CHAPTER - IV OBSERVATION

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1 CHAPTER - IV OBSERVATION

2 Chapter IV OBSERVATION 4.1 Introduction The 1978 technical report of the WHO discusses the role of traditional medicine in treating the masses in traditional ways. It says... " (The traditional method is ) the sum total of all the knowledge and practices whether explicable or not, used in diagnosis. prevention and elimination of physical, mental and social imbalance and relying exclusively on practical experience and observation handed down from generation to generation, whether verbally or in writing." The aim of this chapter is to study the information possessed by ethnic groups either remained buried or forgotten and lost in antiquity. The listing of plants of ethnobotanical value is important for evaluating human-plant relationship and for understanding the regional human-ecology relations to their environment. Maintaining such traditional knowledge in the face of sweeping modern medicine and diminishing folk medicine is imperative and should be encouraged. Therefore ethnobotanical uses of plant species of the area is enumerated. In addition soil ph also has been studied. 4.2 Soil ph The paramount importance of soil ph on a plant growth is a well-established fact (Oosting 1965). However, the degree of acidity of the soil may have a regulatory effect upon the chemical processes that influence the growth of plants. An increased level of acidity may affect the availability of nutrients. In fact, the availability of the major elements is mainly dependent upon ph of soil solution (Daubenmire 1974). A number of soil organisms are sensitive to changes in soil ph. Any change in the ph level may retard the decomposition of organic matter and restrict the release of nutrients. Thus nitrification and nitrogen fixation may be checked. Table 4.1 states the variations in the ph value in all the locality at different habitats that has ranged from 6.8 to Enumeration of In the early period of evolution, man was a food gatherer, totally dependent on forest for food and shelter. Gradually, he learnt to grow food, rear animals and build houses. With this process of development, his dependence on forest gradually decreased but the pace of development has not been uniform for all human beings. Some human races went much ahead, while others living in comparative isolation in hilly, remote and densely-forested area, were left behind in the race of development and still in varying stages of primitiveness. These people are called tribal ( in Barda Hills, they are known as Maldharies ), aboriginal or indigenous people. The life style of the Maldharies of Barda Hills has evolved over centuries and direct use of natural resources such as plants and their products is inseparable part of their 43

3 life and culture. The Maldharies cure their ailments using simple remedies. They use different parts of plants that were locally available, in trying to cure different types of diseases. The ethnobotanical information was collected from the Maldharies (Tribal people) of Barda Hills with the help of two questionnaires. Plants used by the Maldharies is their day-to-day life are listed below. Table 4.1 Variations in soil ph in different parts of the Barda Hills. Locality Habitat Soil ph Ghumali Reverine 7.10 And Foothill 7.30 Adjoining area Slope 7.10 Peak 7.40 Venu Reverine 6.80 And Foothill 7.40 Adjoining Slope 7.60 Area Slope 7.40 Peak 7.10 Abhapara Reverine 7.40 And Foothill 7.80 Adjoining Slope 7.20 Area Peak 7.40 Kilcshwar Reverine 7.10 And Foothill 7.20 Adjoining Slope 7.00 Area Peak 7.30 Godhana Reverinc 7.10 And Foothill 7.30 Adjoining Slope 7.20 Area Peak 7.10 Satvirda Reverine 6.90 And Foothill 7.10 Adjoining Slope 7.70 Area Peak 7.40 Adityana Reverine 7.40 And Foothill 7.10 Adjoining Slope 7.30 Area Peak 7.60 Scrubland 7.70 Scrubland

4 Abelmoschus esculentus (L) Monech. (Malvaceae) Bhinda BAJ: cm. tall, hispidly hairy herb. Flower yellow with purple base. FLS : Sept.-Nov. Ethnobotanical uses : FRS :Oct.-Jan. Cultivated. ~ Tender capsules are used as a vegetable. ~ Flower is eaten in soups. ~ Tender leaves are boiled and eaten like spinach. ~ Stalks are yields fibres. Abelmoschus manihot (L) Medic. (Malvaceae) Kantalo bhendo BAJ: cm. tall, hairy, prikly, annual under shrub. Flower yellow with a deep purple base within. FLS : Sept. - Oct. FRS :Oct. - Jan. Rare ~ A strong fibre is obtained from stem and is used in preparation of ropes and strings. ~ After removing prickles fruit used as vegetable. Abrus precatorius (L) (Fabaceae) Chanothi BAJ: 74 Perennial, deciduous twiners, woody at base. Flower pinkish - purple in compect racemes. FLS : Aug. - Oct. Ethnobotanical uses : FRS :Sept.- Feb. ~ The fresh leaves are sweet and chewed for treatment of mouth ulcers. ~ Externally the leaves are used for relieving local pains in swelling. ~ The leaves and roots are considered to be useful in snakebite. ~ The fresh root juice or leaf Juice mixed with some edible oil and then is applied on painful part to relieve pain and reduce swellings of rheumatism. ~ A garland of seeds is worn by tribal ladies as an ornament. ~ The leaves are chewed to relieve stomachache. 45

5 ~ The seed oil is applied on scalp toprevent falling of hair. ~ The leaf paste is applied on head to prevent baldness. ~ Paste of root is applied on leucoderma tic spots. ~ The fresh leaf juice dropped in to the eye in cataract. ~ Roots decoction is given for coughs and colds. ~ Seeds are poisonous. ~ Seeds administered in affections of nervous system and their paste applied locally in sciatica, stiffness of shoulder joints and paralysis. ~ Bruised seeds have been used criminally for poisoning cattle and for homicidal purposes. ~ From early times seeds have been used as, weights by goldsmiths of India. ~ Pulp of the seed is given with milk in sexual debility, it is increase sexual power. Abutilon indicum (L.) Sw. (Malvaceae) Kansky / Atibala BAJ: 29 A small shrub hairy tomentose. Flowers, yellow axillary solitary opemng III the evemng. FLS & FRS :Oct.-May Common ~ Tender leaves are chewed to cure piles. ~ The bark yields white fibre it is used in preparation of ropes and strings. ~ Leaves are boiled in water and given in urinary troubles. ~ Leaves are cooked and eaten. ~ Roots are used as a nervine tonic and antipyretic also used in piles and cough. ~ Seeds called "Balbij" are rich in mucilage and used as a laxative and demulcent. ~ Decoction of root is gi ven orally to cure burning urination. Acacia chundra (Roxb.ex Rottl.) Willd. (Mimosaceae) Kher BAJ: m. tall, armed tree, with rough bark. Flowers sessile, pale yellow in axillary spikes. FLS : Apr. - Aug. FRS :May- Oct. Not common 46

6 -7 Decoction of root, leaves, stem bark and fruits used to take bath to cure leucodermatic spots. -7 Wood is used in preparation of agricultural implements. -7 The 'katha' is extracted from hoeartwood of old trees. -7 Katha is used in pan preparation and used for printing and dyeing purposes. -7 Wood is used in preparation of wooden pestles. 'sambelll' -7 Gum is given to the pregnant women to protect embryo. -7 A small amount of 'katha' is applied over ulcers in the mouth for fast hoealing. -7 Decoction of stem bark is used to wash the wounds and ulcer as it is a good antiseptic. Acaciajaquemontii Bth. (Mimosaceae) Bavali BAJ: m. tall, armed shrub. Flowers yellow in head. FLS : Feb. - Apr. FRS :Feb - May. Common in sandy soil -7 Tender branches and leaves used as fodder. -7 Bark used for tanning. -7 Plant may be used as a sand binder in arid zone. -7 The churner 'valonll or ravayo' is also made from wood of this plant. -7 Decoction of root is gi ven internally on chronic rheumatism. Acacia leucophloea (Roxb.) Willd. (Mimosaceae) Hermo baval / Aragio BAJ: m. tall tree, with grayish-white and smooth bark in younger parts blackish-brown and rough bark excoticating in irregular scales in older. Flowers creamy to paleyellow in head. FLS : Aug. - Nov. FRS :Aug. - Feb. Throughout in sandy soil. -7 Tender branches and leaves are used as fodder. -7 Bark is used for tanning. -7 Wood is used in preparation of agricultural implements and tool handle. -7 Bark is yields fibre which is used for cordage and fishing nets. -7 Tender branches are chewed for relieve cough. -7 Young branches are used as a toothbrush. 47

7 ~ Dried branches are used as a fuel. ~ Decoction of bark is used washing mouth ulcers. ~ Flowers are considered useful in diabetes. Acacia nilotica (L.) Del. (Mimosaceae) Deshi baval BAJ: m. tall, armed tree, with dark blackish-brown irregularly longitudinally fissured bark. Flowers yellow in globose heads. FLS : July - Jan. FRS :Aug. - Dec. Ethnobotanical uses : ~ Tender branches and leaves used as fodder. ~ Young twigs are used as toothbrush and cleaning the tongue the flexible fibres help cleaning teeth. ~ Roasted seeds are eaten. ~ Decoction of stem bark is used to wash the mouth on toothache. ~ Gum is fried in ghee and given for better health and sexual debility. ~ Wood is used in preparation of the wooden pestel 'sambelu'. ~ The powder of stem bark is given internally on asthma. ~ Decoction of the bark is used in bath to cure skin disease. ~ Paste of inner bark applied externally on honeybee sting and wasp sting or any insect bite. ~ Tender leaves chewed for mouth ulcers. ~ Poultice of leaves bandaged on eye to cure eye diseases and avoid the heat of eye. Acacia pennata WilIrl. (Mimosaceae) Khervel BAJ: 120 Small tree, Branches more or les 5- angled. Prickles recurved. Leaflets glaucous. Flowers creamisn, in head. Pods thin, flat. FLS : Sept.- Nov. FRS: Sept.-Feb. Not common ~ Flowers, leaves and unripe pods used in painting. ~ Fibres are obtained from bark. ~ 2-3 drops bark decoction is droped in eyes of buffalo to cure eye diseases. ~ Its wood is used as fuel. 48

8 Acaia planiformis Wt. & Arn. ( Mimosaceae ) Chhatrobaval BAJ: feet tall tree, branches spread in every diretion and gives appereance as umbrella. Prikles white and dissimilar in size, 8 to 12 leaflets in leaf. FLS : J an.-mar. FRS: Jan.- Apr. Not common -7 Root bark soaked over night in water, filtered and mixed with sugercube and given to the diabetic patient. -7 Leaves, flowers, pods in main fodder of goats. -7 Heart wood is used in preparation of cart wheel and small table. -7 In carcity people collect wood and sale in folk market as fuel for to earn money. -7 To stop excess urination, flowers and greed pods is given. -7 Leaves are chewed in mouth ulcer. Acacia senegal (L.) Willd. BAJ :122 (Mimosaceae) Kumbatio / Goradio baval 2-7 m. tall, armed tree. Flower creamy-white in axillary spikes. FLS : Aug. - Oct. Ethnobotanical uses : FRS :OCI. - Apr. -7 Tender branches are used as fodder. -7 The wood is used for preparation of tool handles. -7 Infusion of root bark stem bark is given in diabetes. -7 Dry branches are used as fuel. -7 Paste of leaves is applied on boils and wounds. -7 Gum is used as tonic and good for coughs and stomatitis. Acalypha ciliata Forsk. (Euphorbiaceae) Runchalo / Dadro BAJ: em tall, erect herb. Flowers greenish in axillary androgynous spikes. FLS & FRS :July - Oct. Ethnobotanical uses : -7 Leaf extract applied on ecezema and skin disease. 49

9 Acalypha indica L. (Euphrbiaceae) Vaichikato BAJ: cm. tall, herb. Flowers greenish - yellow in axillary androgynous spikes. FLS & FRS :July. - Feb. -7 Paste of leaves is applied on scorpion bite. -7 Juice of leaves employed for cutaneous troubles. -7 Juice of leaves is applied on scabies, ringworm and rheumatic arthritis. Acanthospermum hispidum DC. (Asteraceae) Gokharu. BAJ: cm. tall, dichotomously branched suffruticose herb. Flowers (Head) pale - yellow. FLS & FRS :Aug. - Nov. -7 Plant is having anti bacterial and anti bacterial and anti fungal activity. -7 Paste of leaves is applied on boils, wounds and leprosy. -7 Decoction of leaves is used for treating yellow fever but large doses emetic. Achyranthas aspera L. (Amaranthaceae) Aghedi. BAJ: cm. tall, annual, erect herb with square stem. Flowers greenish white in elongated terminal long spike. FLS : Sep. - Dec. Ethnohotanical uses: FRS :Sept.- Jan. -7 Decoction of plant is used in renal drops. -7 The ash of dry plant rubbed with honey and administered internally on cough, asthma, urine complaints and stomachache. -7 The leaves are eaten in scorpion sting to remove the poisonous effect. -7 Paste of leaves and root is applied externally on scorpion sting. 50

10 A piece of root struck to the lock of the hair of expectant mother to start labour pain immediately after deli very the root piece is removed and thrown in to a running stream of water. -7 The seeds are rubbed with rice water is given on bleeding piles. -7 Stem is used as toothbrush in toothache. -7 Infusion of the plant or paste of stem mixed with 'tal oil' and introduce in the ear to cure earache. -7 Root is rubbed with buttermilk and given internally on jaundice. -7 Decoction of root is given in cholera. -7 The juice of fresh leaves given internally on colic complains. Adhatoda vasica (L.) Nees. (Acanthaceae) Ardusi BAJ: m. tall, evergreen, bushy shrub. Flowers white in spikes. FLS & FRS :Dec. - Feb. -7 The leaves are very efficacious as remedy in all sorts of coughs and colds, bronchitis and asthma. -7 The crushed leaves with water given internally to the female on the post deli very treatment. -7 The dried leaves are smoked as cigarettes with much relief in asthma. -7 Paste of leaves is given in T.B. treatment. -7 The leaves are an old remedy in Hindu medicine. Adina cordifolia (Roxb.) Bth. & Uk. (Rubiaceae) Ualdarvo. BAJ: m. tall, stout, deciduous tree, with grey or light black, longitudinally fissured bark. Flowers yellow in smaller heads and strong smelling. FLS : Aug. - Sept. FRS :Aug. - Sept. Rare. -7 Leaves are used as fodder. -7 Leaves are used in to prepare patrala. -7 Mature wood is used in preparation of toys and furniture. 51

11 Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr. (Rutaceae) Bili. BAJ: m. tall, thorny, deciduous tree. Flower greenish white. FLS : May - June. FRS :June - May. Ethnobotanical uses : ~ Pulp of fruit is mixed with roasted seed of chokha (Oriza sativa L.) and given internally to the pregnant woman to cure vomiting. ~ Juice of fresh leaves used as a deodorant. ~ The leaves 'hili patra' are used for religious ceremony and offered to Lord Shiva. ~ The unripe fruits are used in dysentery and chronic diarrhoea, fever and scurvy. ~ Juice of fresh leaves is dropped in to the ear in earache. ~ Powder of dried unripe fruits is in potent antidiarrhoeal medicine. ~ The tender aromatic leaves eaten to check diabetes of primary stage. ~ Fresh leaf juice applied on swellings due to rheumatism. ~ The paste of root is applied on scorpion bites. Agave americana L. (Agavaceae) Ramban. / Ketki BAJ: 339 A large perennial herb. Flowers only once during life, on long feet tall scape yellowish - green. FLS & FLS : Jan. - June. Rare. ~ Planted in the garden. ~ It is used as a hedge plant. ~ Leaf juice is applied on gonorrhoea and syphilis. Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. (Simaroubaceae) Arduso. BAJ: m. large tree with greenish - white or grey smooth bark. Flower greenish yellow in panicles. FLS : Feb. - Mar. FRS :Feb. - Apr. 52

12 -7 Wood is light in weight it is used in preparation of toys, boxes and musical instrument like 'tamburo'. -7 Tender branches and leaves are used as fodder for goat. -7 The wood is also used in preparation of utensil like spoon and churning rod 'va[onu'. -7 The juice of stem bark is given internally to cattle to cure windiness in stomach locally called 'afro'. -7 Infusion of stem bark mixed with cured and given orally to cure dysentery and diarrhoea. -7 Roasted leaves are bandaged on head to cure headache and gastralgia. -7 Roasted seeds are given in coughs and colic. -7 Infusion of stem bark is also used in to cure cholera. Alangium salvifolium (L.f.) Wang. BAJ: 176 (Alangiaceae) AnkoI. 3-10m. tall tree, with ash - coloured rough and faintly fissured bark. Flowers greenish - white, fascicled on old wood. FLS : Oct. FRS :Nov. -7 Leaves are used in relieving rheumatic pain. -7 Root bark is used as an emetic. -7 Wood is used in preparation of musical instrument and toys. -7 Paste of seed is applied externally on head to grow hair in case of baldness. -7 Decoction of bark is gi ven to the pregnant women for abortion. -7 The ripe fruits are edible. -7 Infusion of root bark is antidote hence given orally on swelling due to snakebite, dog bite and rat bite. -7 Juice of stem bark is given orally in T.B. -7 Paste of leaves mixed with common salt and applied externally to relieve backache. -7 The juice of root bark is given orally to cure worm. -7 Decoction of root bark is mixed with 'suinth' and bath it, to cure fever. -7 Rubbed the root with water and applied on boil. Albizia lebbeck (L.) Bth. (Mimosaceae) Shirish 8-20 m. tall tree. Heads solitary. FLS : July. - Oct. FRS :Oct. - Mar. BAJ:

13 -7 Leaves and seeds are used in eye troubles, viz. night blindness. -7 Paste of stem bark is applied on boils. -7 The bark and seeds are used in piles, diarrhoea, dysentery and gonorrhoea. -7 Paste of leaves, stem bark, flowers, pods and seeds are applied to the bitten part. -7 The dry branches are used as fuel. Allium cepa L. (Liliaceae) Dungli BAJ: 342 A small herb with tunicated bulb. Flower white in umbel. FLS & FRS :Jan. - Mar. Cultivated. -7 The crushed bulb IS applied to the nostrils of person having fainting or historical fits. -7 A bulb is eaten raw or cooked and it is a popular vegetable. -7 A bulb is crushed and mixed with any edible oil is given orally to cattle to cure cough. -7 The fresh juice of bulb is applied externally on wasp bite. Aloe barbadellsis Mill. (Liliaceae) Kunvarpathu. BAJ: 343 A succulant herb with stolons. Flowers yellow orange on long scapes. Throughout in waste places but not common. FLS : Aug. - Dec. Ethnobotanical uses : FRS :Aug.-Feb. Not common -7 Juice of leaves is used in liver disease and eye troubles. -7 Inner fleshy part of leaf is applied on wounds due to burning. -7 The leaf is warmed and bandaged on abdomen to remove old stool (faeces) and to cure constipation. -7 The leaf is given orally to cure stomach trouble. -7 The plantis cultivated for house fencing. -7 The pulp of leaves is applied on boils, scabies, ringworm, mastitis, leprosy and bleeding piles. S4

14 Alternallthera sessilis (L.) DC. (Amaranthaceae) Panini bhaji / Jal jambvo. BAJ: 292 A small much branched herb, rooting at nodes. Flowers white in axillary heads. FLS & FRS :Oct.-Feb. ~ Decoction of the leaves is used as a wash for eyes. ~ Whole plant is grassing by goat and sheep. ~ Leaves are used in night blindness. ~ The leaves are used in preparation of 'bhaji'. ~ Paste of leaves is mixed with buttermilk and given to cattle for remove poisonous effect. ~ Crushed the leaves with water and given internally to the animal to avoid windness in stomach 'afro'. ~ Paste of leaves is applied externally on dropsy and boils. ~ Decoction of whole plant is given to nursing mother and fever. Alysicarpus mollilifer (L.) DC. (Fabaceae) Bhohy samervo. Prostrate herb patently hairy. Flowers bright-pinkish. FRS & FLS : Aug. - Feb. BAJ: 7S Ethnobotanical uses : ~ Whole plant is used as fodder. ~ Decoctio of whole plant is given in rheumatism. Amarallthus hybridus L. sub. Sp. cruentus (L.) TheIl. Var. palliculatus (L.) TheIl. BAJ : 294 (Amaranthaceae) Rajgaro cm. tall large beautiful annual herb. Flower golden yellow or red colour in spike. FLS & FRS :Oct. - Feb. Cultivated. ~ Seeds are eaten. ~ Leaves are used as blood purifier and in piles. ~ The plant also used as fodder. 55

15 Amarallthus lividus L. (Amaranthaceae) Tandaljo BAJ: cm. small annual herb. Flowers greenish in clusters. FLS & FRS :Aug.- Oct. -7 Leaves are used as vegetable. -7 Leaves are used in preparation of bhaji. It is eaten to cure for hair fall. -7 Whole plant used as a fodder. -7 Paste of leaves is applied on boil swellings. Amarallthus spinosus L. (Amaranthaceae) Kantalo dambho BAJ: cm tall erect or diffuse herb. Flowers pale greenish in globose. FLS & FRS :Sept.- March. Common as a weed. -7 The root is considered a specific in gonorrhoea. -7 Whole plant is used as fodder. -7 Ash of plant is mixed with lime and applied externally on boil for fast ripening. -7 Juice of leaves is employed in leprosy, leucorrhoea, piles and colic. -7 Plant decoction given to cattle for delivery complaints, such as ache, swelling etc. -7 Decoction of shoots considered antirheumatic. Ammallia baccifera L. (Lythraceae) Jal agio / Aganbuti. BAJ: cm. tall annual herb. Flower red in dense axillary cluster. FLS : Aug. - Nov. FRS: Sept. - Dec. -7 Paste of fresh leaves is applied externally on ringworm and other parasitic skin infection. 56

16 -7 Infusion of the plant is given to the animal to cure poisonous effect due to grassing poisonous plant. -7 Decoction of leaves is mixed with juice of fresh ginger and given orally to cure intermittent fever table spoon decoction of the whole plant is taken orally twice a day for a week to threat gonorrhoea. Amorphophallus campanuiatlls (Roxb.) Blume ex Decne. (Araceae) Suran. BAJ: 355 A perennial herb with a very large corm. Flowers very bad smelling, in spadix. FLS : May. - June. Ethnobotanical uses : FRS: May - July Cultivated. -7 Large fleshy corm is used as vegetable. -7 Tender petioles are also edible. -7 Corm is used in dysentery, piles and colic complaints. -7 The paste of corm is applied on ulcers caused due to bite of repti les. -7 About 100 gm fresh or dry tuber is macerated and juice extracted; 100 ml juice is taken orally as antidote for snake bite. Vomiting indicates relief. AmpelocisslIs latifolia (Roxb.) Planch. (Ampelideae) Jangali draksh. BAJ: 66 An extensive, woody climber with hollow stem. Flower deep red 10 pyramidal panicled cymes. FLS : May - July. FRS: Aug. - Oct. Common -7 Juice of tender leaves used in dental troubles and as a detergent for indolent ulcers. -7 Decoction of roots is given in dysentery gm leaf paste mixed with turmeric, egg albumen and black goat milk is smeared over the fractured area and bound over it; bandage changed, once in three days. Paste of fresh leaves is applied over int1amed parts affected by guinea worms. 57

17 Andrographis echioides (L.) Nees. (Acanthaceae) Kariyatu BAJ: cm tall, patently hairy annual herb. Flowers creamy to dirty white in axillary racemes. FLS : Aug. - Dec. FRS: Aug - Jan. -7 Juice of leaves is mixed with coconut water and given orally in fever. -7 Decoction of plant with dried fruit of black pepper (Piper nigrum) is given internally on fever and rheumatism. -7 The plant is boiled with water and vapour inhaled to cure fever. -7 Decoction of shoot (10 gm) is given twice a day for 4-5 days in acute jaundice due to hepatitis associated with hepatomegaly. Anisomeles indica (L.) O.Ktze. (Lamiaceae ) Chodharo BAJ: 277 A small shrub, stem squre, hairy. Leaves thick, ovate acute, serrate, hairy, base cordate. Flowers sessile, in dense whorls which are distant below but close above to form a dense spicate inf; corolla light purple. FLS: Sept. - Nov. FRS :Sept.-Nov. Common -7 The paste of root bark is applied externally in reduce the swelling incase of the bite of poisonous animal. -7 Inhaled the decoction of leaves to cure fever. -7 Whole plant ash mixed with jaggery and make a syrup it is taken to reduce sali very secretion. -7 Juice of leaves is given to the hildren in colic dyspepsia and fever due to teething. -7 The decoction of whole plant is used to take bath for fomenting rheumatic joints and fever. Annona squamosa Linn. (Annonaceae) Sitaphal. BAJ:l 3-5 m. tall, tree with opposed, on old wood. FLS : Apr-Aug light black rough bark, flowers greenish auxiliary or leaf FRS: June-Sept. Not common 58

18 7 Ripe fruit is edible. 7 Paste of leaves are applied on would and ulcers for rapid hoealing and to prevent microbial infection. 7 Decoction of leaves given to patient of diabetes. 7 Paste of seeds is applied for killing maggots in wound of cattle. 7 Crushed leaves applied on nostriels of persons suffering from hysteria. 7 Paste of seed mixed with Gram powder and used as hair wash to remove lice. 7 Dry wood is used as fuel by native people. Allogeissus latifolia (Roxb.) Wall ex Guill. (Combretaceae) Dhavdo / Indruk BAJ: m. tall tree, with grayish - white or ash coloured, smooth bark, peeling off in scales. Flowers greenish - yellow in globose heads. FLS : May - July. FRS :July - Dec. 7 The wood is used for coal, preparation of agricultural implements and tool handles. 7 Decoction of bark is given orally in colic and liver complaints. 7 Dry leaves are used as a fodder for goat and sheep. 7 The tender branches are used in preparation of gate 'zmnpo'. 7 The gum is a tonic and given during winter on weakness. 7 Stem bark is chewed to cure cough and toothache. 7 The powder of stem bark mixed with warm water and applied externally on injured part of body. 7 One table spoon of juice of stem bark is given thrice a day for about a week to treat cough and asthma. Alltig01l01l leptopus Hk. & Arn. (Polygonaceae) Icecreamvel BAJ: 304 An extensive, perennial climber, woody at base. Flowers bright rosy pink or white. Peduncle modified into tendrils at apex. FLS : Throughout the year. Cultivated. 7 It is ornamental plant. 59

19 Apluda mutica L. (Poaceae) BAJ: cm. tall. Erect or geniculately ascending at base. Panicles terminal or numerous simple racemes or false spikes each sub tended by spathe. FLS & FRS :Oct. - Dec. -7 It is common fodder plant. Argemone mexicana Linn. (Papvaraceae) Darudi BAJ:9 A prickly herb with yellow juice; leaves pinnatifid, basal petioled and larger, upper sessile; flowers yellow; capsule glaucous, green, turning black with age. FSL : All Months FRS :Mar- Apr. Abundant -7 Maldhari use the leaf juice for syphilis. -7 Paste of seed used for the treatment pyorrhoea. -7 Leaf juice along with cow milk is given orally for a week in leprosy. -7 Maldhari rub the stem juice on the body to relieve rheumatic pain for a month. -7 Maldhari collect the seed and sale it in the folk market. -7 Seed extract (oil) is applied on ulcers, eczema and gonorrhoea. -7 Thy yellow latex applied in scabies and in opthalmia. -7 The bruised fresh root is applied to the part on scorpin bite to releave pain. -7 The ash of whole plant mixed with groundnut oil and than such oil is applied on affected part of the skin in scabies, eczema, ring worm and also wounds and ulcers in cattle as well as human beings. Argyreia llervosa (Burm.f.) Boj. (Convolvulaceae) Samudrashosh. BAJ: 218 Greyish or whitish-tomentose, stout, woody twiners. Flowers rose-purple in axillary cymes. FLS & FRS :Aug. - Oct. Rare. 60

20 -7 Young fresh leaves hairy side applied on boils for ripening and pus formation and then smooth side for hoealing wounds in boil. -7 Leaves are used in gleet, gonorrhoea, strangury and chronic ulcers. -7 Tender leaves are eaten as a vegetable. -7 Leaves applied externally in cases of itch, eczema and other skin troubles. -7 Paste of root is used in rheumatic, nervous diseases, snakebite, scorpion sting, swelling. -7 Leaves are bandaged on head in headache. -7 The leaf juice is applied in the ear in any ear complains. Aristolochia bractteolata Lamk. (Aristolochiaceae) Kidamari BAJ: 306 A prostrate branched herb. Flowers few dark blackish red colour in axillary fascicles. FLS & FRS: Aug.- Nov. Rare -7 The juice of root and leaves with black piper is applied to the wounded part in case of snake bite, root boiled in oil and applied to that part. -7 Infusion of leaves is gi ven on abdomen to relieve constipation. -7 One teaspoon juice of leaves is given in cough twice a day for three dalys. -7 Piece of root is chewed to relieve toothache. Asparagus racemosus Willd. (Liliaceae) Satavari BAJ: 344 An extensive, spinous, much branched climber with fasciculated tuberous roots. Flowers white in racemes. FLS & FRS :Nov. - Jan. -7 Juice of root is mixed with honey and for dyspepsia. -7 Powder of dried root is given intcrnally with milk to the nourishing mother for milk production hence used as glactagogue. -7 Powder of root is mixed with seed powder of 'jira' (ClllllinulIl cylilinulil) and gi ven orally with warm water to cure cold fever. -7 Root powder is also employed in colic, dysentery, acidity, tuberculosis, seminal weakness, leucorrhoea, burning micturition, anorexia and peptic ulcers. -7 Paste of cladode is applied externally on boil. 61

21 Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Meliaceae) Limdo BAJ: m. tall, large tree with slightly longitudinally furrowed bark. Flowers white in panicles. FLS : Dec. - Mar. FRS :Jan. - May 7 Bark used in skin troubles. Decoction of leaves is employed for ulcer and eczema. 7 Dried leaves keep in books and cereals for keeping away the moth and silverfish. 7 Odour of burning leaves and tender branches is kill insects. 7 Seed oil is employed in skin infection as an ointment. 7 Timber is used in preparation of furniture and for house building purposes. 7 Fresh twigs used as a toothbrush to cure pyorrhoea. 7 Juice of leaves is given in jaundice, common fever and skin diseases. 7 Powder of dried leaves is given orally to the children to cure intestinal worms. 7 Infusion of fresh flower is gi ven as tonic in despepsia, general debility and as a stimulant tonic and stomachic. 7 A poultice made of the flowers and leaves are used for relieving nervous headache. 7 Pulp of seed is employed in piles, urinary diseases, intestinal worms and leprosy. 7 Fresh and dried leaves used as a fodder. 7 Paste of leaves are fried in ghee and applied externally on apex of finger and boild to stop pus formation. Bacopa mollllieri (L.) Wetts. (Scrophulariaceae) Kadvi luni BAJ: 244 Creeping, tleshy, glabrous herb. Often radially spreading. Flower pale-blue, seldom white. FLS & FRS :Throughout the year. 7 Juice of leaves employed in epilepsy, insanity and other nervous diseases. 7 It is also given in aphonia, to increase memory, cough, fever, asthma and swelling. 62

22 Balanites aegyptica (L.) Del. (Balanitaceae) Ingorio BAJ: m. tall, armed, deciduous, bushy shrubs. Flowers pale - greenish yellow in axillary cymes. FLS: Mar - April FRS: May - Feb. -7 Ripe fruits used for whooping cough and skin troubles. -7 Seed oil is used for burns, freckles and for soap making. -7 Wood used for walking sticks. -7 Dry leaves are used as fodder for cattle. -7 Pulp of ripe fruit with cured given orally on diarrhoea. -7 The ripe fruit is also used in cloth washing. -7 Dried fruit shell is used as snuff box and toys. -7 Pulp of seed is rubbed with water and applied externally on pimple. -7 Powder of stem bark mixed with curd and given internally to cure cholera. -7 Stem bark, unripe fruits and leaves are crushed and add water then filtered this, filtered syrup is given to children on intestinal worms. -7 Roasted seeds are given in cough and colic. -7 Pulp of ripe fruits is also employed in obesity. -7 Whole plant used as field fencing. Bambusa arudinacea (Retz.) Roxb. (Poaceae) Polo vans BAJ: m. tall, tuffed tree. Culmps stout cm. across. Flowers white In spikelets in loos eclusters. FLS & FRS :Feb. - Apr. -7 Leaves and twigs used as fodder. -7 Stem is used in preparation of blower and flute. -7 Leaves are given to the horses as a fodder to cure cough and colds. -7 Dried stem is used as walking stick. -7 The tender shoots is used in preparation of curry or pickles. -7 The pounded young shoots make an excellent poultice for cleaning wounds and sores. -7 Sore and wounds are covered with the poultice and bandaged. -7 The root is considered to cure for ringworm and other eruptive affections. -7 The juice of flowers is used as eardrops for earache and deafness. 63

23 -7 Fresh stem is used in preparation of baskets, chhabdi (shallow basket), lagduan (instrument kept on donkey to carry pots), cradle (ghodiyu). -7 Stem is also used in preparation of snake catcher (Hodo). -7 Young shoots are crushed and applied on joints to treat rheumatisum. Barleria cristata L. (Acanthaceae) Kantashelio BAJ: cm. tall, under shrubs, prickly. Flowers pale blue or whitish in axillary or terminal dense spike. FLS : Sep. - Jan. FRS :Sep. - Jan. Rare. -7 Leaves and stem used in cough and inflammations. -7 Paste of leaves is externally applied on swellings. -7 Decoction of root is used in rheumatism and pneumonia. Barleria prionitis L. (Acanthaceae) Pilo kantashelio. BAJ: 259 I m. tall, much branched very prickly shrub. Flowers yellow in axillary spicate. FLS : Sep. - Jan. FRS :Sep. - Jan. -7 Juice of the leaves is given with honey in catarrhal affections of children. -7 A paste of the roots is applied to boils and glandular swelling. -7 Leaves chewed to relieve toothache. -7 Juice of leaves is dropped into the ear to stop pus formation in the ear. -7 Poultice of leaves is slightly heated with caster oil and then mixture is filtered, such filtered oil is applied on wounds boils and ulcers and also dropped in to ear in earache. -7 Paste of leaves mixed with black pepper and it is given orally regularly for few days on piles. -7 Juice of leaves is externally used as a dressing for feet in rainy season to protect them from cracking and mixed with honey, the juice is applied to bleeding teeth, cold and cough to the children. -7 Decoction of bark is given in whooping of cough, toothache, fever and pyorrhoea. -7 Decoction of root is given in fevers, coughs, rheumatism and sprue. 64

24 Basella rubra L. (Basellaceae) Poi BAJ: 301 A perennial, twining much branched herb, with bright pinkish - red to deep purple stem and branches. Flowers bright pink or white in short spikes. FLS & FRS :Throughout the year. -7 The leaves are used as preparing in 'bhajia' and 'bhaji'. -7 The juice of the leaves given to children to avoid constipation and it is very useful to allay the heat and itching of urticaria. -7 Paste of leaves is applied externally on pimple, boils, wounds, burns and scalds. Bauhinia purpurea L. (Caesalpiniaceae) Kanchnar BAJ: m. tall small trcc, bark grey or dark brown. Leavcs rounded, bilobed; flower fragrant rosy purple. FLS & FRS :Sep. - Feb. Cultivated. -7 Decoction of bark is given in diarrhoea. -7 Leaves used as fodder. -7 Wood used for agricultural implements. -7 Decoction of leaves is employed as mouthwash in sore throat and stomatitis, dropsy and rheumatism. -7 The leaf paste of this plant mixed with latex of Jatropha curcas is administered to cure jaundice. Bauhinia racemosa Lam. (Caesalpiniaceae) Zinzaro / Asundro BAJ: m. tali, deciduous tree. Bark brown rough longitudinally fissured. Flower greenish white in terminal racemes. FLS : Apr. - May. FRS :lune - Sept. 65

25 -7 Bark yields a strong cordage fibre. -7 Paste of leaves is mixed with onion and given for diarrhoea. -7 Decoction of leaves used in malaria, gonorhoea and headache. -7 Tender branches and leaves used as fodder. -7 Tender branches used in preparation of strong basket and gate 'jampo'. -7 Dried leaves are smoked in pipe to cure cough and asthma. -7 Decoction of root is used in burning micturition, obesity and T.B. -7 Flowers are employed in diaorrhoea, dysentery and piles. -7 Fresh stem bark ground, boiled, decoction mixed with Carum copticum given orally after dinner for a week inspermatorrhoea. Bergia suffruticosa (Del.) Fenzl. (Elatinaceae) Lavadio BAJ: 25 Suffruticose, glandular, pubescent in younger parts. Flowers solitary white. FLS & FRS :Oct - Apr. Common -7 Whole plant is used in fractures. -7 A poultice of leaves applied to sores. -7 Whole plant used as fodder by goat. -7 The whole plant with rootstock is dried and powdered. 10 gm of decoction of powder is given once daily to suppress tumours of undefined origin. Blepharis maderaspatensis (L.) Roth. (Acanthaceae) Utigan. BAJ: 260 Prostret herb. Flowers creamy - white with red or purple veins or pale - blue. FLS & FRS :Sept. - Jan. Common -7 Plant used as fodder. -7 Paste of leaves is applied on swelling. -7 Decoction of inflorescence is given in fever, asthma and coughs. -7 Whole plant ground, infusion given orally for a week to women in infertility. 66

26 Boerhavia chinensis (L.) (Nyctaginaceae) Satodi / Punarnava. BAJ: 286 Straggling or subseandent, perennial herb. Flowers bright pink in subumbellate. FLS & FRS :Aug - Nov. Common -7 Plant eaten by goat. -7 Paste of root is applied on boil for fast ripening and fast hoealing. -7 Decoction of whole plant given in constipation and rheumatism. Boerhavia diffusa L. (Nyctaginaceae) Satodi BAJ: 287 Diffuse, nearly glabrous herb. Flowers white or rosy in umbels on long peduncles. FLS & FRS :Aug - Nov. Common -7 The leaves are used in opthalmia and for eye wounds, muscular pain and purify the blood and hasten delivery and good for dropsy. -7 Decoction of root is given internally is scanty urine. -7 Paste of root is applied on any swellings and also on scorpion sting. -7 Infusion of root is mixed with rice water and given in case of snakebite. Boerhavia verticillata Poir. (Nyctaginaceae) Zeri satodo / Moto satodo. BAJ: 288 Decumbent or climbing glabrous herb. Flowers pale pink or white in few in distant. FLS & FRS :Aug. - Dec. -7 Plant eaten by goat. -7 Paste of leaves and root is applied on swelling due to scorpion bite and boils. -7 Infusion of root is given orally in dropsy, leucorrhoea, asthma, puerperal fever, liver disorders, prevention of ageing acidity and obesity. 67

27 Bombax ceiba L. (Bombacaceae) Simlo BAJ: m. tall, deciduous tree, white grey glabrous bark. Prickles conical black. Flowers bright red attractive. FLS : Feb. - Apr. FRS :Mar. - June ~ Paste of the prickles is externally used in the treatment of the pimple. ~ Flower buds and fleshy calyx are eaten as vegetable. ~ Tree yields a gum called 'mochrus'. It is tonic and mostly used in femaine problem like leucorrhoea and others. ~ A paste of gum is applied externally on bone fracture as a plaster. ~ Wood is used in preparation of musical instrument like 'tamburo'. ~ Mature fruits yield silk fibre for stuffing pillows and mattresses. ~ In old time silk is used in making fire. ~ Root bark mixed with honey and given for better health. ~ Dry fruits are employed in calculous affection and fever. Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. (Nyctaginaceae) Bogan vel BAJ: 289 An exantive climber by mean of curved woody thorns on the stem and branches which are also hairy. Flowers in branched terminal or axillary panicales. FLS : Throughout the year. Ly cultivated ~ Cultivated in the garden and dooryard. ~ Plant is used as fencing. Brassicajuncea (Linn.) Czerhajew (Brassicaceal) Rai BAJ: em tall, erect hispid herb. Flowers yellow in racemes. FLS : Nov - Jan FRS :Jan - Feb. Cultivated ~ Green leaves used as fodder and vegetable. 68

28 ~ Seed oil is rubbed on inflamed painful parts of the body, on leucoderma and eczema. ~ The dry stem used as a fuel. ~ Crushed seeds are given along with honey in coughs, cools and bronchitis. ~ Cake is given to goat and camel to get more milk. ~ 50 seeds mixed with 25gm fruits of cuminum cyminum and ground; mixed water and given orally for 7 days in constipation. ~ Powder or roasted seeds and salt in ghee are consumed for stomach pain. Brassica oleracea var. botrytis L. (Brassicaceae) Fulavar BAJ:ll A small herb. Large number of non fertile flower getting fused together. FLS : Sept. - Feb. Cultivated. ~ Leaf and inflorescence are used as vegetable and waste part as fodder for cows and pigs. ~ The whole plant is used as a fodder. Butea mollosperma (Lam.) Taub. (Fabaceae) Kesudo I Khakhro BAJ: m. tall, decicuous tree. Bark rough ash - coloured or pale to dark - brown, deeply longitudinally fissured. Flowers attracted bright orange - red or yellow, in big racemes. FLS : Jan- March. FRS: Jan. - April. Ethnobotanical uses : ~ A bath of dry flowers boiled ld water is a treatment of sunstroke and skin diseases. ~ Leaves are serves as plates for domestic purposes. ~ Flowers are yields a yellow dye. ~ Young shoots yield fibres, which is used in ropes and string to tie bundle of firewood. ~ Decoction of bark is employed in piles, tumours and menstrual disorders. ~ The crushed stem or root bark filled in wounds to prevent decay. ~ Fresh leaves are used in preparing dish (Plate) and cup as locally called "palmla {lnd padia". 69

29 ~ The ash of dried leaves are mixed with edible oil applied on eczema and decaying ulcers in cattle. ~ The mature leaves are eaten by goats and buffaloes for health and increase lactation. ~ The dry leaves are used as fertilizers and used for ripening of mango fruits. ~ A hot poultice of the leaves is effectively used as antiphlogistic for dispersing boils, pimples, tumours, haemorrhoids, ulcers and swellings. ~ The pieces of the bark chewed to relieves abnormal thrist. ~ Seed paste is externally applied on ringworm. ~ The gum is applied to ulcers and relaxed sore throat. ~ Rubbed the fruits with milk and given orally to remove intestinal worm. ~ Dry fruits powder mixed with lemon juice and applied externally on ringworm. ~ Juice of leaves is introduced in the ear to remove the insect in the ear. ~ Gum is employed on the wound for fast hoealing. ~ Paste of stem bark is applied on achne and bone fracture. ~ Decoction of leaves is employed in diabetes, colic and piles. ~ Decoction of root is employed in T.B. Cadabafruticosa (Linn.) Druce. (Capparaceae) Khordu BAJ: m tall, straggling shrubs. Flowers greenish-white. FLS : Oct- Apr FRS :Feb - May Common ~ Leaves crushed with black pepper (piper nigrum) add water and make a syrup and given orally thrice a day to children and adult to control diarrhoea and vomiting. ~ The crushed root applied on finger to check suppuration of finger. ~ The roots and leaves are used in urine obstructions and any urinary trouble. ~ Live plant prevent entry, acts as wind breaker, offers obstruction to sight. Caesalpinia crista L. (Caesalpiniaceae) Kachka BAJ: 104 An extensive armed shrubs, with hooked prickles. Flowers yellow In axillary and terminal racemes. FLS : July. - Dec. FRS :Sep. - Dec. ~ Decoction of tender leaves IS employed III liver diseases. It IS also used in fever. 70

30 -7 Leaves are applied to the gums for relieving toothache. -7 The crushed seeds are given internally to cattle as well as children to remove worms in alimentary canal. -7 Leaf paste is heated and applied externally on swelling. -7 Decoction of powdered seeds is given orally in fever, asthma, colic, diabetes, T.B., piles, diarrhoea and jaundice. -7 Paste of root bark is applied on scorpion sting and snakebite. -7 Juice / powder of seeds (dry or fresh) is fed to animal against constipation. Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L.) Sw. (Caesalpiniaceae) GaIttoro BAJ: m. tall shrub, bark grayish - brown, rough. Flowers very attractive yellow or reddish yellow in terminal pendulous racemes. FLS & FRS :Throughout the year. Cultivated. -7 Flowers yield a dye. -7 Cultivated for its attractive flowers. -7 Decoction of leaves and stem bark is used as vaginal douche for abortion. -7 Decoction of flowers is gi ven in intestinal worms and coughs. Callistemon lallceolatus Dc. ( Myrtaceae ) Bottelebrush BAJ: 134 A small evergreen tree with narrow lanceolat leaves on drooping branches, young leaves reddish. Flowers in long drooping spikes which looke like bottle-brush, redcrimsoh in colour. FLS & FRS: Aug.- Dec. Rare / Cultivated -7 Culti vated in gardens as ornamental plants. -7 Crushed leaf paste is applied on wounds of cattle. Caiotropis gigantia (L.) R. Br. (AscIepiadaceae) Safed akdo. BAJ: m. tall, shrub, much branched, gregarious, young branches covered with white, cottony hairs. Bark ash coloured shallowly longitudinally fissured. Flowes white in umbellate cymes. FLS : Jan. - July FRS :Feb. - Sep. Rare. 71

31 -7 The leaves are applied on paralysed part and painful joints. -7 The milk is useful in leprosy, ringworm, eczema, swelling, fistula, rheumatism, ulcer and toothache. -7 The wood is used in preparation of spoon. -7 It is religious plant and flowers are used during worhip to lord Hanuman. -7 Roasted leaves are applied on rheumatism. -7 Fresh root twigs are used as toothbrush in toothache. -7 Petals of flowers are employed in diabetes, asthma, coughs, cold and bronchitis. Calotropis procera (Ait.) R. Br. (Asclepiadaceae) Akdo. BAJ: 198 A small shrub. Leaves ovate-oblong, cordate, flowers in umbellate cymes, follicles paired. FLS & FRS :Throughout the year. -7 Root is crushed and its juice is given in ear and teeth diseases. -7 Dry leaves are smoked in a pipe as a remedy for asthma and cough. -7 Fresh leaves slightly roasted and pounded are bandaged to painful rheumatic joints, swelling and headache. -7 Stem is used with wet clay and prepared the large huge container to store grain -potu. -7 Dry stem bark yields fibre, which is used in ropes and strings. -7 Latex is used in body pain and rabies. -7 Powder of dry leaves is sprayed over wounds, ulcers and old sores to promote hoealing. -7 The poultice made of the leaves is applied to inflammatory swelling. -7 The juice from warmed leaves is dropped in the nose for relief of headache and catarrh. -7 The root is used for cleaning teeth and for relieving toothache. -7 The plant is considered useful in snakebite. -7 Warmed mature leaves are tied on the abdomen on colic complaints. -7 The flowers are offered to 'Lord Hanuman' during worship. -7 The juice of mature leaf is inhaled through nostril on scorpion sting. -7 To prevent the effect of the sunstroke, the leaves are bandaged on head. -7 The gynostegium are used in cough, asthma and loss of appetite. -7 Dry stem is used as a fuel. -7 Latex mixed with cow milk and given orally on rabies. -7 Very tender leaves chewed on cold fever. 72

32 Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae) Bhang / Ganjo FLS & FRS :Sep. - Dec. Cultivated. BAJ: 329 ~ The plant is a narcotic, inbrient in Gujarat. ~ Bhang is preparation made from specially dried leaves and flowers of plant and taken during festival of Mahashivratri'. ~ Dried leaves smoked in pipe to cure asthma. Callscora diffusa (Vahl) R. Bh. (Gentianaceae) Zinku kariatu BAJ: cm. tall, erect or diffuse slender herb. Flowers pale to bright rosy - purple in dichotomous cymes. FLS & FRS : Oct. - Mar. ~ Plant used as a goat fodder. ~ Decoction of whole plant is given in common fever. Callavalia gladiata (Jacq.) Dc. (Fabaceae) Khoti valor BAJ: 77 A stoute glabrous, lignose twiner. Flowers blue or white - lilac or pink. FLS & FRS :Aug. - Jan. ~ Very young pods are eaten as snap beans. ~ Paste of leaves is applied on decaying sores having microbial growth in cattle. ~ The climber is used as string to tie bundle of grass or firewood. Capparis decidua (Forsk.) Edgew. (Capparaceae) Kerda BAJ: m tall, armed, bushy shrubs, with bark. Flowers red or scarlet in short corymbs. FLS : Sept. - May. FRS :Nov. More Common 73

33 ~ Unripe fruits used for preparation of pickles and vegetable and sold in folk markets. ~ Decoction of bark is given in fevers, rheumatism, coughs and asthma thrice a day for eight days. ~ Roots is crushed in water and applied on scorpion bite. ~ Maladhri made an instrument called 'Ravai flower' for preparation of buttermilk from its wood. ~ Wood is used as fuel. ~ Flowers are in gradient of 'curi'. ~ Ash of wood mixed with black paper and honey and given orally in diarrhoea. ~ Young branches mixed with tender leaves of Holoptelia integrifolia paste is prepared which is applied externally in ringworm and eczema. ~ Two drops of root extract poured in ear to kill microbial flora and worm in it. ~ Food and seeds are given to cattle for increasing milk production and better health. ~ Live or dead plant used as top fencing and mud boundaries. ~ Young buds are crushed and juice squeezed out of it; 2-3 drops of the juice put in each ear in earache. Capparis grail dis Linn. (Capparaceae) Ghuti, Thikar BAJ: feet tall, thorny tree FLS : Apr-May FRS :Sept - May Not common ~ Twigs are used as fencing. ~ Oil obtained from seed is used as fuel and medicine. ~ Handles of hoe, axe is prepared from its wood. ~ Solid single pieace of wood is used to prepare whey containers and a churner. ~ Crushed leaves are tied on stiff part due to rheumatism. ~ Ash of root and stembark mixed in cow milk and given orally twice a day for two days in cholera and Indigestion. ~ Decoction of leaves given orally thrice a day for a 10 days for blood purification. 74

34 Capparis sepiaria Linn. (Capparaceae) Kanthar BAJ: 16 Erect climbing shrubs, flowers white, stamens exceeding the betals; fruit globose berry, deep purple. FLS : Oct - Apr FRS :Nov - May Not common ~ The roots are crushed along with ginger and asafoetida and the paste applied externally to cure mumps for three days. ~ The decoction of bark and root powder is given in dropsy and gout I table spoon twice a day for 4 days. ~ Leaves are used as fooder and wood as a fuel. ~ Paste of leaves is applied externally on eczema, scabies, swellings, boils. ~ Live or dried condition plant offers mechanical barrier. ~ Handle of agricultural implement prepared from wood. Capsicum annum L. var. acuminatum Fingerh. (Solanaceae) Marchu. BAJ: cm. tall, erect glabrous herb. Flowers white. FLS & FRS :Throughout the year. Cultivated. ~ Cultivated for its fruits, which are used as vegetable and condiments. ~ Dry fruits are used as a spice. ~ Decoction of fruit is used in kill of insect. ~ Fruits used in preparation of pickled. ~ Dried powdered fruit is applied on part bitten by dog. Cardiospermum halicacabum Roxb. (Sapindaceae) Karodiyo. BAJ: 69 Annual slender, glabrous or sparsely delicate climber. Flowers white In terminal cymes on tendrils. FLS & FRS :July. - Feb. ~ Decoction of root is given in rheumatism, lumbago and nervous diseases. 75

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