2 Hypertension Update 2009 New Drugs, New Goals, New Approaches, New Lessons from Clinical Trials Timothy C Fagan, MD, FACP Professor Emeritus University of Arizona
3 New Drugs Direct Renin Inhibitors Endothelin Antagonists
4 DRI Works at the Point of Activation of the RAAS
5 Aliskiren Reduced PRA Alone and in Combination With Ramipril*
6 Aliskiren Maintained 80% SBP Reduction 4 Days After Last Dose
7 Why Use a DRI? Aliskiren and Aliskiren + HCTZ Have an Established d Safety and Tolerability Profile
8 Endothelin Antagonists Endothelin (ET) antagonists such as bosentan have been used successfully to treat pulmonary hypertension. Trials with multiple ET antagonists are under way in hypertension and CHF. The selective ET A antagonist, darusentan, may be approved by the FDA in 2009.
11 New Approaches Emphasis on Cost:Benefit Emphasis on Systolic Blood Pressure Combination Therapy Emphasis on Endpoints
12 Emphasis on Cost:Benefit Many generic antihypertensive agents are now available for as little as $10/90 days. A 4 drug antihypertensive regimen utilizing diuretics, Beta blockers, ACE-Is and CCBs can be used at a cost of $162.22/year or $0.44/day
13 Prevalence of Hypertension Increases With Age
14 Isolated Systolic Hypertension Accounts for Most Uncontrolled HTN N in the Elderly
15 Relative Importance of DBP and SBP as Predictors of CHD as a Function of Age
16 Systolic vs Diastolic BP as Predictors of Outcomes in ASCOT-BPLA MI + CHD Death + Revascularization HR/1 SD P SBP 1.16 <.0001 Fatal + Nonfatal Stroke HR/1 SD P SBP 1.38 <.0001 DBP DBP PP 1.23 <.0001 PP 1.45 <.0001
17 Combination Antihypertensive Therapy Evolution and Rationale
19 BP Control Usually Requires Combination Therapy
20 JNC VII The initiation of therapy with more than one drug increases the likelihood of achieving BP goal in a more timely fashion. The use of fixed-dose combinations may be more convenient and simplify the treatment regimen, and may cost less than the individual components prescribed separately.
21 JNC VII The use of multidrug combinations often produces greater BP reduction at lower doses of the component agents, resulting in fewer side effects. However, caution is advised in initiating therapy with multiple agents, particularly in some older persons and in those at risk for orthostatic hypotension, such as diabetics with autonomic dysfunction.
22 Combination Antihypertensive Therapy: Potential Reductions in Dose-Related Side Effects Thiazide diuretics with potassium-sparing diuretics May reduce K+ loss and decrease the risk of hypokalemia Thiazide diuretics with ARBs or ACE inhibitors May reduce risk of hypokalemia ACE inhibitors and dihydropyridine CCBs Combinations may have less edema than seen with dihydropyridines alone Beta-adrenoreceptor-blockers and direct vasodilators or dihydropyridine CCBs Beta-blockers reduce tachycardia seen with these agents Epstein, et al. Arch Intern Med. 1996;156: Jeunemaitre, et al. Am J Cardiol. 1988; 62: Pedrinelli, et al. Hypertension. 2000; 35: Van Zwieten. Clin Investig. 1992;70(suppl 1):
23 Guideline Recommendations Regarding Initial Use of Combination TherapyT
24 Increased Persistence* with Single-pill Combination (SPC) vs Separate Pill Therapy
25 Single Pill Combination Therapy Demonstrates Improved Compliance in Hypertensive Patients Risk ratio (95% CI) % Weight Taylor et al 0.74 (0.67, 0.81) 27.1 Dezii 0.74 (0.65, 0.84) 13.9 NDC dataset 0.81 (0.77, 0.86) 46.4 Dezii 0.71 (0.62, 0.80) 12.6 Overall (95% CI) 0.77 (0.73, 0.80) P< Risk Ratio Favors FDC Agent Retrospective Study FDC fixed dose combination Bangalore S, Am J Med 2007;120: Favors Individual Agents Given Separately
26 Potential Benefits of Single-Pill Combinations
27 Emphasis on Endpoints New Lessons from Clinical Trials Does which drugs we use matter? In moderate risk patients? In high risk patients? In very high risk patients?
28 ALLHAT Does the First Drug Matter? Moderate Risk Diuretic vs ACE-I vs CCB
29 ALLHAT Design: Double-blind, randomized, prospective Patients: 42,418, mean age 67, with HTN +1 other risk factor, controlled on no more than 2 drugs, partially treated BP 156/89 Intervention: Chlorthalidone mg vs amlodipine mg vs lisinopril mg vs doxazosin 1-8 mg Primary Endpoint: MI or CHD death
30 ALLHAT Mean Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure During Follow-up Chlorthalidone Chlorthalidone Systolic BP (mmhg) Amlodipine Lisinopril Compared to chlorthalidone: SBP significantly higher in amlodipine (~1 mmhg) and lisinopril (~2 mmhg) groups. Diastolic BP (mmhg) Amlodipine Lisinopril Compared to chlorthalidone: DBP significantly lower in amlodipine group (~1 mmhg) Follow-up, yrs SBP=systolic blood pressure DBP=diastolic blood pressure ALLHAT Research Group. JAMA. 2002;288: org Copyright 2002, American Medical Association.
31 Cumulative Fatal CHD and Nonfatal MI event rate (%) No. at Risk Chlorthalidone Amlodipine Lisinopril ALLHAT Primary Outcome by Treatment Group Time to event, yrs Chlorthalidone Amlodipine Lisinopril ALLHAT Research Group. JAMA. 2002;288: Copyright 2002, American Medical Association org
32 ALLHAT Conclusions The doxazosin arm was stopped early for higher CHF rates. The Primary Combined Endpoint of MI + CHD Death was not different with chlorthalidone, amlodipine or lisinopril. BP was lower in the chlorthalidone group as were CVA, angina and revascularization. The long term significance of more new onset diabetes in the chlorthalidone group is unclear.
33 OnTarget Design: Double-blind, randomized, prospective Patients: 25,620 with vascular disease or DM with TOD, treated BP at baseline 142/82 Intervention: ramipril 10 mg vs telmisartan 80 mg vs the combination Primary Endpoint: MI, CVA, CV death or CHF hospitalization
34 Kaplan-Meier Curves for the Primary Outcome in the Three Study Groups The ONTARGET Investigators. N Engl J Med 2008;358:
35 Relative Risks in Prespecified Subgroups The ONTARGET Investigators. N Engl J Med 2008;358:
36 Discontinuation of Study Medications and Selected Reasons for Permanent Discontinuation The ONTARGET Investigators. N Engl J Med 2008;358:
37 OnTarget Conclusions The Primary Composite Endpoint of MI, CVA, CV Death or CHF hospitalization did not differ between ramipril, telmisartan or the combination. Telmisartan was better tolerated than ramipril and both were better tolerated than the combination. For cardioprotection in patients with vascular disease or diabetes, telmisartan is equal to ramipril and the combination of ACEI and ARB has no advantage and is less well tolerated.
38 LIFE Design: Double-blind, randomized, prospective Patients: 9,193 with HTN and LVH, mean age 67, untreated BP at baseline 174/98 Intervention: losartan mg vs atenolol mg Primary Endpoint: MI, CVA or death
39 LIFE Study Blood Pressure During Follow-up Systolic mmhg Losartan Atenolol Mean Arterial Diastolic Study Month Dahlof B, et al. Lancet. 2002;359: Reprinted with permission from Elsevier Science. org
40 Proportion of patients with first event (%) LIFE Study Primary Composite Endpoint Intention-to-treat Adjusted risk reduction 13 0%, P=0 021 Unadjusted risk reduction 14 6%, P=0 009 Atenolol Losartan Study Month Losartan (n) Atenolol (n) Dahlof B, et al. Lancet. 2002;359: Reprinted with permission from Elsevier Science. org
41 Proportion of patients with first event (%) LIFE Study Fatal and Non-Fatal Stroke Intention-to-treat Adjusted risk reduction 24 9%, P=0 001 Unadjusted risk reduction 25 8%, P= Atenolol Losartan Study Month Dahlof B, et al. Lancet. 2002;359: Reprinted with permission from Elsevier Science. org
42 LIFE Diabetes and ISH Does the First Drug Matter? Very High Risk ARB vs Beta Blocker
43 Proportion of patients with first event(%) LIFE Study Diabetes Subgroup Total Mortality Adjusted risk reduction 38 7%, P=0 002 Unadjusted risk reduction 40 1%, P=0 001 Atenolol Losartan Study Month Lindholm LH, et al. Lancet. 2002;359: Reprinted with permission from Elsevier Science. org
44 LIFE: Total Mortality Diabetes Subgroup 24 Proportion of patients (%) L H Lindholm et al. Lancet 2002;359: Atenolol Losartan 4 Adjusted Risk Reduction 38.7%, p=0 002 Unadjusted Risk Reduction 40.1%, p= Study Month
45 Endpoint rate (%) LIFE Study ISH Subgroup Total Mortality Unadjusted relative risk reduction=30%; P=0.03 Adjusted relative risk reduction=28%; P=0.046 Atenolol Losartan Study month Kjeldsen SE, et al. JAMA. 2002;228: Copyright 2002, American Medical Association. org
46 LIFE Conclusions The Primary Combined Endpoint of MI, CVA or Death, but particularly CVA, were lower with losartan than with atenolol. In the Very High Risk, Diabetes and ISH subgroups, even Total Mortality was lower with losartan. In High Risk patients with hypertension, initial therapy with ARB is superior to Beta Blocker.
47 ASCOT-BPLA Do the First and Second Drug Matter? High Risk CCB + ACEI vs Beta Blocker + diuretic
48 ASCOT-BPLA Design: Double-blind, randomized, prospective Patients: 19,257, mean age 63, with HTN + 3 other risk factors, untreated BP 165/95 Intervention: amlodipine 5-10 mg + perindopril 4-8 mg vs atenolol mg + bendroflumethiazide mg Primary Endpoint: MI (clinical or silent) or CHD death
49 ASCOT BPLA Primary Endpoint Risk Reduction Percent Non-fatal MI, fatal CHD Atenolol ± thiazide (474 events) Amlodipine ± perindopril (429 events) 1.0 HR=0.90 (95% CI, ) P= Years Number at risk Amlodipine ± perindopril Atenolol ± thiazide Dahlöf B et al. Lancet. 2005;366:
50 ASCOT BPLA Secondary Endpoints Unadjusted Hazard Ratio (95% CI) Endpoint (n amlo vs aten) Non-fatal MI* +fatal CHD (390 vs 444) Total coronary endpoint (753 vs 852) Total CV event and procedures(1362 vs 1602) All-cause mortality (738 vs 820) Cardiovascular mortality (263 vs 342) Fatal and non-fatal stroke (327 vs 422) Fatal and non-fatal heart failure (124 vs 159) P Value P = P = P < P = P = P = P = Favors amlodipine ± perindopril Favors atenolol ± thiazide The area of each square is proportional to the amount of statistical information. *Excludes silent non-fatal MI. Adapted from Dahlöf B et al. Lancet. 2005;366:
51 ASCOT-BPLA Conclusions The Primary Combined Endpoint of MI or CHD Death and most secondary endpoints, including total mortality, were lower in the amlodipineperindopril (CCB-ACEI) than in the atenololthiazide group. BP was lower in the CCB-ACEI group, but the Hazard Ratios for the Primary Endpoint and CVA were still significant when adjusted for BP. The CCB-ACEI regimen was superior to the Beta Blocker-Thiazide regimen.
52 ACCOMPLISH Does the Second Drug Matter? High Risk ACEI + CCB vs diuretic
53 ACCOMPLISH Design: Double-blind, randomized, prospective Patients: 11,506, mean age 68, with HTN and vascular disease or DM or LVH or CKD, Treated BP with a mean of 2 drugs 145/80 Intervention: benazepril mg + amlodipine 5-10 mg vs hydrochlorothiazide mg Primary Endpoint: MI, CVA, CHF, coronary intervention, resuscitated SCD or CVD death
54 160 ACCOMPLISH Blood Pressure Results Benazepril/amlodipine Benazepril/HCTZ 140 mmhg Patients, n Months Benazepril/amlodipine (N) 5,740 5,517 5,404 5,178 5,010 4,866 4,298 2,804 1,074 Benazepril/HCTZ (N) 5,757 5,537 5,408 5,222 5,033 4,825 4,299 2,529 1,042 The mean SBP/DBP following titration was 131.6/73.3 mm Hg in the benazepril/amlodipine group and 132.5/74.4 mm Hg in the benazepril/hctz group. The mean difference in SBP/DBP between the 2 groups was 0.9/1.1 mmhg (p<0.001) Jamerson K, et al. N Engl J Med. In Press
55 0.16 ACCOMPLISH Primary Endpoint Benazepril/amlodipine (552 patients with events: 9.6%) Benazepril/HCTZ (679 patients with events: 11.8%) 20% Cumulative event rate HR 0.80 (95%CI ); p< ,096 1,277 Time to first CV mortality/morbidity (days) Months Patients at risk (N) Benazepril/amlodipine 5,512 5,317 5,141 4,959 4,739 2,826 1,447 Benazepril/HCTZ 5,483 5,274 5,082 4,892 4,655 2,749 1,390 Jamerson K, et al. N Engl J Med. In Press
56 ACCOMPLISH Components of the Primary Endpoint* HR (95%CI) p-value Composite CV mortality/morbidity 0.80 ( ) <0.001 CV mortality 0.80 ( ) 0.08 MI (fatal/non-fatal) 0.78 ( ) 0.04 Stroke (fatal/non-fatal) 0.84 ( ) 0.17 Hospitalisation for unstable angina 0.75 ( ) 0.14 Coronary revascularisation procedure 0.86 ( ) 0.04 *Only the first event in an individual patient was counted in the analysis of the primary end point Jamerson K, et al. N Engl J Med. In Press Favours Benazepril /amlodipine Favours Benazepril /HCTZ
57 ACCOMPLISH Subgroup analyses for the primary endpoint Subgroups Benazepril/ amlodipine N=5744 Benazepril /HCTZ N=5762 Hazard Ratio (95% CI) p-value n(%) n(%) Sex Male 365 (10.6) 461 (13.1) 0.80 ( ) Female 187 (8.1) 218 (9.7) 0.83 ( ) 0.06 Age 65 years 70 years 386 (10.1) 260 (11.0) 474 (12.4) 323 (13.8) 0.81 ( ) 0.79 ( ) Diabetes Yes 307 (8.8) 383 (11.0) 0.79 ( ) No 245 (10.8) 296 (12.9) 0.82 ( ) 0.02
58 ACCOMPLISH Conclusions In the total cohort, as well as the 6,946 patients with diabetes, the Primary Combined Endpoint (-20%), as well as MI (-20%) and coronary revascularization (-14%), were lower in the benazeprilamlodipine than in the benazeprilhydrochlorothiazide group. When added to initial therapy with ACEI, CCB is superior to thiazide diuretic.
59 Summary: New Drugs The first Direct Renin Inhibitor, aliskiren, is effective and very well tolerated. The place of Direct Renin Inhibition in the antihypertensive armamentarium is as yet undetermined. The first selective antagonist of the endothelin A receptor, darusentan, may be approved this year for treatment of hypertension. The place of Selective Endothelin Receptor Antagonism in the antihypertensive armamentarium is as yet undetermined.
60 Summary: New Goals The goal BP for patients with low risk, uncomplicated hypertension remains unchanged at <140/90. The goal BP for patients with Diabetes, CKD, Angina or high risk of CAD is <130/80. The goal BP for patients with Diabetes + CKD is <120/70. In 2010, JNC VIII may revise these goals.
61 Summary: New Approaches I Nearly all patients with hypertension can be treated for less than $0.45 per day. Thiazide-type diuretics are superior in preventing 1 or more major forms of CVD and are less expensive. They should be preferred for first-step antihypertensive therapy. The ALLHAT authors. Adopted in JNC VII. Based upon current costs and subsequent clinical trials, this conclusion is no longer valid.
62 Summary: New Approaches II After age 55, Systolic BP is a strong predictor of CV events and Diastolic BP becomes a negative predictor. Initial treatment with combination therapy is reasonable and appropriate for patients with BP >20/10 mmhg above goal BP. Single Pill combination therapy has several advantages over Separate Pill therapy, especially better compliance.
63 Summary:Emphasis on Endpoints While BP reduction is of primary importance in treating hypertension, choice of agent is important in High Risk Patients. With different agents, at the same reduction in BP, there may be differences in MI, CVA, other CV endpoints, Total Mortality and new onset Diabetes. Multiple clinical trials support the superiority of ACE-Is, ARBs and CCBs over Beta Blockers and thiazide diuretics.
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