The circulatory system transports blood to deliver important substances, such as oxygen, to cells and to remove wastes, such as carbon dioxide.

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1 Section 1: The circulatory system transports blood to deliver important substances, such as oxygen, to cells and to remove wastes, such as carbon dioxide. K What I Know W What I Want to Find Out L What I Learned

2 Essential Questions What are the main functions of the circulatory system? How does the blood flow through the heart and body? What are the similarities and differences between the major components of the blood?

3 Vocabulary Review muscle contraction New artery capillary vein valve heart pacemaker plasma red blood cell platelet white blood cell atherosclerosis

4 Functions of the Transports oxygen and nutrients Carries disease-fighting materials produced by the immune system Contains cell fragments and proteins for blood clotting Distributes heat throughout the body to help regulate body temperature

5 Blood Vessels Arteries Capillaries Veins

6 Structure of Blood Vessels Animation FPO Add link to concepts in motion animation from page 993 here.

7 Blood Vessels Arteries Oxygen-rich blood is carried away from the heart in large blood vessels called arteries. Arteries are composed of three layers: Outer layer of connective tissue Middle layer of smooth muscle Inner layer of endothelial tissue

8 Blood Vessels Capillaries Microscopic blood vessels where the exchange of important substances and wastes occur are capillaries. The walls are only one cell thick.

9 Blood Vessels Veins The largest blood vessels are veins. Carry oxygen-poor blood back to the heart Contraction of skeletal muscles helps keep the blood moving. Valves are flaps of tissue that prevent blood from flowing backward.

10 BrainPOP FPO Add link to concepts in motion animation from page 994 here.

11 The Heart A hollow, muscular organ that pumps blood throughout the body Pumps oxygenated blood to the body Pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs

12 The Heart Structure of the heart Divided into four compartments called chambers The right atrium and the left atrium receive blood returning to the heart. The right and left ventricles pump blood away from the heart. A strong muscular wall separates the left side of the heart from the right side of the heart. Valves separate the atria from the ventricles and keep blood flowing in one direction.

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14 The Heart How the heart beats The atria fill with blood. The atria contract, filling the ventricles with blood. The sinoatrial (SA) node sends out signals that cause both atria to contract. The signal travels to another area in the heart called the atrioventricular node, causing both ventricles to contract.

15 The Heart How the heart beats Pulse The alternating expansion and relaxation of the artery wall caused by contraction of the left ventricle Blood Pressure A measure of how much pressure is exerted against the vessel walls by the blood

16 Blood Pressure Virtual Lab FPO Add link to concepts in motion animation from page 994 here.

17 The Heart Blood flow in the body Deoxygenated blood flows from the right atrium into the right ventricle and is pumped into the pulmonary arteries that lead to the lungs. Oxygenated blood flows from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.

18 The Heart Blood flow in the body The blood moves from the left atrium into the left ventricle, which pumps the blood into the largest artery in the body, the aorta. Oxygen is released from the blood into the body cells by diffusion, and carbon dioxide moves from the cells to the blood by diffusion.

19 The Animation FPO Add link to concepts in motion animation from page 996 here.

20 Blood Components Plasma The clear, yellowish portion of blood is the plasma. Carries glucose, fats, vitamins, minerals, hormones, and waste products from the cells

21 Blood Components Red Blood Cells Red blood cells carry oxygen to all of the body s cells Consist of an iron-containing protein called hemoglobin Hemoglobin chemically binds with oxygen molecules and carries oxygen to the body s cells.

22 Blood Components Platelets Cell fragments that are important in forming blood clots are platelets. Collect and stick to the vessel at the site of the wound Release chemicals that produce a protein called fibrin Fibrin is a protein that weaves a network of fibers across the cut that traps blood platelets and red blood cells.

23 Blood Components White Blood Cells The body s disease fighters are the white blood cells, which are produced in bone marrow. Recognize disease-causing organisms Produce chemicals to fight the invaders Surround and kill the invaders

24 Blood Groups ABO blood group There are four types of blood A, B, AB, and O. Rh blood group Another marker found on the surface of red blood cells Disorders Atherosclerosis is the condition of blocked arteries. When blood flow is reduced or blocked, the heart must work even harder to pump blood and vessels may burst.

25 Blood Types Interactive Table FPO Add link to concepts in motion interactive table from page 998 here.

26 Review Essential Questions What are the main functions of the circulatory system? How does the blood flow through the heart and body? What are the similarities and differences between the major components of the blood? Vocabulary artery capillary vein valve heart pacemaker plasma red blood cell platelet white blood cell atherosclerosis

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