Pharmaceutical Preparation For Internal Use

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1 Pharmaceutical Preparation For Internal Use 1. Solid Preparations (Tablet, Capsule, Pill) 2. Liquid Preparations (Aqua, Syrup, Elixir, Extract, Liquor, Emulsion, Mixture, Infusion, Decoction). 3. Powder Preparations (Ordinary Powder, Effervescent Powder) 4. Drops 5. Aerosols 6. Implant 7. Parenteral Preparations. Solid Preparations *Tablets 1. Ordinary Compressed Tablet It is prepared by forcing the powdered drug (either drug alone or the drug with suitable diluent) into a solid mass using a mechanical machine with optimal degree of compression, (e.g. Paracetamol Tablet) 2. Coated Tablet It is an ordinary compressed tablet coated by sugar coat. ( 1-7 )

2 Advantages: 1. To avoid the bitter state of the drug. 2. To prevent air oxidation of the drug. 3. To facilitate swallowing in some patients who can not swallow ordinary compressed tablet. (e.g. Flu. Out Tablet) 3. Triturated Tablet It is prepared by mixing the drug with a suitable diluent's like lactose, the mixture is moistened with alcohol and the mass is pressed into circular holes in a suitable plate. 4. Enteric Coated Tablet Ordinary compressed tablet covered with acid resistan t covering to allow the tablet to pass the stomach intact, it dissolved in the alkaline medium of the intestine Advantages: 1. To avoid irritation of the stomach by ulcerogenic drugs. 2. To prevent destruction of the drugs by gastric acid and pepsin. 3. To get local action on the intestine. (e.g. Salazopyrine EN Tablet) 5. Sustain Release Tablet It is an ordinary tablet coated by many coats each with different disintegration and dissolution rates (retard preparation). 6. Sublingual Tablet It is usually uncoated tablet especially manufactured to be suitable for absorption from sublingual mucosa. ( 2-7 )

3 Advantages: 1. rapid action 2. Avoid destruction by first pass metabolism in the liver (e.g. Angesid 0.5mg) 7. Effervescent Tablet It is manufactured by mixing the drug with citric acid and sodium bicarbonate to get granules, these granules are compressed to get tablet which dissolved in water giving effervescence, (e.g. Vitamin C-Calcium effervescent Tablet) 8. Chewable Tablet Ordinary uncoated tablet specially manufactured to be Sucked or chewed.this type of tablet usually with good taste and mostly used as (Anti Acid) 9. Lozenges Sugar flavored tablet with Different shapes and Attractive colures it is usually sucked to treat simple tonsillitis and relief cough which originate from above larynx. *PilI Solid spherical body containing a drug in solid or liquid form given by mouth, not weight more than 0.3gwt, some time coated with sugar coat. *Capsules 1. Ordinary Capsules small soluble container usually made of gelatin cylindrical, oval, or rounded it is either hard containing powdered drug such as tetracycline capsules or soft capsules containing ( 3-7 )

4 liquid such as adalat capsules which contains 10 mg nifedipine. Uses: 1. To mask the bad taste of the drug. 2. To prevent air and moisture oxidation of the drug. 3. To get accurate amount of the drug. 2. Spansule Capsule: Ordinary capsule contains different granules each with different disintegration and dissolution rates, (e.g. Ferofolic Spansule Capsule) 3. Capsules for Inhalation (Spincapsules) Ordinary capsule which contains a drug which is usually unabsorbed from the bowel, it is intended to be inhaled to get local action in the lung using certain instrument called spinhaler. Liquid Preparations 1. Aqua It is a water solution of volatile substances usually used as flavored vehicle. (e.g. Peppermint Water) 2. Syrup The drug is usually water soluble dissolved in already prepared simple syrup to get good taste, (e.g. Tussilet Syrup) 3. Elixir It is clear sweetened hydroacoholic liquid,contain small % of alcohol 4. Extract It is a solid or semi-solid preparation of active principles obtained from plant by percolation with a suitable solvent, and then the solvent is ( 4-7 )

5 evaporated to obtain the extract. e.g. watery extract of cascara and Alcoholic extract of belladonna. 6. Liquor It is a solution of chemical substances usually dissolved in water. 7. Emulsion It is a mixture containing two immiscible liquid (such as oil and water) one of which is broken up into minute globules each globules is surrounded by a film of emulsifying agent and dispersed thought out the other liquid. 8. Mixture Is a combination of drugs in liquid form for internal use such as white mixture which contains magnesium sulphate and used as a purgative. 9. Decoction It is solution of non volatile drug obtained from plant by boiling with water for 10 minutes and then strained, (e.g. Cammomella Decoction) 10. Infusion It is a dilute solution of the active principles of plant, prepared by pouring hot or cold water or alcohol upon the powdered plants, shacked from time to time and then strained. 11. Suspension It is a solution containing in diffusible solids which do not remain in the vehicle evenly distributed long enough to give uniform measured dose, (e.g. Metheprim Suspension) ( 5-7 )

6 Powdered Preparations 1. Ordinary Powder It is containing drug for internal use in the form of fine powder, (e.g. Gastrobel Powder) 2. Effervescent Powder The active drug is manufactured in the form of effervescent granules by complexing the drug with sodium bicarbonate, citric acid and tartaric acid.to be dissolved in water before ingestion, (e.g. Eno Powder) Drops Convenient for infants, it is prepared by concentrating the drug in few drops to decrease volume of the dose in order to facilitate swallowing of this small dose and minimize loss of dose. (e.g. Paracetamol Drops) Aerosols (Inhalers) Pressurized liquid form of drug, it is inhaled using many puffs each puff contains specified quantity of drug that is why it is called metered aerosols. (e.g. Ventolin Inhaler) Implant It is minute cylindrical or disc shaped preparation, usually contains hormones. It is inserted under the skin to be absorbed slowly giving a longer duration of action, (e.g. Stilbesterol Implant) ( 6-7 )

7 Paraenteral Preparations Ampoule It is a thin glass container for a single injectable dose. The solution of ampoule is usually sterile intended to be used Lm. Iv, S.c Vial It is thick glass container with rubber cap containing either solution or powdered drugs either for single or multiple doses. ( 7-7 )

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