Course: Intro to Chinese Herbs Date: April 27, 2007 Class #: 2

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1 Course: Intro to Herbs Date: April 27, 2007 Class #: 2 Refer to the Zheng Zeng handout throughout this lecture. Different textbooks will give you different information than you will find in these notes and in the handout so will clinical practice. However, for tests and board exams, answer according to the handout! General Rules for Cooking of Herbs This assumes your herbal preparations (called decoctions as they are extracted by boiling in water) are raw herbs. Pots to cook in from best to worst: 1) Best is glass or porcelain. 2) Stainless steel is acceptable, but drain it into glass when the cook time is done. Plastic is only marginally acceptable to pour it off into. Never never cook in copper, iron or aluminum! Cooking rules: When cooking, keep the lid on which keeps aromatic herbs intact and traps volatile oils of all herbs in the pot rather than boiling them away. Boil first then simmer for minutes. About water: 1) Use clean water, preferably spring, but filtered well is Ok too. 2) Amount depends upon the amount of herbs you are using General: 2-3 or 3-4 cups of water The level of water should be about 1 inch higher than the herbs. However, flowers or light floating herbs will render this guide meaningless. Another thing is that if you are using a pot with a large diameter, 1 of water above herbs will be too much. If your patient has problems finishing liquid preparations, use less and concentrate the decoction more. In general, use 2-4 cups of water to soak the herbs in, gauged to the amount of herbs you are cooking and according to time they must be cooked. For instance, if you have to cook them a long time, more water will evaporate so you ll have to add a little more. As a rule of thumb, most herbs cook minutes. Soaking and Cooking 1) Soak your herbs about minutes, though this may vary depending upon what you re preparing. This reduces your cook time and doesn t make a big difference in the effectiveness of the herb. As a bonus, it improves the action of the cooking. They can soak up to one hour, or overnight in Page 1 of 9

2 the fridge, but that s not recommended. 2) Cook em a. Boil first, then turn the fire down to simmer for minutes That s a general rule of thumb. i. You use a shorter cook time after soaking for exterior syndrome herbs and aromatics about 10 minutes. ii. For regular herbs, cook b. Cook a bag of herbs twice Cook it once, strain off the liquid and reserve, add more water, then cook it the 2 nd time. The first strained batch will be the strongest, the 2 nd will be weaker. Add the 2 nd batch to the first and mix. The Whole Set of Instructions in a Nutshell 1) Soak in water 2) Cook boiling first, then simmering 3) Drain off first batch and save 4) Add water back in and cook em 2 nd time 5) Drain it off again and add to first batch, mixing well 6) Drink the dose. Herbs you cook first 1) Toxic herbs You cook to reduce toxicity. This is especially true for herbs you take internally; you cook them less for external applications. All 3 of the herbs below are prone to side effects and all are strong warming Yang herbs. They are rarely prescribed in the Southern/warm areas. These all cook about 30 minutes longer than non-toxic herbs. In China you determine whether they are detox d by using a chopstick to put a drop on your tongue if it goes numb or burns, you keep cooking! a. Chuan Wu b. Cao Wu Both of these treat bi syndrome due to wind/damp/cold. People living in humid cold areas (Seattle?) have these problems more often than in Austin. c. Fu Zi Often, you find Zhi fu zi (prepared fu zi) in White Crane, prepared and less toxic version. You don t need to cook this first. 2) Heavy herbs a. Minerals Long Gu Dragon Bone calms Shen: anger, irritability, insomnia. This is a fossil which is high in calcium. This form is easily absorbed by the body. You use mg TID. Page 2 of 9

3 Ci Shi Dai Zhe Shi Shi Gao Magnetitum for chronic ear problems. Difficult to digest. This shi is different from the immature fruit shi. If used in an herb name and it doesn t mean immature fruit, then it means stone. Hematite descends the stomach Qi, good for nausea and vomiting. Tastes like dirt. Gypsum clears heat. Use a big dose (30-60g) for excessive Qi or heat. Many tofu s are prep d with shi gao which adds to it s already cold nature. These are heavy and hard to dissolve so they cook longer. In the clinic they are often ground into a powder to make the dissolution easier then cooked along w/other herbs. Concentrated powder herbs are already cooked. You ll find these on the shelf at White Crane in the back. Potato starch is often added to make it easier to measure out. b. Shells and Horns Shiu Niu Jiao Mu Li Shi Jue Ming Zhen Zhu Mu Gui Ban Bai Jia Water buffalo horn Calming to the patient. Jiao means gelatin. Oyster shells often taken with Long Gu Calming to the patient Abalone shell lowers blood pressure Calming to the patient Mother of pearl Calming to the patient. Tortoise shell nourishes the Yin Turtle shell clears empty heat due to Yin Xu. Also has some moving functions. c. Si Gua Luo louffa sponge. It s very dry and soaks up liquids quickly. Cook it first, let it soak as much as it needs adding more if necessary, then add other herbs. 3) Ma Huang Cooking varies depending on formula and function. This is used rarely in the US because it s been banned in so many places. Memorize the herbs you cook first, not so much the functions for now. Example test question: When in the cooking process of herbs would you add Fu Zi? Answer: cook it first. Page 3 of 9

4 Herbs you cook at the end Add these herbs in about 5 minutes before the end of the first batch you cook. So if your total cook time is 10 minutes for the first batch, add these 5 minutes in. 1) Aromatic Herbs Add these at the end to preserve the volatile essential oils. If you cook longer they will evaporate. Bo he Peppermint Mu xiang Costus root, sausarea, aucklandia Qing hao Sweet wormwood Zi su ye Perilla leaf Sha ren Cardamom seed crush this before decocting Bai dou kou White cardamom seed crush before decocting. Dries dampness Cao dou kou Yet another version of cardamom seed crush before decocting. Jing Jie Bud of schizonpeta plant Rou Gui Dried cinnamon bark 2) Purgative Herbs Fan Xie Ye Da Huang Senna leaf Rhubarb root. Only cook at the end when used for constipation. If for other uses, cook with the rest. Herbs to Decoct in Gauze Use gauze, cheesecloth, cloth teabag, tied up in a coffee filter, etc. These herbs are all very small, will float, stick to the side of the pot, etc. Remember this for the board exams even though you could get some of these just bumping around in general population inside of a bag of herbs. Xuan Fu Hua Xin Yi Hua Che Qian Zi Pu huang Hai Jin Sha Mula flowers - has fibers from inside the flower that may irritate the throat. Magnolia flowers - has fibers from inside the flower that may irritate the throat. Plantago seed. Cattail pollen; used for menstrual problems such as heavy flow and big clots. Japanese fern spores. Note: not all flowers have fibers that irritate the throat, just these above. Page 4 of 9

5 Herbs Taken with a Strained Decoction These don t need to be cooked with other herbs, but need to be taken with them. Zhu Li Mang Xiao San Qi Chuan Bei Mu Liquid bamboo sap. Dissolves phlegm Sodium sulfate which dissolves easily in decoction. Used for constipation Also called pseudo ginseng. It s function changes if you cook it. It s expensive stuff. Raw it will stop bleeding. Prep d it will nourish blood. Tendrilled fruitillaria. Moistens the lung and stops coughing and wheezing. It s expensive stuff ($1.50/gram) generally powdered and taken with decoction. Herbs Dissolved in the Strained Hot Decoction Add these while decoction is hot so it dissolves in. E Jiao Yi Tang Lu Jiao Jiao Gui Ban Jiao Donkey hide gelatin Barley malt sugar maltose. Used for cramping and aching of the stomach due to deficiency. Mature deer antler gelatin Tortoise shell gelatin Herbs Decocted Separately Usually these are expensive herbs, so cook separately to minimize the cost. Most are ginsengs, harder to get a long time ago. Some of these you can add with the rest of the cooking herbs now. Ren Shen Xi Yang Shen Lu Rong Ginseng American ginseng Immature deer antler (still fuzzy). Strongly nourishes Yang and blood. Rarely used in TCM, more common in Korean med. Page 5 of 9

6 Herbs that are Crushed first These are usually seeds which are crushed first. Sha ren Bai dou kou Cao dou kou Cao guo Suan zao ren Zhi zi Cardamom seeds White cardamom seeds More cardamom seeds Tsaoko fruit another way to say cardamom! Sour jujube seeds Gardenia seeds. Clears heat part of Free & Easy Wanderer Plus Dosages for Raw Herbs Use 5-10grams of each herb for adults ranging from lbs. For bigger people, bigger dose; smaller people, smaller dose. See Zheng Zeng s main handout for dosage guides. There s no maximum number of grams that you can put into bagged raw herbs. Herbs that are lighter by weight Use smaller doses unless it s a very gentle or bulky herb. These usually include leaves, flowers, cicada shells. Herbs that are heavier by weight Use bigger doses. These are often dense. Use at least 12-15grams Chief herbs in a formula Use larger proportions for the most important herbs in the mix. How Long does a bag of Raw last? Depends on where you are! In China patients are directed to consume a bag per day. If the condition is acute, 2 bags per day. In the US, however, it s 1 bag for every 2 days and 1 per day if the condition is acute. For chronic conditions, cook a bag of herbs 2ce and separate the whole mix into 4 parts, taking ¼ of the mix each morning and night. Page 6 of 9

7 Dosages for Powders Powders are concentrated powders. In general, you dose 42, 56, or 63 grams per week. Broken up like this: 3 grams x 2ce/daily = 6 grams/day = 42 grams/week 4grams x 2ce/daily = 8 grams/day = 56 grams/week 3 grams x 3 times daily = 9 grams/day = 63 grams/week When might you need stronger doses? 1) For larger people 2) For people that have been taking an herb(s) for a long time and are thus less sensitive to the herb(s) 3) For acute conditions How do you decide the dosage for each herb when giving a powder? 1) Figure out how many herbs to give 2) Average then raise/lower the total of each herb Don t have to exactly have 42, 56, or 63 grams but you want to come close. Dosages for Patents Easy. The bottle will give you the basic landmark. You can raise or lower accordingly. What s the Strongest Version? Raw, Powdered, or Patent? Raw is strongest. Quickest results. Best for acute symptoms. Also the least expensive, usually around 5-6 cents for raw and 30 cents per gram for powders. You can also get bigger doses especially of the heavier herbs. Lots bigger doses than powders Powders are next in line. Less strong, but generally the best for busy people. Stronger than pills, can take them along easily, less prep time. Patents are the weakest but the most convenient. Page 7 of 9

8 Timing of Dosages When should your patient take their herbs for best effect? Tonifying and Purgative Herbs Tonifying Herbs Most herbs Calm Shen herbs Nocturnal emission herbs Nourish Yin herbs Malaria herbs Herbs for dysmenorrheal or heavy menstruation On an empty stomach, early morning Before or between meals especially for first time patients About 30 minutes before or 30 minutes after meals. This is a guideline, not terribly rigid. Also good timing for: Herbs that irritate the stomach For patients with a history of stomach problems Herbs for food stagnation Reducing herbs which clear heat and drain fire. Before bed Before bed Before bed 2 hours before attack malarial symptoms always happen at the same time each day. Start 3-5 days prior to menstrual cycle. Take them 30 minutes before or after meals. Temperature upon ingestion of herbs Raw and powdered: Take them warm! Very important. This is especially important for cold syndrome (internal or external) herbs. Warm is best, room temp is ok. For stomach heat: Take them cool, never cold. Never take them with tea, green tea, or coffee!!! This adds damp heat to whatever problems the patient already has. Green tea has a chemical in it that binds with a lot of herb ingredients even true of the decaf versions. Wait 1-2 hours after drinking coffee or tea before taking herbs.... or wait 1-2 hours after taking herbs to drink coffee or tea! What if the patient vomits due to the taste or action of the herbs? Bummer. But it does happen in morning sickness or for patients with weak stomachs. Solutions: 1) Take smaller doses more frequently 2) Add fresh ginger or mint when cooking to help with the nausea 3) Take fresh ginger juice before taking the herbs. Ginger helps descend the stomach Qi. Page 8 of 9

9 If the taste is just disgusting, try sucking it down in a straw to bypass the taste buds. You can also have your patient make a small concentrated dose then shoot it like tequila and chase it with a glass of room temp water. Self care after taking herbs Especially for wind/cold syndromes: 1) Drink warm liquids to give added protection from externals 2) Keep yourself warm 3) Protect yourself from wind How long do you take herbs? 1) Usually until gone 2) For exterior symptoms such as wind-cold, wind-heat, for purgatives, stop when symptoms stop. Page 9 of 9

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