) arterial pressure. 3. Mrs. Byrne's arterial pressure was lower in the upright position than in the supine position (orthostatic hypotension) because when she was upright, blood pooled in the veins of her legs and her venous return was further compromised. As a result, end-diastolic volume was further reduced, which led to further reductions in cardiac output and arterial pressure. 4. Asking why Mrs. Byrne's heart rate was elevated brings us to the larger issues of compensatory responses to hemorrhage. Essentially, decreased arterial pressure triggers several compensatory mechanisms that attempt to restore blood pressure to normal (Figure 2-11). Two major mechanisms are activated in response to decreased arterial pressure: (1) the baroreceptor reflex and (2) the renin-angiotensin II-aldosterone system (discussed in Question 8). In the baroreceptor reflex, sympathetic outflow to the heart and blood vessels is increased. As a result, heart rate and contractility increase and cause an increase in cardiac output. 'There is arteriolar constriction, which increases TPR, and there is venoconstriction, which increases venous return. Looking once again at the equation for arterial pressure (P a = cardiac output x TPR), you can appreciate how each of these changes works to restore arterial pressure toward normal. Mrs. Byrne's heart rate was more elevated in the upright position than in the supine position because her arterial blood pressure was lower when she was upright (venous pooling).
5 CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY 85 Hemorrhage 4, Arterial pressure Baroreceptor reflex t Renin 'I' t Sympathetic outflow t Angiotensin II Pc I 1 t Heart rate Constriction of Constriction t TPR t Aldosterone t Fluid absorption t Contractility arterioles of veins t TPR 4' Unstressed volume t Na* reabsorption t Blood volume '; t Blood volume t Arterial pressure toward normal Figure Cardiovascular responses to hemorrhage. P,, capillary hydrostatic pressure; TPR, total peripheral resistance. (Reprinted with permission from Costanzo LS: BRS Physiology, 3rd ed. Baltimore, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2003, p 112.) Therefore, the baroreceptor mechanism was more strongly stimulated, and sympathetic stimulation of the heart and blood vessels (including the increase in heart rate) was exaggerated. 5. Central venous pressure is measured in the vena cava. Its value is related to the volume of blood in the veins and is approximately equal to right atrial pressure. Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure is measured by advancing a catheter through the pulmonary artery until it "wedges" in the artery's smallest branch. At that point, the catheter senses pulmonary capillary pressure, which is nearly equal to left atrial pressure. Thus, central venous pressure estimates right atrial pressure, and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure estimates left atrial pressure. The values reflect end-diastolic volume, or preload, of the right and left ventricles, respectively. Had they been measured, Mrs. Byrne's central venous pressure and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure both would have been decreased because of the loss of blood volume from the venous side of the circulation. 6. Hematocrit is the fraction (or percentage) of blood volume occupied by red blood cells; the remaining fraction of whole blood is plasma, which is mostly water. A decrease in hematocrit can be caused by any number of factors, including blood loss, decreased red blood cell production, increased red blood cell destruction, or an increase in plasma volume without an accompanying increase in red blood cell volume. In Mrs. Byrne's case, the decreased hematocrit was probably secondary to hemorrhage of whole blood. But, wait a minute! You may be asking: If whole blood was lost from the gastrointestinal tract, why would hematocrit be changed (reasoning that red blood cells and plasma
6 86 PHYSIOLOGY CASES AND PROBLEMS were lost proportionately)? In the first hours after hemorrhage, it is true that hematocrit is unchanged. However, as plasma volume is restored [as a result of increased aldosterone levels (see the answer to Question 8), increased capillary absorption of fluid, and the infusion of saline], plasma volume increases, but red blood cell volume does riot. (It takes about 7 days for a stem cell to become a mature red blood cell.) Therefore, Mrs. Byrne's hematocrit was decreased by dilution. A decrease in hematocrit is dangerous because red blood cells contain hemoglobin, the 0 2-carrying protein of blood. Thus, after a hemorrhage, there are two potentially lethal consequences for 02 delivery to the tissues: the decrease in blood flow to the tissues (i.e., decreased cardiac output) and the decreased 02-carrying capacity of the blood (decreased hematocrit). 7. Mrs. Byrne's pale, cold skin is typical of the response to hemorrhage, reflecting vasoconstriction of cutaneous arterioles. As the baroreceptor reflex was initiated in response to decreased arterial pressure (see Question 4), sympathetic vasoconstriction of arterioles occurred in many vascular beds, including the skin. Cutaneous vasoconstriction particularly makes sense as it allows the body to increase arterial pressure and redirect blood flow to more vital organs, (e.g., brain, heart). 8. If urinary Na + excretion had been measured, it likely would have been decreased. The reason for this decreased Na+ excretion is activation of the renin-angiotensin Il- aldosterone system in response to decreased arterial pressure. Increased levels of aldosterone cause increased Na* reabsorption in the late distal tubule and collecting duct of the kidney (i.e., decreased Na' excretion). This mechanism is designed to increase the amount of Na + in extracellular fluid, which increases extracellular fluid volume and blood volume. Increased blood volume leads to increased venous return, increased cardiac output, and ultimately, increased arterial pressure. 9. In an attempt to restore venous return and cardiac output, Mrs. Byrne received an infusion of saline to increase her extracellular fluid volume and blood volume. The saline infusion accomplished a result similar to the body's endogenous aldosterone, only faster. 10. A critical element in the response to hemorrhage, and one that may determine the outcome for the patient, is the "balancing act" between vasoconstriction in some organs (e.g., kidney) and maintaining blood flow in those organs. Increased sympathetic activity and increased angiotensin II both produce vasoconstriction and an increase in TPR, which is important to the body's attempt to restore arterial pressure (recall that P a = cardiac output x TPR). However, vasoconstriction, by increasing resistance, decreases blood flow in the involved organs. Of particular note is the kidney, where both sympathetic activity and angiotensin II cause arteriolar vasoconstriction. If unopposed, this vasoconstriction can compromise renal blood flow, producing renal failure and even death. Thus, had Mrs. Byrne not recovered so quickly, it would have been important to monitor her urine output as an indicator of renal perfusion and renal function. Notice the word "unopposed" in the previous paragraph. Perhaps this word led you to question whether there are endogenous "modulators" of the vasoconstricting effects of sympathetic activity and angiotensin II in the kidneys. Yes, there are! Prostaglandins serve this modulatory role. Both sympathetic activity and angiotensin II cause increased local production of prostaglandin E2 and prostaglandin I 2, which are renal vasodilators. Thus, the vasoconstrictive effects of sympathetic activity and angiotensin II are offset by the vasodilatory effects of endogenous prostaglandins. Renal blood flow is thereby protected and maintained in high vasoconstrictor states, such as hemorrhage. The confounding and potentially harmful issue with Mrs. Byrne was her use of large amounts of aspirin for her arthritis. Aspirin, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), is a cyclooxygenase inhibitor that blocks prostaglandin synthesis. Therefore, Mrs. Byrne was at risk for developing renal failure if her ingestion of aspirin prevented the protective, vasodilatory effects of prostaglandins. 11. Mrs. Byrne's physicians were prepared to administer a low dose of dopamine if her blood pressure and blood flow (as reflected in the color returning to her skin) had not been corrected.
7 CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY 87 Dopamine, a precursor of norepinephrine, has its own vasoactive properties, as explained in the question. Low doses of dopamine selectively dilate arterioles in critical organs (i.e., heart, brain, kidney) and selectively constrict arterioles in less critical organs (e.g., skeletal muscle, skin), thus redirecting blood flow where it is most needed. In particular, the kidneys, which might otherwise be vasoconstricted as a result of increased sympathetic activity and angiotensin II, may be spared by the vasodilatory actions of dopamine. Key topics Aldosterone Anaphylactic shock Arterial pressure, regulation Baroreceptor reflex Cardiac filling pressure, or filling pressure Cardiogenic shock Central venous pressure Dopamine End-diastolic volume Frank-Starling mechanism Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) Hematocrit Hemoglobin Hemorrhage Hypovolemic shock Neurogenic shock Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) 0 2 delivery Orthostatic fall in arterial pressure (orthostasis) Prostaglandins Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure Renal blood flow Renin-angiotensin II-aldosterone system Septic shock Shock, or circulatory shock
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