Western medical The herb is indicated in the treatment of pneumonia, mouth ulcer, hoarse voice, esophagitis, etc.

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1 Bei Sha Shen Introduction Radix glehniae is the dried root of Glehnia littoralis Fr. Schmidt ex Miq. (Fam. Umbelliferae). The drug is collected in summer and autumn, removed from rootlet, washed clean, dried slightly in the air, treated with boiling water, peeled and dried, or dried immediately directly after washing. Western medical The herb is indicated in the treatment of pneumonia, mouth ulcer, hoarse voice, esophagitis, etc. Eastern medical Pattern: Nourishes yin, clears the Lung, benefits the Stomach and generates Fluid. Properties: Sweet, slightly bitter, slightly cold. Channels entered: Lung and Stomach. Chemical constituents The herb contains alkaloids, starch and polysaccharide, etc.

2 Pharmacological actions Anti-febrile and analgesic effects Ethanol extract of the root could slightly lower the body temperature of normal rabbits, it could also lower the temperature of rabbits with fever induced by typhoid vaccine. Besides, it had analgesic effect on pain reaction caused by electric stimulation on dental pulp of rabbits. Effects on cardiovascular system Water immersion at low concentration could strengthen the contraction of isolated toad s heart; with the increasing of concentration, it showed inhibitory effect till the ventricle stopped beating (meanwhile the artrium may still beat) which could be restored. It had similar effects on in vivo toad s heart. Intravenous injection to anaesthetized rabbits could slightly increase the blood pressure and strengthen the respiration. Others Polysaccharide of bei sha shen had immunosuppressive activity. Has antibacterial and antifungal properties, which include two hitherto unreported polyine compounds, (9Z)1,9-heptadecadiene-4,6-diyne-3,8,11-triol and (10E)1,10-heptadecadiene-4,6-diyne-3,8,9-triol. The anti-inflammatory properties of the methylene chloride fraction (MCF) of Glehnia littoralis extract (GLE), may result from the inhibition of proinflammatory mediators, such as NO, PGE(2), TNFalpha, and IL-1beta via suppression of NF-kappaB-

3 and mitogen-activated protein kinases-dependent pathways. G. littoralis is an effective anti-inflammatory agent in murine phorbol ester-induced dermatitis and may have therapeutic potential in a variety of immunerelated cutaneous diseases. Clinical Studies Infantile persistent pneumonia bei sha shen and shan yao, 15g each were decocted to treat 24 cases of infantile persistent pneumonia whose courses varied from 1 to 3 months. Results: In 12 cases, main symptoms and signs disappeared and had no recurrence; in 9 cases, symptoms and signs disappeared; and 3 cases were ineffective. Esophagitis sha shen, mai dong, gan cao, jie geng, jin yin hua, lian qiao 100g each and pang da hai 50g were made into honey pills, 1~2 pills, 3~5 times daily. 12 cases were treated, 8 were cured, 3 improved and 1 ineffective. Infantile oral ulcer Sha Shen Mai Dong Tang (sha shen, mai dong, yu zhu, tian hua fen, bian dou, 6~9g each; dong sang ye 6g; gan cao 3~6g; da qing ye, ren zhong bai, 9~12g), water decoction, 1 dose every day. 34 cases of infantile mouth ulcer were treated and all were cured. The ulcer usually healed after 2~5 doses, averagely 2

4 doses. Hoarse voice sha shen, shi gao 15g, gan cao 9g, xing ren, mi zhi pi pa ye, 10g each; e jiao, mai dong, hei zhi ma, dong sang ye, mu hu die, 12g each. Modify the formula according to accompanied symptoms. 85 cases of hoarseness were treated, and all were cured except one effective. References Huang KC. The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs, 2nd ed. New York: CRC Press, Ishikawa T, Sega Y, Kitajima J. Water-soluble constituents of glehnia littoralis fruit. Chem Pharm Bull 2001;49: Matsuura H, Saxena G, Farmer SW, Hancock RE, Towers GH. Antibacterial and antifungal polyine compounds from Glehnia littoralis ssp. leiocarpa. Planta Med Jun;62(3): Miyazawa M, et al. Components of the essential oil from glehnia littoralis. Flavour Fragrance J 2001;16: Okuyama E, et al. Analgesic components of glehnia root (glehnia littoralis). Natural Med 1998;52: Teeguarden R. Radiant Health: The Ancient Wisdom of the Chinese Tonic Herbs. New York: Warner Books, 1998, p Yoon T, Cheon MS, Lee AY, Lee do Y, Moon BC, Chun JM, Choo BK, Kim HK. Anti-inflammatory activity of methylene chloride fraction from Glehnia

5 littoralis extract via suppression of NF-kappa B and mitogen-activated protein kinase activity. J Pharmacol Sci. 2010;112(1): Yoon T, Lee do Y, Lee AY, Choi G, Choo BK, Kim HK. Anti-inflammatory effects of Glehnia littoralis extract in acute and chronic cutaneous inflammation. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol Dec;32(4): Epub 2010 Mar 15.

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