CARDIOVASCULAR AND RESPIRATORY SYSTEMS

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1 CARDIOVASCULAR AND RESPIRATORY SYSTEMS

2 KEY TERMS: Cardiovascular System, cardio, vascular, blood vessels, valves, arteries, capillaries, veins, systemic circulation, pulmonary circulation

3 Your Cardiovascular System Cardiovascular System - a collection of organs that transport blood throughout the body. cardio means heart vascular means blood vessels - includes veins, arteries, and capillaries

4 The Heart - heart is an organ made mostly of cardiac muscle tissue is about the size of your fist and almost in the center of your chest cavity has a left and right side right side pumps oxygen-poor blood to the lungs left side pumps oxygen-rich blood to the body each side has an upper chamber and a lower chamber upper chamber is called the atrium lower chamber is called the ventricle

5 Valves are located between the atria and ventricles and in places where large arteries are attached to the heart valves control the direction and flow of blood

6 Blood Vessels - hallow tubes that carry blood through body Arteries - a blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart to the body s organs. have thick walls that contain smooth muscle blood pressure is the pressure at which blood is pumped into arteries pulse is caused by the rhythmic change in pressure Capillaries - a tiny blood vessel that allows an exchange between blood and cells in other tissue. nutrients, oxygen, and other substances leave blood through capillaries carbon dioxide and waste leave body cells and are carried away by capillaries. exchanges are possible because walls of capillary walls are only one cell thick Veins - a vessel that carries blood to the heart. valves keep the blood from flowing backward as muscles contract they squeeze veins and help push blood toward the heart

7 Two Types of Circulation Pulmonary circulation-the flow of blood from the heart to the lungs and back to the hear through the pulmonary arteries, capillaries, and veins. Systemic circulation - the flow of blood from the heart to all parts of the body and back to the heart.

8 Cardiovascular Problems Atherosclerosis-happens when cholesterol builds up inside of blood vessels. This build up causes blood vessels to become narrower and less elastic. -this may cause a person to have a heart attack High Blood Pressure Hypertension-caused by abnormally high pressure which causes a greater risk of heart attack, heart failure, kidney disease, and stroke. Stroke-is when a blood vessel in the brain becomes clogged or ruptured. Part of the brain receives no oxygen causing brain cells to die. Heart Attacks and Heart Failure heart attack-happens when heart muscle cells die and part of the heart muscle is damaged. This usually occurs when arteries become blocked. -heart failure-happens when the heart cannot pump enough blood to meet the body s needs. -the brain, lungs, and kidneys may be damaged b y a lack of oxygen or nutrients or by the buildup of fluids.

9 PowerPoint Lecture Slide Presentation by Robert J. Sullivan, Marist College RESPIRATORY SYSTEM EXCHANGE OF GASES Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings.

10 What is Human Respiration? The human respiratory system allows one to obtain oxygen, eliminate carbon dioxide. Breathing consists of two phases, inspiration and expiration Inspiration- the process of taking in air Expiration- the process of blowing out air

11 Human Respiratory System Figure 10.1

12 Organs in the Respiratory System STRUCTURE FUNCTION nose / nasal cavity pharynx (throat) larynx trachea (windpipe) bronchi bronchioles alveoli warms, moistens, & filters air as it is inhaled passageway for air, leads to trachea the voice box, where vocal chords are located keeps the windpipe "open" trachea is lined with fine hairs called cilia which filter air before it reaches the lungs two branches at the end of the trachea, each lead to a lung a network of smaller branches leading from the bronchi into the lung tissue & ultimately to air sacs the functional respiratory units in the lung where gases are exchanged

13 Components of the Upper Respiratory Tract Figure 10.2

14 Upper Respiratory Tract Functions Passageway for respiration Receptors for smell Filters incoming air to filter larger foreign material Moistens and warms incoming air Resonating chambers for voice

15 Components of the Lower Respiratory Tract Figure 10.3

16 Lower Respiratory Tract Functions: Larynx: maintains an open airway, routes food and air appropriately, assists in sound production Trachea: transports air to and from lungs Bronchi: branch into lungs Lungs: transport air to alveoli for gas exchange

17 Gas Exchange Between the Blood and Alveoli Figure 10.8A

18 Respiratory Cycle Figure 10.9

19 Measurement of Lung Capacity Figure 10.10A

20 Malfunctions & Diseases of the Respiratory System asthma bronchitis emphysema pneumonia lung cancer severe allergic reaction characterized by the constriction of bronchioles inflammation of the lining of the bronchioles condition in which the alveoli deteriorate, causing the lungs to lose their elasticity condition in which the alveoli become filled with fluid, preventing the exchange of gases irregular & uncontrolled growth of tumors in the lung tissue

21 Four Respiration Processes Breathing (ventilation): air in to and out of lungs External respiration: gas exchange between air and blood Internal respiration: gas exchange between blood and tissues Cellular respiration: oxygen use to produce ATP, carbon dioxide as waste

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