The effect of Aloe vera acetone extract on wound contraction and re-epithelization on full thickness excissional wound in female rabbits

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1 The effect of Aloe vera acetone extract on wound contraction and re-epithelization on full thickness excissional wound in female rabbits M. A.Abdul-Samad M. A.Kadhum B. S.Hamza M. M.Hamed Coll. of Vet.Med./ Univ.of Basraha Coll. of Agri./ Univ. of Basraha Abstract The present study was undertaken to evaluate the wound healing potential of Aloe vera aceton extracts of the leaves of Aloe vera were studied for their wound healing properties in the form of ointment, using one type wound models (full thickness excissional wound) in 18 female rabbits, divided in three groups, six animals in each group. The ointments of leaves extract of this plant were applied in concentration 5mg used in the present study. The effects were studied on excissional wound were percent of wound contraction macroscopically and re-epithelization on wound contraction, wound closure time and regeneration of tissues at the wound site (re-epithelization). Aloe, a popular house plant has along history as a multipurpose folk remedy. Commenly name known an Aloe vera. The plant be separated into two basic plant product gel and latex[1].aloe has superior to a topical antibiotic in expediting wound healing improving scar strength[2].aloe has well-documented antibacterial effects against avariety of pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Serratia marcescens,and another genera.in humans, it has been proven to accelerate healing from dermabrasion,frostbite,and aphthous stomatitis[3].[4] showed that healing of Prepration of Acetone extract of Aloe vera: After cutting of leaves of this plant to small pits, it extracted by acetone (BDH Egland) through the soxblet apparatus for 24 hrs., then the solution concentrated by rotary evaporater at 40ºC, the final was dried by exposure to external environment in room temperature, the result was oil material kept in glass container [6]. Preparation of Animals: The 18 female rabbits were divided into three groups with six animals per each group[6], and [7]. A- 3 rd -day post wouding B- 7 th day post wounding C- 14 th day post wounding. Introduction Materials and Methods moderate sever burn was sped up by six days when covering the wound with Aloe vera gel, compared to the healing of the wound covered in agauze bandage.the gel extracted from the leaves of the Aloe vera or true Aloe plant is an active ingredient in hundreds of skin lotions, sun blocks and cosmetics. Aloe extracts have been used to treat canker, sores, gastric and duodenal ulcer and AIDs [5].From this research we attempt to show the effect of Aloe vera acetone extract on improvement the wound contraction and re-epithelization in full thickness excessional wounds. The animals were prepared which include clapping and shaving the dorsal aspect of each animals then the area cleaned with 70% ethanol. This is followed by I/M injection of 10mg/kg body weight ketamine hydrochloride and 5mg/kg body weight zylazine, then at the dorsal aspect, a full thickness circular excissional wound including all layers of skin, after determination the area of each wound with a marker an known diameter 1.5 cm. The wounds are divided into treated wound on the right side, while control was on the left side.wound when treated with 0.5gm oil ointment which prepared by admix the Aloe vera acetone extract with vaseline base with ratio 1:3 respectively [7].The post operative management include

2 bandaged the wounds with clean gauzes which in turn strengthened externally with cotton cloth vest. Macroscopic evaluation: This evaluation include determination the range of wound contraction of each wound (measurement the wound size) after measuring the area of wound in indicated interval, and calculated by using the following equation [8] to explain the wound contraction as percent: [(A day 0 A day x )] 100 A day 0 Where: X= 3, 7, 14 day post wounding A= wound surface area. Macroscopic wound contraction: We evaluated the change in wounds area in treated and control wounds as a percent of wound contraction at 3 rd & 7 th days postwounding, the contraction rate is greater in treated wounds than the control Results Histopathological evaluation: The histopathological evaluations of the prepared skin section were concentrated on the histopathological reepithelization which is depending on the progression of new epithelium to cover the defected area. - when there was no new epithelium cover the defect the grade was noepithelium. - when the new epithelium covering up to 1/3 of defect, the grade was low. - When the new epithelium covering up to 2/3 of defect, the grad was moderate, while when it covering the whole defect the grade was complete re-epithelization. and complete wound closure was achieved at 11 th day post wounding in treated wounds, while the control wounds field to achieved a complete closure till the end of experiment at 14 th day post wounding. Figure [A (1,2); B (1,2) & C (1,2)]. Table (1): Effect of Aloe vera acetone extract on wound contraction rate Contraction rate Time days Treated wound Control wound 3 rd 64% 25% 7 th 84% 55% 14 th 100% (at 11 th day) 78% A-(1) diameter was 0.9cm at 3 rd day A-( 2 ) diameter was 1.3cm at 3 rd day postwounding in control wounds.

3 B-(1) diameter was 0.6cm at 7 th day B-(2) diameter was 0.9cm at 7 th day postwounding in control wounds. C- (1) contraction rate 100% at 11 th Histopathological re-epithelization: We evaluated the degree of histopathological re-epithelization in wounds in both treated and control groups as explain in table (2), that throughout the period of experiment, the progression of new epithelium to cover the defected area is greater in treated than the control wounds, the re-epithelization was complete C- (2) diameter was 0.7cm at 14 th day postwounding in control wounds. at 11 th days post wounding in treated wounds.these observation were consistent with macroscopic results that mentioned and suggested that the application of Aloe vera oil acetone extract to full thickness excessional wound promoted both wound contraction and re-epithelization, then accelerated healing process. Table (2): Effect of Aloe vera acetone extract on histopathological re-epithelization Time days Histopathological re-epithelization Treated wound Control wound 3 rd Mild No-epithelium 7 th Moderate Mild 14 th Complete re-epithelization at 11 th No complete re-epithelization day

4 A-(1) mild re-epithiliazation 3 rd day A-(2) no re-epithiliazation at 3 rd day postwounding in control wounds. B-(1) moderate re epithiliazation at 7th day post wounding, in treated wounds. B-(2) mild re-epithiliazation at 7th day post wounding, in control wounds C -(1)complete re epithelization 14 th post wounding, in treated wounds. day C -(2) incomplete re epithelization at 14 th day post wounding, in control wounds.

5 Macroscopic wound contraction: Wound contraction is considered an important factor in the evaluation of healing process in large open wounds [9].In our study, the typical application of Aloe vera acetone extract on full thickness excessional wounds results in more accelerated contraction of treated wounds with 100% contraction rate at 11 th day post-wounding, while in control wounds the contraction rate was 78% at the end of experiment.[2].found in their study, that the excessional wounds were treated with Aloe vera ointment for 14 th day, 3 times a day, showed significant increase in contraction rate as compared with control wounds. The authors attributed this results to polysaccharides in Aloe which increase collagen activity and promote wound contraction,while [10] found in his study that polysaccharides activate macrophages and stimulate the fibroblast proliferation with subsequent proliferation of myofibroblast at the periphery at the periphery of wound, and the contraction of Discussion References 1.Tyler, V. (1993). The Honest Herbal. Asensible guide to the use of herbs and related remedies. Third Edition. Binghamton, NY. Pharmaceutical Product Press. 2.Heggers, J.P.; Kucukcelebi, A.; Listengarten, D.; Stabenau, J.; Broemeling, I.D.; Robson, M.C. and Winters, W.D. (1996). Beneficial effect of Aloe on wound healing in an excisional wound Model. J. Altern. Complement. Med.; 2(2): Womble,D. ; and Helderman, J.H. (1992).Impact of acemannan on the generation and function of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol.14: Farrar, M.M. ( 2005). Skin deep. Bbetter Nutration; July Rodringuez-Bigas M, Cruz NI, Suarez A. (1988). Comparative evaluation of Aloe vera in the management these cells play important role in wound contraction [10],[11]and [12].From the previous facts we discussed the result of our study, that Aloe vera accelerated the contraction rate for the treated wounds as compared with control wounds. Histopathological re-epithelization: During the wound healing process, epithelial cells, proliferate and migrate from the edges of the wound and eventually cover the wound with newly skin [11]. The proliferation and migration of the epithelial cells is dependant on adequate supply of oxygen [13] and [11] show in their study that Aloe vera improve blood supply to the wounded area to make more oxygen which in turn improve reepithelization and healing process.as a results we conclude from our study that application of Aloe vera acetone extract for full thickness excissional wound topically enhance both wound contraction and reepithelization then improve the healing process. of burn wounds in guinea pigs. Plastic Reconstruct Surg. 81(3): Al-Ruba'ee, M.A. (2005). Study on the effect of Loranthus europeus L. seed on pyogenic inflammation and skin wound healing in rabbits. M.Sc. Thesis, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Basrah, Iraq. 7.Methaq, A.A.; Marium, A.K.; Zaniab, W.K. (2007). Study the effect of Aloe vera oil extract on excissional wound healing in females rabbits. Journal of Basrah of Veterinary Research. 6(1). 8.Agren, M.S.; Mertz, P.M. and Franzen, L. (1997). Acomparative study of three occtusive dressing in the treatment of full thickness wounds in pigs. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.; 36: Cock Bill, F.C. and Harms, F.R. (2002). Wound and healing process. Vol.

6 9:255. School of Pharmacy University College, Cardiff. 10. Romo, T. (2004). Wound healing, skin. J. E. Medicine Com., Inc.P: Davis, R.H. and Maro, N.P. (1989). Aloe vera and gibberellin, antiinflammatory activity in diabetes. J. Am. Podiatr. Med. Assoc.; 79(1): Lorena, D. (2002).Normal scaring: importance of myofibroblasts. Wound repair & Regeneration; 10(2): Rubin, M.B. (1984). Vitamins and wound healing-plast surg. Nurs. 4:16.

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