Section Two. Chapter 1 Herbs for relieving superficial syndrome (Biao Zheng) 解表藥 (23) A. Pungent & warm 辛溫解表 (13)

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Section Two. Chapter 1 Herbs for relieving superficial syndrome (Biao Zheng) 解表藥 (23) A. Pungent & warm 辛溫解表 (13)"

Transcription

1 Section Two Chapter 1 Herbs for relieving superficial syndrome (Biao Zheng) 解表藥 (23) A. Pungent & warm 辛溫解表 (13) Pungent, warm, SD of wind cold: no sweating, aversion to cold/fever, pain, sp/tense pulse Other SD: itching, wind-damp (bi-sd), asthma, edema 1. ***Ma Huang: Nature/tastes: warm, pungent, mild bitter Meridian: LU, UB Functions/indication: 1) induce sweating and relieve ext-sd: no sweating, + gui zhi 2) disperse LU qi and stop asthma: asthma due LU qi obstruction If wind cold, + xing ren, gan cao If fluid retention, + xi xin, gan jiang, ban xia If LU heat, + shi gao, xin ren, gan cao 1

2 3) promote urination and relieve edema: edema due to wind (water), + sheng jiang, bai zhu Dosage: for decoction: 2-9 sheng (raw) ma huang: ext-sd Zhi (honey) ma huang: asthma Precaution: strong in inducing sweating, NOT for patient with sweating, NOT for def asthma 2.****Gui zhi taste/nature: warm, pungent, sweet; HT, LU, UB Functions/indication: 1) induce sweating and relieve muscle (the exterior): wind cold SD (common cold), no sweating: + ma huang sweating: + bai shao 2) warm meridian and remove blockage from meridian: chest pain by cold/yang blockage: + zhi shi, xie bai palpitation: + zhi gan cao, ren shen, e jiao 3) warm /transform yang qi : phlegm-fluid retention, + fu ling, bai zhu edema: + fu ling, ze xie 2

3 Dosage: for decoction; 3-9g Precaution: PUNGENT, WARM, NOT for excess heat, yin def, bleeding, NOT for pregnancy 3. Zi Su Ye pungent, warm LU, SP 1) relieve ext SD, disperse cold: mild wind cold attack, + sheng jiang if cough, + xin ren if qi stg in chest, + xiang fu, chen pi 2) warm middle jao and stop vomiting: ST/SP qi stg, chest (qi) stg if cold, + huo xiang if heat, + huang lian if morning sickness, + chen pi, sha ren 3) relieve toxin from fish/crab 5-9g boil for a short time (zi) su geng Pungent, sweet, mild warm; LU, SP, ST expand chest, benefit diaphragm, calm fetus 3

4 qi stg in chest and abd; restlessness of fetus 5 to 10g Boil for a shorter time 4. Sheng Jiang (Raw ginger) Mild warm, pungent,lu, SP 1) disperse wind cold ext-sd due to wind cold + ma huang, gui zhi 2) warm the middle jia and stop vomiting --- V due to cold, + ban xiao V due to heat, + zhu ru, huang lian ST pain, poor appetite: Cold severe: + gao liang jiang, hu jiao SP def: + ren shen, bai zhu special herb for stopping vomiting ban xia (toxic) + sheng jiang = xiao ban xia tang 3) warm LU and stop cough + other dispersing cold and stopping cough herbs 4) detoxify reduce toxic effect of ban xia, tian nan xing, fish, crab 3-9g NOT for yin def, excess heat 4

5 Sheng Jiang Pi Pungent, cool, promote urination, edema contraindication: yin def, 5. Xiang Ru Whole of grass, part above the ground Pungent, mild warm LU, SP, UB 1) disperse wind cold, resolve dampness and harmonize middle jiao common cold (ext-wind cold SD) damp in middle jiao + Huo Xiang, Cang zhu summer Ma Huang 2) promote urination and relieve + bay zhu 5 to 10 g 5

6 boil short time 6. Jing Jie (Sui) Pungent, mild warm LU, LV 1) disperse wind (cold) and relieve ext SD and ext- wind heat SD effect: moderate wind cold: + fang feng, qiang huo wind heat: + bo he (mint), lian qiao, jie geng 2) clear head, benefit throat, stop itching headache red eye sore and itching thoat itching skin 3) promote eruption of measles/skin rashes 4) stop bleeding (charred Jing jie) 6

7 6-12g Boil for a shorter time Note: reprehensive herb for ext wind 7. Fang Fang ( 防风 prevent wind) root pungent, mild warm, sweet UB, LV, SP 1) disperse wind and relieve ext SD wind cold SD: + jing jie, qiang huo, qian hu wind heat SD: + jing jie, huang qin, bo he, lian qiao 2) disperse wind damp, stop pain Bi- SD due to wind cold and damp + qiang huo, dang gui 3) stop convulsion Tetanus + tian nan xing, bai fu zi, tian ma 7

8 3 to 10g NOT for yin def, blood def Note: reprehensive herb for ext wind 8. Qiang Huo Root, stem in ground Pungent, warm, bitter UB, KI 1. disperse wind and cold ext SD due to wind cold (with damp) + fang feng, bai zhi, xi xin 2. disperse wind-damp, stop pain go to area of UB distribution : pain in the four limbs, the head, nape, back (joints pain) + fang feng 3-12g not for yin def, not for interior dry heat Note: strong in dispersing wind cold and stop pain 8

9 9. Bai Zhi ( 白芷 white) Root Pungent, warm, LU, ST 1) disperse wind and relieve exterior SD headache/nose obstruction, + fang feng, qiang huo 2) stop pain headache (supra-orbital bone), toothache + chuang xiong, fang feng pain in joints 3) clear nose Rhinitis + cang er zi, xin yi hua (because of the pungent and aromatic) 4) dry dampness Leucorrhea + bai zhu fuling for damp cold + haung bai, chen qian zi for damp heat 5) reduce swelling 9

10 ext carbuncles, boils with pus + gua lou, bei mu, pu gong yin others: stop itching (skin wind damp) 3 to 10 g 10. Xi Xin ( 细辛, thin, pungent) Whole grass, or hair of root Pungent, warm mild toxic LU, KI 1) disperse wind and cold SD due to wind cold 2) clear nose Rhinitis + bai zi, xin yi hua, bo he 3) stop pain Headache: + qiang huo, chuang xiong, bai zhi 10

11 Toothache: + bai zhi + shi gao, huang qin for heat/fire 4) warm LU and stop cough/asthma + gan jiang (dry ginger), ma huang, wu wei zi g (decoction); 0.5 to 1g not for yin def 11. Gao Ben Pungent, warm UB Root stem Disperse wind cold, wind-damp, stop pain: SD of wind cold damp + headache: + bai zhi, chuan xiong pain of joints: + qiang huo, fang feng, cang zhu 3-10 g, Not for blood def, not for excess heat 11

12 not for yin def, and dry heat 12. Cang Er Zi ( 苍耳 ear 子 seed) Bitter, pungent, mild toxic, warm, LU 1) clear nose, disperse wind cold, -SD of wind cold -rhinorhea, with pus + bai zi, 2) disperse wind damp, stop pain bi-sd 3-10g, never over dosage, not for long term use 12

13 13. Xin Yi Hua ( 辛 pungent 夷 ) Pungent, warm LU 1) disperse wind cold 2) clear nose rhinitis, headache 3-9g, wrapped with cloth, Summary: 1) Pairs of herbs Ma huang Gui zhi Jin jie fang feng Xin yi hua cang er zi 2) Strong herbs: Ma huang, xi xin, qiang huo 3) stopping pain herb 13

14 Qiang huo, bai zhi, gao ben, xi xin 4) Ma huang: dilate bronchia asthma Xi xin: warming herb, <3g Gui zhi: HT yang Xin yi hua, ca er zi: nose herb Xiang ru: summer ma huang Fang feng, jing jie; wind herbs Zi su ye: disperse warm dryness Xi xin, qiang huo, bai zhi, gao ben: headache Xi xin, bai zhi: toothache Exercises 1. For exterior wind cold syndrome manifested as aversion to cold, no sweating, floating and tense pulse, first choice should be ( ) a. gui zhi b. zi su c. ma huang d. fang feng 2. For wind cold syndrome manifested as cough, profuse sputum and stuffy chest (by qi stagnation), the first choice should be ( ) a. sheng jiang b. fang feng c. zi su ye d. jing jie 3. To treat wind cold attack exteriorly and damp attack interiorly, seen as aversion to cold, fever, headache, no sweating, it s better to choose ( ) 14

15 a. gui zhi b. xiang ru c. qiang huo d. ma huang 4. Severe headache, body ache due to wind cold plus damp attack, the best choice is ( ) a. ma huang b. zi su ye c. qiang huo d. xi xin 5. Bai zhi is good at treating headache of ( ) meridian a. yang ming b. tai yang c. jue yin d. shao yang 6. ( ) is capable at dispersing exterior cold and also warming the lung and resolving body fluid retention for stopping cough and asthma. a. sheng jiang b. bai zhi c. xi xin d. ma huang 7. ( ) can disperse wind heat and arrest convulsion, so be used to treat baby crying at night. a. bo he b. chan tui c. fang feng d. ju hua 8. ( ) is a herb for fever, stiffness of neck/back. 15

16 a. chai hu b, ge gen c. niu bang zi d. sheng ma 9. ( ) combines with chai hu to raise prolapsed internal organ. a. huang qin, b. xi xin, c sheng ma, d. ge gen Short Answer Questions 1. Please compare ma huang and gui zhi 2. Please compare jing jie and fang feng 16

Used for exterior conditions such as common colds, fevers, and flu s. Many of these formulas induce sweating. This category can be subdivided into

Used for exterior conditions such as common colds, fevers, and flu s. Many of these formulas induce sweating. This category can be subdivided into Section 1 Used for exterior conditions such as common colds, fevers, and flu s. Many of these formulas induce sweating. This category can be subdivided into formulas the release cold or heat. Traditionally

More information

Single Herbs III / Quiz I

Single Herbs III / Quiz I Single Herbs III / Quiz I 1. What herb is good to generate fluids? A. Ren Shen C. Xi Yang Shen B. Tai Zi Shen D. All the Shens 2. What herb is best for Qi collapse? A. Huang Qi C. Dang Shen B. Ren Shen

More information

1 Eczema (Shi Zhen, 湿疹 ) Eczema/ 湿疹 pic

1 Eczema (Shi Zhen, 湿疹 ) Eczema/ 湿疹 pic 1 Eczema (Shi Zhen, 湿疹 ) Eczema/ 湿疹 pic 1 [Introduction] dermal inflammation: polymorphous serious itching symmetrical chronic / recurrence effusing tendency delayed allergic reaction int factors ext factors

More information

EMPEROR'S COLLEGE MTOM COURSE SYLLABUS HERB FORMULAE II

EMPEROR'S COLLEGE MTOM COURSE SYLLABUS HERB FORMULAE II COURSE DESCRIPTION The second of three courses in the Herb Formulae series. Categories covered in Formulae II include the Tonify Qi and Blood, Regulate Qi, Invigorate the Blood, Stop Bleeding, Stabilize

More information

Liu Jing and Liu Jing Diagnosis System in Classical TCM Discussions of Six Divisions or Six Confirmations Diagnosis System in Classical TCM Texts

Liu Jing and Liu Jing Diagnosis System in Classical TCM Discussions of Six Divisions or Six Confirmations Diagnosis System in Classical TCM Texts Liu Jing and Liu Jing Diagnosis System in Classical TCM Discussions of Six Divisions or Six Confirmations Diagnosis System in Classical TCM Texts Liu Jing Bian Zheng system had developed about 1800 years

More information

Course: Introduction to Chinese Herbs Date: May 4, 2007 Class #: 3

Course: Introduction to Chinese Herbs Date: May 4, 2007 Class #: 3 Course: Introduction to Chinese Herbs Date: May 4, 2007 Class #: 3 Properties of Herbs Properties include the temperatures, flavors, and directions of movement. Refer to Zheng Zeng s main handout for the

More information

Single Herbs II / Quiz II

Single Herbs II / Quiz II 1. What herb is good to treat cholesterol? A. Shan Zha C. Shen Qu B. Mai Ya D. Gu Ya 2. What herb can inhibit lactation? A. Shan Zha C. Shen Qu B. Mai Ya D. Lai Fu Zi 3. What herb can dissolve stones?

More information

Medicated diet. Tonify the Qi

Medicated diet. Tonify the Qi Medicated diet Tonify the Qi 1. Ren shen ginseng root Properties: sweet, slightly bitter, slightly warm Channels entered: LU, SP a. Strongly tonifies the basal qi, Tonifies the lung and spleen qi. a. Benefits

More information

An Gong Niu Huang Wan Calm the Palace Pill with Cattle Gallstone

An Gong Niu Huang Wan Calm the Palace Pill with Cattle Gallstone An Gong Niu Huang Wan Calm the Palace Pill with Cattle Gallstone Niu Huang Huang Lian Huang Qin Zhi Zi Xiong Huang Honey Gold Leaf coating Zhen Zhu Chief Assistant Envoy Niu Huang Huang Lian Huang Qin

More information

Dang Gui Si Ni Tang Tangkuei Decoction for Frigid Extremities

Dang Gui Si Ni Tang Tangkuei Decoction for Frigid Extremities Dang Gui Si Ni Tang Tangkuei Decoction for Frigid Extremities D F E G ctions: Warms the channels, disperses cold, nourishes the xue, and unblocks the xue vessels. hief Deputy (a) Dang Gui (b) Gui Zhi (c)

More information

9. What herb is contraindicated for glaucoma? Qing Xiang Zi Qing xiang zi dilates the pupils and is not an herb for any patient with glaucoma.

9. What herb is contraindicated for glaucoma? Qing Xiang Zi Qing xiang zi dilates the pupils and is not an herb for any patient with glaucoma. Answers/Discussions to Patrick s Herb Quiz for Herbs 1, Test 2. Clear Heat/Drain Fire herbs 1. What herb can heals sores/generate flesh? b. Shi Gao 2. What herb can treat both the root and the branch (Ben

More information

Herbs that release the exterior

Herbs that release the exterior Warm, Spicy herbs: Herbs that release the exterior Ma Huang Gui Zhi Zi Su Ye Jing Jie Fang Feng Qiang Huo Gao Ben Bai Zhi Xi Xin Sheng Jiang Cong Bai Xiang Ru Cang Er Zi Xin Yi Wind-Cold ( Superficial)

More information

Course: Patents Rev. Date: Sep Doc: Test 1 study guide (Test Class 5) Prof: Dr. Liu. General Questions

Course: Patents Rev. Date: Sep Doc: Test 1 study guide (Test Class 5) Prof: Dr. Liu. General Questions Course: s Rev. Date: Sep 4 2010 Doc: Test 1 study guide (Test Class 5) Prof: Dr. Liu General Questions What is the classic and first milestone volume in Chinese medicine for patent formulas? Tai Ping Hui

More information

Julie Senko, MS, M.Ed, Registered Acupuncturist

Julie Senko, MS, M.Ed, Registered Acupuncturist Treating Chronic Diseases with Asian Medicine By Misha R. Cohen, OMD, LAc Julie Senko, MS, M.Ed, Registered Acupuncturist West Chester Wellness Center 828 Paoli Pike West Chester, PA 19382 Tel: (610) 431

More information

CMHB221 Chinese Herbal Formulae

CMHB221 Chinese Herbal Formulae CMHB221 Chinese Herbal Formulae Session Three Tonifying Chinese herbal formulae: Qi: o o o o o English name; Pin yin name and Chinese name Composition; dosage and administration Functions and indications

More information

Class 1 - Point Indication. Review of TCM theory. Yin / Yang ( / Yin and Yang are:

Class 1 - Point Indication. Review of TCM theory. Yin / Yang ( / Yin and Yang are: Class 1 - Point Indication Review of TCM theory Yin / Yang ( / Yin and Yang are: 1. Counterbalanced They are the generalization of the relative opposite principles observed throughout all things 2. Inter-transforming

More information

CMHB221 Chinese Herbal Formulae

CMHB221 Chinese Herbal Formulae CMHB221 Chinese Herbal Formulae Session Four Tonifying Chinese herbal formulae: Xue; Qi and Xue: o o o o o English name; Pin yin name and Chinese name Composition; dosage and administration Functions and

More information

Acupuncture And Herbs Proven Effective For PID Treatment

Acupuncture And Herbs Proven Effective For PID Treatment Acupuncture And Herbs Proven Effective For PID Treatment Published by HealthCMi on 29 May 2018 Researchers find acupuncture combined with herbal medicine effective for the treatment of chronic pelvic inflammatory

More information

Lung and Large Intestine

Lung and Large Intestine Course: Diagnostics II Date: October 17, 2007 Class #: 4 Homework For each zang or fu: make a small chart for each for symptoms. Do a chart per organ, later do a chart with combinations. See slide 9 from

More information

Chapter 15 Substances that Subdue Liver Yang and Extinguish Liver Wind

Chapter 15 Substances that Subdue Liver Yang and Extinguish Liver Wind Course: Chinese Herbology 3 Date: June 16, 2009 Class #: 9 Chapter 15: Sub LV Yang and Ext LV Wind Chapter 15 Substances that Subdue Liver Yang and Extinguish Liver Wind Already covered many herbs that

More information

Course: Chinese Herbology 2 Date: January 13, 2009 Class #: 2 Ch 5C: Dispel WD/Bones and Tendons, Ch 6A:Resolve Phlegm-Cold

Course: Chinese Herbology 2 Date: January 13, 2009 Class #: 2 Ch 5C: Dispel WD/Bones and Tendons, Ch 6A:Resolve Phlegm-Cold Course: Chinese Herbology 2 Date: January 13, 2009 Class #: 2 Ch 5C: Dispel WD/Bones and Tendons, Ch 6A:Resolve Phlegm-Cold Chapter 5C Dispel Wind-Damp/Strengthen Bones and Tendons/Sinews* *Sinews can

More information

CMHB221 Chinese Herbal Formulae

CMHB221 Chinese Herbal Formulae CMHB221 Chinese Herbal Formulae Session Two Release Exterior Chinese herbal medicine: warm pungent, cool pungent: o English name; Pin yin name o Composition; dosage and administration o Functions and indications

More information

Course: Chinese Herbology 1 Date: October 21/28, 2008 Class #: 5-6 Clear Heat/Drain Fire Herbs

Course: Chinese Herbology 1 Date: October 21/28, 2008 Class #: 5-6 Clear Heat/Drain Fire Herbs Course: Chinese Herbology 1 Date: October 21/28, 2008 Class #: 5-6 Clear Heat/Drain Fire Herbs Had a test in the 1 st hour freakin grueling, man. I m switching tactics, and will use this document for all

More information

Genome-wide association study of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Chinese subjects identifies susceptibility loci at PLCE1 and C20orf54

Genome-wide association study of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Chinese subjects identifies susceptibility loci at PLCE1 and C20orf54 CORRECTION NOTICE Nat. Genet. 42, 759 763 (2010); published online 22 August 2010; corrected online 27 August 2014 Genome-wide association study of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Chinese subjects

More information

Chinese Herbal Patent

Chinese Herbal Patent Chinese Herbal Patent Yuxing Liu Ph. D Academy of Oriental Medicine at Austin What is Herbal Patent Introduction Advantages of Herbal patent Effective: Convenient: Cheaper: Characters of Herbal Patent

More information

Syndrome Based Herbs. Yuxing Liu. Academy of Oriental Medicine at Austin

Syndrome Based Herbs. Yuxing Liu. Academy of Oriental Medicine at Austin Syndrome Based Herbs Yuxing Liu Academy of Oriental Medicine at Austin The Characters of This Course Bridge /Combination Foundation diagnosis Herbs formulas (Internal medicine) Important Concepts of Chinese

More information

Functions and applications of Long Yan Rou and Suan Zao Ren By Alexandre Djukanovic

Functions and applications of Long Yan Rou and Suan Zao Ren By Alexandre Djukanovic Functions and applications of Long Yan Rou and Suan Zao Ren By Alexandre Djukanovic 龍眼肉 lóng yăn ròu, "dragon eye flesh 酸棗仁 suān zăo rén, "sour date seed" 1. Summary In this paper the functions and uses

More information

TWO CASES OF HYPERTHYROIDISM

TWO CASES OF HYPERTHYROIDISM The Herbalist s Corner Jake Paul Fratkin, OMD, L.Ac. Acupuncture Today, January, 2008 TWO CASES OF HYPERTHYROIDISM Hyperthyroidism is not often seen in the clinic, but Chinese herbal medicine can be very

More information

A Channel Based Approach

A Channel Based Approach A Channel Based Approach Meridian Circuits A meridian circuit is composed of meridians that are interconnected according to either their Chinese names, the internal-external relationships, or the horary

More information

Course: Chinese Herbology 3 Date: April 28, 2009 Class #: 3 Chapter 12 C Herbs that Tonify Yang. Chapter 12 C Herbs that Tonify Yang

Course: Chinese Herbology 3 Date: April 28, 2009 Class #: 3 Chapter 12 C Herbs that Tonify Yang. Chapter 12 C Herbs that Tonify Yang Course: Chinese Herbology 3 Date: April 28, 2009 Class #: 3 Chapter 12 C Herbs that Tonify Yang Chapter 12 C Herbs that Tonify Yang Know the Yang xu symptoms for the organs which can be involved. Kidney,

More information

Course: Intro to Chinese Herbs Date: April 27, 2007 Class #: 2

Course: Intro to Chinese Herbs Date: April 27, 2007 Class #: 2 Course: Intro to Herbs Date: April 27, 2007 Class #: 2 Refer to the Zheng Zeng handout throughout this lecture. Different textbooks will give you different information than you will find in these notes

More information

INTERNAL CANON OF THE YELLOW EMPEROR TCM TREATMENT PRINCIPLES. Stanley Liang Ph.D., R.TCMP, R.Ac

INTERNAL CANON OF THE YELLOW EMPEROR TCM TREATMENT PRINCIPLES. Stanley Liang Ph.D., R.TCMP, R.Ac INTERNAL CANON OF THE YELLOW EMPEROR TCM TREATMENT PRINCIPLES Stanley Liang Ph.D., R.TCMP, R.Ac Text reading S5 Major Discussion on the Theory of Yin and Yang and the Corresponding Relationships Among

More information

Yin deficiency. Yuxing Liu. Academy of Oriental Medicine at Austin

Yin deficiency. Yuxing Liu. Academy of Oriental Medicine at Austin Yin deficiency Yuxing Liu Academy of Oriental Medicine at Austin General introduction Concept Key symptoms Etiology Most Related Organs Herbs that nourish Yin Herbs for Nourishing yin herbs HT Lu ST LIV

More information

Treatment and management of Lumbago with Du Huo Ji Sheng Tang and Yan Hu Zhi Tong Wan A Case Study

Treatment and management of Lumbago with Du Huo Ji Sheng Tang and Yan Hu Zhi Tong Wan A Case Study Treatment and management of Lumbago with Du Huo Ji Sheng Tang and Yan Hu Zhi Tong Wan A Case Study Alina Garofil and Ming Cheng Middlesex Universality Please send all correspondences to Dr Ming Cheng,

More information

Luo Vessels, Cutaneous and Muscle Regions

Luo Vessels, Cutaneous and Muscle Regions Chapter 3 Luo Vessels, Cutaneous and Muscle Regions 1 Characteristics of Luo Vessels Connect external/internal pairs Distribute qi throughout the body Harmonize circulation 2 In all, there are fifteen

More information

GYNECOLOGY & TCM. On line course provided by. Taught by Clara Cohen

GYNECOLOGY & TCM. On line course provided by. Taught by Clara Cohen GYNECOLOGY & TCM On line course provided by Taught by Clara Cohen 1 GYNECOLOGY & TCM INTRODUCTION WOMEN S PHYSIOLOGY MENSTRUATION CONCEPTION PREGNANCY MENOPAUSE CAUSES OF IMBALANCE PREVENTION 2 Physiology

More information

Acupuncture for the syndrome of prolapsed lumbar Intervertebral disc --Case studies and clinical experiences

Acupuncture for the syndrome of prolapsed lumbar Intervertebral disc --Case studies and clinical experiences Acupuncture for the syndrome of prolapsed lumbar Intervertebral disc --Case studies and clinical experiences By Dr. Yin Hongchun Email: h.yin1@btopenworld.com Tel: 02086722088 Main point of diagnosis (1)

More information

Herbal Formulas I. Dr. Li, Dongcheng. Office: Contents in Herbal Formulas I

Herbal Formulas I. Dr. Li, Dongcheng. Office: Contents in Herbal Formulas I Herbal Formulas I Dr. Li, Dongcheng Office: 954-763 -9840 E-mail: dcljdl@yahoo.com 1 Contents in Herbal Formulas I Chapter 1 Formulas that release the exterior (28 types) Section I Formulas that release

More information

The Vital Substances: Qì, Xuè, Jīn-Yè, Jīng and Shén

The Vital Substances: Qì, Xuè, Jīn-Yè, Jīng and Shén Chapter 4 The Vital Substances:,, Jīn-Yè, Jīng and Shén Goals of this chapter Explain the concepts and functions of the Vital Substances. Learning Goals After this chapter you have to be able to: explain

More information

Extinguish Liver Wind and Stop Tremors

Extinguish Liver Wind and Stop Tremors Course: Chinese Herbology 3 Date: June 23, 2009 Class #: 10 Final: 60m/c (1/2 point), 10 t/f (1/2 point - correct em for bonus credit) Essays 4 out of 5 (25 points total) Tian ma Bu gu zi Xu duan Gou teng

More information

Copyright Dongcheng Li

Copyright Dongcheng Li Herbology II Dr. Li, Dongcheng Office: 954-763-9840 E-mail: dcljdl@yahoo.com 1 Contents in Herbology II Herbs that Expel Wind Dampness ---Chapter 5 (15 herbs) Herbs that Aromatically transform dampness

More information

Upper Jiao problem Pallor of face Qi/Yang/Blood Xu or Cold Can be excess, or Blood Deficiency

Upper Jiao problem Pallor of face Qi/Yang/Blood Xu or Cold Can be excess, or Blood Deficiency Course: Diagnostics II Date: Dec 8, 2007 Combination Symptoms Combination Syndrome Symptom Caused by Qi Deficiency of Heart and Lung Palpitation Indicative of heart problem Cough with difficult inhalation,

More information

Five Virtues Center for Acupuncture

Five Virtues Center for Acupuncture Five Virtues Center for Acupuncture Case Study: Headaches and Amenorrhea By Ross Rosen and Jennifer Sobonski History: Patient is a 15- year- old girl who was referred with headaches and amenorrhea. Her

More information

Entry-Level Occupational Competencies for the Practice of Traditional Chinese Medicine in Canada

Entry-Level Occupational Competencies for the Practice of Traditional Chinese Medicine in Canada Entry-Level Occupational Competencies for the Practice of Traditional Chinese Medicine in Canada May 2010 Canadian Alliance of Regulatory Bodies of TCM Practitioners and Acupuncturists All rights reserved

More information

Prostate Disease A Pass By TANG QIAN LI ZHU BIAN

Prostate Disease A Pass By TANG QIAN LI ZHU BIAN Prostate Disease A Pass By TANG QIAN LI ZHU BIAN Oxytocin and the Human Prostate in Health and - and PSA is then able to pass into the proliferation within the normal prostate. 4.4. Oxytocin and prostate

More information

Women s Health II. A. Weekend 8 Introduction

Women s Health II. A. Weekend 8 Introduction II. Women s Health A. Weekend 8 Introduction 1. Women s health take into account almost all the systems, organs, and substances in Oriental medicine, as well and most al of the treatment techniques. 2.

More information

AN EXTRAORDINARY CHINESE HERBAL PRODUCT FINDS ITS WAY TO NORTH AMERICA. Jake Paul Fratkin, OMD

AN EXTRAORDINARY CHINESE HERBAL PRODUCT FINDS ITS WAY TO NORTH AMERICA. Jake Paul Fratkin, OMD AN EXTRAORDINARY CHINESE HERBAL PRODUCT FINDS ITS WAY TO NORTH AMERICA Jake Paul Fratkin, OMD Many of China s remarkable herbal products have been exported to the United States for years; Gan Mao Ling,

More information

Treatment Methods in the Shang Han Lun According to Ren Ying-Qiu ( ) with Translation & Additional Commentaries by Eran Even- Part 2

Treatment Methods in the Shang Han Lun According to Ren Ying-Qiu ( ) with Translation & Additional Commentaries by Eran Even- Part 2 Treatment Methods in the Shang Han Lun According to Ren Ying-Qiu ( ) with Translation & Additional Commentaries by Eran Even- Part 2 The following is part two of the essential treatment strategies and

More information

Herbal Formulas II. Dr. Li, Dongcheng. Office: Contents in Herbal Formulas II

Herbal Formulas II. Dr. Li, Dongcheng. Office: Contents in Herbal Formulas II Herbal Formulas II Dr. Li, Dongcheng Office: 954-763 -9840 E-mail: dcljdl@yahoo.com 1 Contents in Herbal Formulas II Chapter 7 Formulas that warm interior (10 types) Section 1 Formulas that warm Middle

More information

普濟消毒飲普濟消毒飲. Huáng Lián Shàng Qīng Wán (Coptis Pill to Clear the Upper) Pŭ Jì Xiāo Dú Y n (Universal Benefit Decoction to Eliminate Toxin)

普濟消毒飲普濟消毒飲. Huáng Lián Shàng Qīng Wán (Coptis Pill to Clear the Upper) Pŭ Jì Xiāo Dú Y n (Universal Benefit Decoction to Eliminate Toxin) Huáng Lián Shàng Qīng Wán (Coptis Pill to Clear the Upper) SUGGESTED ACUPUNCTURE TREATMENT 1. Points: Dazhui (GV 14), Quchi (LI 11), Neiting (ST 44), Xingjian (LR 2), Fengchi (GB 20), Hegu (LI 4), Yingxiang

More information

DIFFERENTIAL QUESTIONS

DIFFERENTIAL QUESTIONS 4 IMBALANCES AND 5 ORGANS A New System for Diagnosis and Treatment DIFFERENTIAL QUESTIONS Jeremy Ross www.jeremyross.com DIFFERENTIAL QUESTIONS A New System for Diagnosis 90 Organ syndromes In Chinese

More information

The Chinese Herbology Expanded Content Outline (Effective as of February 1, 2014)

The Chinese Herbology Expanded Content Outline (Effective as of February 1, 2014) The Chinese Herbology Expanded Content Outline (Effective as of February 1, 2014) Note to Candidate: This document serves as a guide to assist in examination preparation for candidates who have met NCCAOM

More information

DERMATOMES and ACUPUNCTURE in the HORSE

DERMATOMES and ACUPUNCTURE in the HORSE XVI ItVAS INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR X VAM/ECVA MEETING Palermo (I) October 23 24 25, 2015 DERMATOMES and ACUPUNCTURE in the HORSE Francesco LONGO DVM, Repr. Sp. S.I.A.V. It.V.A.S. (Italian Veterinary Acupuncture

More information

Patents for Clear Heat, and Tonics

Patents for Clear Heat, and Tonics Patents for Clear Heat, and Tonics Yuxing Liu Ph. D Academy of Oriental Medicine at Austin Patents for Clear Heat San Jiao Theory: UJ-----MJ----LJ Wei---Qi----Ying---Xue(Blood) 4 level Different Zang-Fu

More information

Shang Han Lun. Dr. Baisong Zhong MD(China)Ph.D., L.Ac. WWW: painacupuncture.netfirms.com

Shang Han Lun. Dr. Baisong Zhong MD(China)Ph.D., L.Ac.   WWW: painacupuncture.netfirms.com Shang Han Lun Dr. Baisong Zhong MD(China)Ph.D., L.Ac. E-mail: painacupuncture@yahoo.com WWW: painacupuncture.netfirms.com A. Shang Han Lun(Cold Damage) 1. He outlined the symptom & signs of the febrile

More information

NCCAOM Reinst atement Examination Conte nt Outline f or the Diplomate of Chinese Herbology Certification

NCCAOM Reinst atement Examination Conte nt Outline f or the Diplomate of Chinese Herbology Certification 2018 NCCAOM Reinst atement Examination Conte nt Outline f or the Diplomate of Chinese Herbology Certification 2018 NCCAOM N CCAOM 2025 M Street NW, Suite 800 Washington D.C., 20036 (202) 381-1140 - Direct

More information

Treatment Strategy 1

Treatment Strategy 1 Treatment Strategy 1 5-12-06 Treatment Strategy 1...1 1. Wei Syndrome... 1 1.1. Wei Syndrome Types...1 1.1.1. Heat in Lung... 3 1.1.2. Dampness and heat... 4 1.1.3. LV & KD Yin Deficiency...5 1.1.4. Deficiency

More information

3 Clouded Vision (Mu Hun)

3 Clouded Vision (Mu Hun) The Treatment of Disease in TCM Vol. 2: Diseases of the Eyes, Ears, Nose & Throat Author: Sionneau, Philippe & Lü, Gang www.bluepoppy.com www.sionneau.com 3 Clouded Vision (Mu Hun) This refers to dimness

More information

Ba Wei Di Huang Wan (Rehmannia Eight)

Ba Wei Di Huang Wan (Rehmannia Eight) Ba Wei Di Huang Wan (Rehmannia Eight) Alternate Names Shen Qi Wan Jin Gui Shen Qi Wan (Precious Golden Tonify the Qi Combination) History This formula is a lasting contribution of the master herbalist

More information

In Western medicine, there are three stages to a miscarriage or spontaneous

In Western medicine, there are three stages to a miscarriage or spontaneous 7 Prevention of Miscarriage In Western medicine, there are three stages to a miscarriage or spontaneous abortion: 1) threatened miscarriage, 2) incomplete miscarriage, and 3) complete miscarriage. The

More information

Allergic Rhinitis Case Report

Allergic Rhinitis Case Report Allergic Rhinitis Case Report (A) Diagnoses of Diseases and Patterns Pattern/Syndrome Differentiation Analysis Allergic rhinitis is due to an invasion of External Wind Cold or Heat (exopathogens) with

More information

A new understanding of the Brain and its clinical application

A new understanding of the Brain and its clinical application A new understanding of the Brain and its clinical application Tianjun Wang ABSTRACT The Brain in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is traditionally one of the six extraordinary organs and there are very

More information

Discussion on the Comprehensive Chinese Medicine. Treatment for Postoperative Syndrome of Cancer: an

Discussion on the Comprehensive Chinese Medicine. Treatment for Postoperative Syndrome of Cancer: an 32 Zhou-An Yin et al./journal of Acupuncture and Herbs 1 (2015)32-37 Discussion on the Comprehensive Chinese Medicine Treatment for Postoperative Syndrome of Cancer: an Enlightening from Xu Lao Disease

More information

INTERNAL CANON OF THE YELLOW EMPEROR TCM DIAGNOSIS METHODS. Stanley Liang Ph.D., R.TCMP, R.Ac

INTERNAL CANON OF THE YELLOW EMPEROR TCM DIAGNOSIS METHODS. Stanley Liang Ph.D., R.TCMP, R.Ac INTERNAL CANON OF THE YELLOW EMPEROR TCM DIAGNOSIS METHODS Stanley Liang Ph.D., R.TCMP, R.Ac Text reading S17 Discussion on the Essentials of Pulse S18 Discussion on the Pulse Conditions of Healthy People

More information

CMAC311. Session 4. Chinese Medicine Department MENSTRUATION DISORDERS. Pre-menstrual Syndrome (PMS) Dysmenorrhea (painful periods)

CMAC311. Session 4. Chinese Medicine Department MENSTRUATION DISORDERS. Pre-menstrual Syndrome (PMS) Dysmenorrhea (painful periods) CMAC311 Session 4 MENSTRUATION DISORDERS Pre-menstrual Syndrome (PMS) Dysmenorrhea (painful periods) Chinese Medicine Department www.endeavour.edu.au Session Contents o Explain the aetiology factors &

More information

Lori Pusateri Case Study #5 Clinic Level 4 10/12/15

Lori Pusateri Case Study #5 Clinic Level 4 10/12/15 Lori Pusateri Case Study #5 Clinic Level 4 10/12/15 Overview: Sex: Male Age: 42 Height: 6 0 Weight: 175 Occupation: Forestry Chief Complaint: The patient s chief complaint is lower back pain and sciatica.

More information

Contents. Basic Theory of Acupuncture. (Page 1) Acupuncture Points. (Page 31) Side Effects of Acupuncture. (Page 51)

Contents. Basic Theory of Acupuncture. (Page 1) Acupuncture Points. (Page 31) Side Effects of Acupuncture. (Page 51) VII Contents Basic Theory of Acupuncture (Page 1) Scientific Aspects of Acupuncture..................... 2 Indication and Direction of Action of Acupuncture.................................... 12 Relative

More information

Principles of Differentiation and Prescription for Vitiligo in Traditional Chinese Medicine Based on a Literature Investigation

Principles of Differentiation and Prescription for Vitiligo in Traditional Chinese Medicine Based on a Literature Investigation Received: May 13, 2015 Accepted after revision: October 19, 2015 Published online: December 3, 2015 2015 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel 2296 7362/15/0024 0149$39.50/0 This article is licensed

More information

TCM & CONSTIPATION. Provided by AcuPro Academy - Copyright AcuPro Academy 2014 All Rights Reserved

TCM & CONSTIPATION. Provided by AcuPro Academy - Copyright AcuPro Academy 2014 All Rights Reserved TCM & CONSTIPATION Provided by AcuPro Academy - 1 INTRODUCTION TO CONSTIPATION Causes Diet Illnesses Drugs Lack of exercise Emotions 2 TCM PATTERNS FOR CONSTIPATION TCM patterns Symptoms Tx Principles

More information

Mulberry & Lycium Formula Xie Bai San

Mulberry & Lycium Formula Xie Bai San Mulberry & Lycium Formula Xie Bai San Origins: Xiao Er Yao Zheng Zhen Jue, by Qian Yi (Chien-yi), Song Dynasty, 1119 CE. Mulberry and Lycium Formula (Xie Bai San) originated in the Xiao Er Yao Zheng Zhen

More information

8 Principle 5 Phase Treatment Strategy

8 Principle 5 Phase Treatment Strategy 10-01-05 8 Principle 5 Phase Treatment Strategy Table of Contents Books:... 1 Assignments... 1 Review of TCM Diagnosis... 1 8 Principles...2 Internal organ diagnosis... 2 Substances... 2 5 Elements...

More information

POST GRADUATE DIPLOMA IN ACUPUNCTURE Term-End Examination June, 2015

POST GRADUATE DIPLOMA IN ACUPUNCTURE Term-End Examination June, 2015 No. of Printed Pages : 16 PGDACP-03 POST GRADUATE DIPLOMA IN ACUPUNCTURE Term-End Examination 0 June, 2015 PGDACP-03: TREATMENT OF COMMON DISEASES/ EAR & SCALP ACUPUNCTURE Time : 2 hours Maximum Marks

More information

Course: Acupuncture Treatment of Disease 3 Date: May 11, 2009 Class #: 5 Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) Sciatica and Tennis Elbow

Course: Acupuncture Treatment of Disease 3 Date: May 11, 2009 Class #: 5 Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) Sciatica and Tennis Elbow Course: Acupuncture Treatment of Disease 3 Date: May 11, 2009 Class #: 5 Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) Sciatica and Tennis Elbow Characterized by pain and numbness on palmar side median nerve is compressed

More information

copyright 2017 by AJTCVM All Rights Reserved Herbal Formula Spotlight

copyright 2017 by AJTCVM All Rights Reserved Herbal Formula Spotlight copyright 2017 by AJTCVM All Rights Reserved Herbal Formula Spotlight Tao Hong Si Wu Tang (Four-Substance Decoction with Safflower and Peach Pit) Tao Hong Si Wu Tang (Four-Substance Decoction with Safflower

More information

Term-End Examination December, 2009

Term-End Examination December, 2009 PGDACP - 01 POST GRADUATE DIPLOMA IN ACUPUNCTURE (PGDACP) 00931 Term-End Examination December, 2009 PGDACP-01 : BASIC THEORIES OF ACUPUNCTURE/TCM DIAGNOSIS Time : 2 Hours Maximum Marks : 70 Note : There

More information

Glossary. Terminology Chinese Pinyin Wiseman & Feng. 5 a.m. diarrhea Wu Geng Xie

Glossary. Terminology Chinese Pinyin Wiseman & Feng. 5 a.m. diarrhea Wu Geng Xie Glossary The first column consists of the terms used in the body of the text. Subsequent columns provide correlation to the Chinese characters, pinyin transliteration, previous translation by Wiseman and

More information

MASTER CHART. Guide to 60 Transformational Acupoints 1. bigtreehealing.com

MASTER CHART. Guide to 60 Transformational Acupoints 1. bigtreehealing.com MASTER CHART GUIDE TO 60 TRANSFORMATIONAL ACUPOINTS Guide to 60 Transformational Acupoints 1 LU 5 LU 7 LU 9 On elbow crease, thumb side of tendon of biceps brachii. Lung Meridian On thumb side of forearm,

More information

Term-End Examination June, 2010

Term-End Examination June, 2010 00643 No. of Printed Pages : 12 PGDACP - 01 POST GRADUATE DIPLOMA IN ACUPUNCTURE (PGDACP) Term-End Examination June, 2010 PGDACP-01 : BASIC THEORIES OF ACUPUNCTURE/TCM DIAGNOSIS Time : 2 Hours Maximum

More information

The Treatment of Allergies Using Sanfujiu: A Method of Applying Chinese Herbal Medicine Paste to Acupoints on Three Peak Summer Days

The Treatment of Allergies Using Sanfujiu: A Method of Applying Chinese Herbal Medicine Paste to Acupoints on Three Peak Summer Days The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Vol. 32, No. 6, 967 976 2004 World Scientific Publishing Company Institute for Advanced Research in Asian Science and Medicine The Treatment of Allergies Using

More information

For enhanced learnability, points in the neighbourhood will not be referred to with its code.

For enhanced learnability, points in the neighbourhood will not be referred to with its code. Summary and legend of background colors and its qualifications: Bgnd color Nr.: join/reunion, connection point of 2 or more energy circuits Jiao Hui Xue: LU1,9 LI14-16,20 ST1,3,4,7-8,30 SP6,12,13,15,16

More information

Applying Complex System Entropy Cluster Algorithm to Mining Principle of Herbal Combinations in Traditional Chinese Medicine

Applying Complex System Entropy Cluster Algorithm to Mining Principle of Herbal Combinations in Traditional Chinese Medicine Applying Complex System Entropy Cluster Algorithm to Mining Principle of Herbal Combinations in Traditional Medicine Chenghe Shi Department of TCM, Peking University Third Hospital 49 North Garden Rd,Haidian

More information

ACUPUNCTURE FOR HEALTH WENDY STALKER R.Ac. Dip.Ac. B.Sc. Name: Date of Birth: Date:

ACUPUNCTURE FOR HEALTH WENDY STALKER R.Ac. Dip.Ac. B.Sc. Name: Date of Birth: Date: Name: Date of Birth: Date: Address: Postal Code: Occupation: Telephone: Day: Cell Phone: E-mail address: Emergency Contact: Evening: Telephone: Male Female Where did you hear about Acupuncture for Health?

More information

9/3/2012. Spheres of Influence. Zang Fu Diagnosis. ChiroCredit.com Presents: AcuPractice Seminars 209: The Zang Fu: Introduction to the Organs NAMES

9/3/2012. Spheres of Influence. Zang Fu Diagnosis. ChiroCredit.com Presents: AcuPractice Seminars 209: The Zang Fu: Introduction to the Organs NAMES ChiroCredit.com Presents: AcuPractice Seminars 209: The Zang Fu: Introduction to the Organs NAMES Zang / Fu Solid / Hollow Yin / Yang Western Names Eastern Functions Little Overlap Capitalization Convention

More information

Huang Qi (Radix Astragali)

Huang Qi (Radix Astragali) Chinese Medical Herbology and Pharmacology Pinyin Name: Huang Qi Alternate Chinese Names: Jin Huang Qi, Jian Qi, Kou Qi Original Source: Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing (Divine Husbandman s Classic of the Materia

More information

Course: Acupuncture Treatment of Disease 1 Date: Oct 8, 2008 Doc: Test 1 Review

Course: Acupuncture Treatment of Disease 1 Date: Oct 8, 2008 Doc: Test 1 Review Course: Acupuncture Treatment of Dise 1 Date: Oct 8, 2008 Doc: Test 1 Review This test consists of 1. 40 questions. 6 case studies in it. Must be able to analyze, just like the case studies he gave in

More information

Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Assessment Instructions

Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Assessment Instructions Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Assessment Instructions This assessment form is designed to determine your current health condition according to Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Each patient must

More information

PRACTICAL THERAPEUTICS

PRACTICAL THERAPEUTICS PRACTICAL THERAPEUTICS of TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE Yan Wu Warren Fisher Edited by Jake Fratkin Paradigm Publications 1997 Brookline, Massachusetts ii Yan Wu Warren Fischer Jake Fratkin, Editor Copyright

More information

Contents. 1 Introduction Fertility Treatment Its Social and Cultural Context Ethics Guanyin Goddess of Fertility...

Contents. 1 Introduction Fertility Treatment Its Social and Cultural Context Ethics Guanyin Goddess of Fertility... Contents 1 Introduction... 1 1 Fertility Treatment Its Social and Cultural Context... 2 Reduced Fertility Epidemiology Causes.. 2 Reproduction and Sexuality... 4 In the West Christianity, Enlightenment,

More information

How Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine Can Help You Build a Resilient Body ALYSSA JOHNSON, L. AC, MA. OM

How Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine Can Help You Build a Resilient Body ALYSSA JOHNSON, L. AC, MA. OM How Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine Can Help You Build a Resilient Body ALYSSA JOHNSON, L. AC, MA. OM What is Oriental Medicine? or Traditional Chinese Medicine Oriental Medicine (OM) =Traditional Chinese

More information

Dx & Tx 5 - ONCOLOGY. Lung/bronchus and colon/rectum next 2 common sites for men and women

Dx & Tx 5 - ONCOLOGY. Lung/bronchus and colon/rectum next 2 common sites for men and women Dx & Tx 5 - ONCOLOGY Most common cancers: Men prostate Women breast Increase may be related to early & better detection Lung/bronchus and colon/rectum next 2 common sites for men and women Cancer death

More information

Pericardium Channel and Points

Pericardium Channel and Points Pericardium Channel and Points Primary channel pathway Center of the chest (hypochondriac area) Emerge in the P1 PC SJ arches over the axilla The midline of the upper arm and fore arm (between the tendons

More information

Table 1. Traditional Chinese Medicine Syndrome Differentiation Diagnostic Criteria for Apoplexy Scale

Table 1. Traditional Chinese Medicine Syndrome Differentiation Diagnostic Criteria for Apoplexy Scale Table. Traditional Chinese Medicine Syndrome Differentiation Diagnostic Criteria for Apoplexy Scale TCM Item Acute ischemic stroke related symptoms and signs Score Wind Onset Peaked 8 hours Peaked hours

More information

Rapid Detection of Milk Protein based on Proteolysis Catalyzed by Trypsinase

Rapid Detection of Milk Protein based on Proteolysis Catalyzed by Trypsinase Rapid Detection of Milk Protein based on Proteolysis Catalyzed by Trypsinase Yafeng Chen Institute of Food Quality and Safety, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology Shanghai 93, China Email:cyfxy498@6.com

More information

JIN GUI YAO LUE 金金匮要略略 ESSENTIAL STRATEGIES OF GOLDEN CABINET. Class # 2 of 2

JIN GUI YAO LUE 金金匮要略略 ESSENTIAL STRATEGIES OF GOLDEN CABINET. Class # 2 of 2 JIN GUI YAO LUE 金金匮要略略 ESSENTIAL STRATEGIES OF GOLDEN CABINET Class # 2 of 2 Shen Qi Wan 肾 气丸 (Jin Gui Shen Qi Wan) For deficiency taxa>on manifes>ng lumbar pain, abdominal urgency (urinary urgency) with

More information

The tongue body is thinner (vertically) and smaller (horizontally and vertically) than normal. pale and thin body, with thin coating

The tongue body is thinner (vertically) and smaller (horizontally and vertically) than normal. pale and thin body, with thin coating 98 Chapter One: Inspection d) Thin and small tongue The tongue body is thinner (vertically) and smaller (horizontally and vertically) than normal. Indications Tongue Body Pathogenesis Thin qi and blood

More information

HISTORY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE

HISTORY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE HISTORY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE Shang Dynasty (1523 BC - 1027 BC) *Shamanic and Ancestral Medicine. Zhou Dynasty (1027 BC - 221 BC) Warring States *I Jing *Confucianism arose in the middle Zhou

More information