URINARY SYSTEM. These organs lie posterior or inferior to the. (membrane).

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "URINARY SYSTEM. These organs lie posterior or inferior to the. (membrane)."

Transcription

1 URINARY SYSTEM I. INTRODUCTION Each kidney is made up of about a million tiny tubules called nephrons. Each nephron individually filters the blood and makes urine and it does the job completely, from start to finish. In order to learn how the kidneys make urine, then, you must first become familiar with the nephron. A large part of the anatomy studied in this lab will be the microscopic structure (histology) of the nephron. II. ANATOMY OF THE URINARY SYSTEM A. Overview of gross anatomy 1. Organs of the urinary system and nearby structures (Fig. 26.2a) These can be seen on the torso models, the male and female pelvises, and the abdominal models. The right kidney is located a little more inferiorly than the left, allowing room for the liver. Kidneys Ureters Bladder Urethra Adrenal glands Renal artery Renal vein 2. The position of the kidneys, ureters, bladder and adrenal glands is retroperitoneal. (Fig. 26.2b). Note that this is a view from inferior looking superiorly These organs lie posterior or inferior to the (membrane). 3. Identify the perirenal fat (renal fat pad), which protects and stabilizes the kidneys. This is shown on the illustration only. 4. Using this illustration, identify the parietal peritoneum, peritoneal cavity, and liver. 41

2 42 B. Kidney (Fig. 26.3a, b) Use the large kidney models. 1. Renal capsule 2. Cortex 3. Medulla Renal pyramids Renal papilla (tip of the pyramid) Renal columns 4. Urine collection structures Minor calyx (kay-licks; plural is calyces [kay-li-seze]) Major calyx Renal pelvis Ureter 5. Blood vessels of the kidney (Fig. 26.7). Renal artery and vein Segmental artery and vein Interlobar artery and vein Arcuate artery and vein Interlobular artery and vein C. Nephron Use the large kidney models with nephrons for items 1-6 below. 1. Tubular portion (Fig. 26.4) Clear fluid called filtrate is filtered from the renal corpuscle into the proximal convoluted tubule of the nephron. Most of the filtrate is reabsorbed into the blood as it flows along the nephron. What is left becomes the urine, which exits the collecting duct and enters a minor calyx. Renal corpuscle Proximal [convoluted] tubule Thin descending segment of the loop of Henle Thin ascending segment of the loop of Henle Thick ascending segment of the loop of Henle Distal convoluted tubule Collecting duct

3 43 2. Types of nephrons (Fig. 26.4) Juxtamedullary nephrons (long loops of Henle) Cortical nephrons (short loops of Henle) 3. The renal corpuscle (Fig. 26.5a,b) Bowman's capsule Glomerulus (a capillary bed; the name means tuft ) Afferent arteriole Efferent arteriole Juxtaglomerular apparatus 4. Microanatomy of Bowman s capsule (Fig.26.5b) Parietal layer of Bowman's capsule Visceral layer of Bowman's capsule Podocytes ( foot-cells that form the visceral layer) 5. Filtration membrane (Fig. 26.5d): Capillary endothelium (capillary wall of the glomerulus) Basement membrane of capillary Visceral layer of Bowman's capsule consisting of podocytes 6. Blood vessels of the nephron (Fig. 26.7b) Note that the efferent arteriole branches to form the peritubular capillaries and vasa recta. Notice how these vessels surround the nephron. Afferent arteriole Glomerulus Efferent arteriole Peritubular capillaries Vasa recta D. Urinary bladder (Fig ) Study the male and female pelvises. 1. Layers of the bladder Mucosa of transitional epithelium Submucosa of connective tissue

4 44 Muscularis of smooth muscle Serosa (formed from parietal peritoneum; superior surface only) Adventitia (outer connective tissue where serosa is not found) 2. Sphincter muscles (Fig ) This illustration shows the location of the female external urethral sphincter only. In the male, the internal urethral sphincter is formed by the smooth muscle of the bladder wall that surrounds the urethra s opening into the bladder. The external urethral sphincter is formed by the skeletal muscle of the pelvic floor muscles, inferior to the prostate gland. Ask your instructor to point these structures out on both male and female pelvises. Internal urethral sphincter External urethral sphincter 3. Trigone The floor of the bladder, surrounded by three openings E. Urethra Use the male and female pelvises. Optional notes on the urinary system 1. Staghorn kidney stones are large deposits that take the shape of the renal pelvis, major and minor calyces in which they form. 2. Glomerulonephritis is an autoimmune disease in which the body forms antibodies which attack the glomerulus. 3. Transitional epithelium forms the mucosa of the bladder. It is capable of great stretching without tearing. 4. Urinary tract infections are more common in women than in men because of the shorter length of the urethra in women. Emptying the bladder regularly is one way to reduce the likelihood of bladder infection. The flushing action of the urine washes away bacteria. A stretched bladder has a reduced blood supply to its wall; a good blood flow discourages infection, since blood contains immune factors. 5. The "Kegel" exercise which is taught to women in childbirth classes strengthens the external urethral sphincter. It is done by consciously stopping a stream of urine.

5 45 Notes and Sketches

CHAPTER 25 URINARY. Urinary system. Kidneys 2 Ureters 2 Urinary Bladder 1 Urethra 1. functions

CHAPTER 25 URINARY. Urinary system. Kidneys 2 Ureters 2 Urinary Bladder 1 Urethra 1. functions CHAPTER 25 URINARY Kidneys 2 Ureters 2 Urinary Bladder 1 Urethra 1 fluid waste elimination secretion of wastes control blood volume and BP control blood ph electrolyte levels RBC levels hormone production

More information

Chapter 23. The Nephron. (functional unit of the kidney

Chapter 23. The Nephron. (functional unit of the kidney Chapter 23 The Nephron (functional unit of the kidney Renal capsule The Nephron Renal cortex Nephron Collecting duct Efferent arteriole Afferent arteriole (a) Renal corpuscle: Glomerular capsule Glomerulus

More information

URINARY SYSTEM ANATOMY

URINARY SYSTEM ANATOMY URINARY SYSTEM ANATOMY Adapted from Human Anatomy & Physiology Marieb and Hoehn (9 th ed.) OVERVIEW Metabolism of nutrients by the body produces wastes that must be removed from the body. Although excretory

More information

Urinary System. Urinary System Functions. Urinary System Anatomy. Chapter 26. Filtering of blood: involves three processesfiltration,

Urinary System. Urinary System Functions. Urinary System Anatomy. Chapter 26. Filtering of blood: involves three processesfiltration, Chapter 26 Urinary System 1 Urinary System Functions Filtering of blood: involves three processesfiltration, reabsorption, secretion. Regulation of Blood volume Concentration of blood solutes: Na +, Cl

More information

Urinary system. Urinary system

Urinary system. Urinary system INTRODUCTION. Several organs system Produce urine and excrete it from the body Maintenance of homeostasis. Components. two kidneys, produce urine; two ureters, carry urine to single urinary bladder for

More information

URINARY SYSTEM I. Kidneys II. Nephron Unit and Urine Formation

URINARY SYSTEM I. Kidneys II. Nephron Unit and Urine Formation URINARY SYSTEM I. Kidneys A. Location and Structure 1. Retroperitoneal 2. Between T12 and L3 3. Rt. kidney slightly lower 4. Two bean shaped organs 5. Adrenal gland 6. Internal construction a. Renal cortex

More information

Urinary System. Dr. Ahmed Maher Dr. Ahmed Manhal

Urinary System. Dr. Ahmed Maher Dr. Ahmed Manhal Urinary System Dr. Ahmed Maher Dr. Ahmed Manhal Presentation Map Kidney (cortex & medulla). Nephron. Duct system. Juxtaglomerular apparatus. Ureter, bladder & urethra. Definition & General Structure The

More information

1. Identify and describe the functions of structures found in the kidney and to compare the same structures with the human kidney.

1. Identify and describe the functions of structures found in the kidney and to compare the same structures with the human kidney. BIOL 2402 Lab Kidney Dissection Laboratory Objectives After completing this lab, you should be able to: 1. Identify and describe the functions of structures found in the kidney and to compare the same

More information

Urinary System. 1. Kidneys 2. Ureters 3. Urinary bladder 4. Urethra

Urinary System. 1. Kidneys 2. Ureters 3. Urinary bladder 4. Urethra Urinary System 1. Kidneys 2. Ureters 3. Urinary bladder 4. Urethra Kidney Functions Primary functions: Filter and remove waste from plasma, Secondary functions: Produce renin, Produce EPO, Regulate blood

More information

BIOL2030 Human A & P II -- Exam 6

BIOL2030 Human A & P II -- Exam 6 BIOL2030 Human A & P II -- Exam 6 Name: 1. The kidney functions in A. preventing blood loss. C. synthesis of vitamin E. E. making ADH. B. white blood cell production. D. excretion of metabolic wastes.

More information

The Urinary System. Medical Assisting Third Edition. Booth, Whicker, Wyman, Pugh, Thompson The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

The Urinary System. Medical Assisting Third Edition. Booth, Whicker, Wyman, Pugh, Thompson The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved The Urinary System PowerPoint presentation to accompany: Medical Assisting Third Edition Booth, Whicker, Wyman, Pugh, Thompson 30-2 Learning Outcomes 30.1 Describe the structure, location, and functions

More information

Vertebrates possess kidneys: internal organs which are vital to ion and water balance and excretion.

Vertebrates possess kidneys: internal organs which are vital to ion and water balance and excretion. The Kidney Vertebrates possess kidneys: internal organs which are vital to ion and water balance and excretion. The kidney has 6 roles in the maintenance of homeostasis. 6 Main Functions 1. Ion Balance

More information

Urinary System and Excretion. Bio105 Chapter 16

Urinary System and Excretion. Bio105 Chapter 16 Urinary System and Excretion Bio105 Chapter 16 Outline Urinary System I. Function II. Organs of the urinary system A. Kidneys 1. Function 2. Structure III. Disorders of the urinary system Urinary System

More information

Urinary System: Kidneys ain t just for pee in. Cortex Medulla. Kidney: Hilus. Kidney. Pelvis. Calyces (calyx) Urinary System Anatomy:

Urinary System: Kidneys ain t just for pee in. Cortex Medulla. Kidney: Hilus. Kidney. Pelvis. Calyces (calyx) Urinary System Anatomy: Urinary System: Kidneys ain t just for pee in Major Functions of Urinary System: 1) Removal of organic waste products from fluids (excretion) 2) Discharge of waste products into the environment (elimination)

More information

Biology 212: Anatomy and Physiology II Lab #8: ANATOMY OF THE URINARY SYSTEM and CHARACTERISTICS OF URINE

Biology 212: Anatomy and Physiology II Lab #8: ANATOMY OF THE URINARY SYSTEM and CHARACTERISTICS OF URINE Biology 212: Anatomy and Physiology II Lab #8: ANATOMY OF THE URINARY SYSTEM and CHARACTERISTICS OF URINE References: Saladin, KS: Anatomy and Physiology, The Unity of Form and Function 7 th ed. (2015)

More information

Outline Urinary System

Outline Urinary System Urinary System and Excretion Bio105 Lecture Packet 20 Chapter 16 Outline Urinary System I. Function II. Organs of the urinary system A. Kidneys 1. Function 2. Structure B. Urine formation 1. Hormonal regulation

More information

Excretory Lecture Test Questions Set 1

Excretory Lecture Test Questions Set 1 Excretory Lecture Test Questions Set 1 1. The separation and ejection of metabolic wastes, usually in aqueous solution, is: a. reabsorption b. secretion c. filtration d. excretion e. endocrinology 2. Besides

More information

convoluted tubule. The proximal straight tubule is located in the medulla and dives down towards the pelvis.. [3] The Distal Straight Tubule receive

convoluted tubule. The proximal straight tubule is located in the medulla and dives down towards the pelvis.. [3] The Distal Straight Tubule receive Chapter 16 Urinary System 16.1. Introduction The urinary system includes the: kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra. The kidneys regulate the composition and volume of body fluids by constantly

More information

Urinary System Organs

Urinary System Organs Learning Objectives Renal System Figure 26.4 Major sources of water intake and output. Blood filtration through the glomerulus How Glomerular filtration rate is regulated Intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms

More information

Kidneys and Homeostasis

Kidneys and Homeostasis 16 The Urinary System The Urinary System OUTLINE: Eliminating Waste Components of the Urinary System Kidneys and Homeostasis Urination Urinary Tract Infections Eliminating Waste Excretion Elimination of

More information

Urinary 1 Checklist Gross Anatomy of the Urinary System

Urinary 1 Checklist Gross Anatomy of the Urinary System Urinary 1 Checklist Gross Anatomy of the Urinary System Urinary system Kidneys Parietal peritoneum Retroperitoneal Renal fascia The urinary system consists of two kidneys, two ureters, the urinary bladder,

More information

1. a)label the parts indicated above and give one function for structures Y and Z

1. a)label the parts indicated above and give one function for structures Y and Z Excretory System 1 1. Excretory System a)label the parts indicated above and give one function for structures Y and Z W- renal cortex - X- renal medulla Y- renal pelvis collecting center of urine and then

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. BIO 210 Anatomy and Physiology Homework #10: Chs. 26-28 DUE: (see course schedule) Assignments not turned in at the beginning of class will be accepted. MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that

More information

Frontal section of human kidney. (Scheme).

Frontal section of human kidney. (Scheme). 15 Urinary system 15-001 Kidney Cortex Medulla Papilla renalis Medial Lateral Medullary ray Labyrinth Columna renalis Pelvis renalis Calix renalis Ureter Capsula fibrosa Lobus renalis Columna renalis 15-01.

More information

Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology, 9e (Marieb) Chapter 15 The Urinary System. Short Answer. Figure 15.1

Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology, 9e (Marieb) Chapter 15 The Urinary System. Short Answer. Figure 15.1 Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology, 9e (Marieb) Chapter 15 The Urinary System Short Answer Figure 15.1 Using Figure 15.1, identify the following: 1) The ureter is indicated by letter. Answer: B Diff:

More information

Excretory System 1. a)label the parts indicated above and give one function for structures Y and Z

Excretory System 1. a)label the parts indicated above and give one function for structures Y and Z Excretory System 1 1. Excretory System a)label the parts indicated above and give one function for structures Y and Z W- X- Y- Z- b) Which of the following is not a function of the organ shown? A. to produce

More information

Regulate chemical composition of body fluids. Controls composition of bloods ion levels and concentration. Help maintain PCO2 & acid/base balance [ph]

Regulate chemical composition of body fluids. Controls composition of bloods ion levels and concentration. Help maintain PCO2 & acid/base balance [ph] The Urinary System Regulate chemical composition of body fluids Eliminates waste Controls composition of bloods ion levels and concentration Help maintain PCO2 & acid/base balance [ph] Help regulate blood

More information

Urinary System. Analyze the Anatomy and Physiology of the urinary system

Urinary System. Analyze the Anatomy and Physiology of the urinary system Urinary System Analyze the Anatomy and Physiology of the urinary system Kidney Bean-shaped Located between peritoneum and the back muscles (retroperitoneal) Renal pelvis funnelshaped structure at the beginning

More information

Excretion and the Interaction of Systems Chapter 9

Excretion and the Interaction of Systems Chapter 9 Excretion and the Interaction of Systems Chapter 9 Chapter 9 Excretion and the Interaction of Systems 9.1 The Structures and Function of the Excretory System 9.2 Urine Formation in the Nephron 9.3 Excretory

More information

Lab #9: Kidney: Gross Anatomy & Histology

Lab #9: Kidney: Gross Anatomy & Histology Name Date Lab #9: Kidney: Gross Anatomy & Histology Lab #10: Male Reproductive System: Human Models & Histology Lab #11: Female Reproductive System: Human Models & Histology Stuff to Know Dr. L. Bacha

More information

The excretory system

The excretory system Key Words The excretory system haemoglobin Convoluted tubule Loop of Henle nephron ureter/-s sweat glands Bowman s capsule Glomerulus cholesterol Bladder Excretion is the removal of the waste products

More information

The Kidney Dissection (photos curtosy of Murray Jensen at UMN)

The Kidney Dissection (photos curtosy of Murray Jensen at UMN) CJ Shuster AP2 Lab Addenum Kidney Dissection 1 The Kidney Dissection (photos curtosy of Murray Jensen at UMN) BACKGROUND INFORMATION The human urinary system consists of two kidneys, two ureters, one urinary

More information

cord: a) Ductus deferens b) Dartos muscle c) Testicle d) Epididymis e) Bulbourethreal gland

cord: a) Ductus deferens b) Dartos muscle c) Testicle d) Epididymis e) Bulbourethreal gland Which of the following is found in the spermatic cord: a) Ductus deferens b) Dartos muscle c) Testicle d) Epididymis e) Bulbourethreal gland a) ductus deferns What structure is superior to the urogenital

More information

Bio 182- Ecology Unit Outline 1

Bio 182- Ecology Unit Outline 1 Bio 182- Ecology Unit Outline 1 Excretory System Introduction 1. Terrestrial organisms must deal with the problems of: a. obtaining and conserving water b. Removing excess salts c. Eliminating products

More information

Lecture 16: The Nephron

Lecture 16: The Nephron Lecture 16: The Nephron Reading: OpenStax A&P Text Chapter 25 Primary functions of the kidneys 1. Regulating osmolarity (blood concentration!) A. Regulating blood pressure B. Maintaining ion balance C.

More information

12/07/2013 WILEY PLUS BLOOD. Which of the. following are considered functions of blood 1. protection 2. regulation 3.

12/07/2013 WILEY PLUS BLOOD. Which of the. following are considered functions of blood 1. protection 2. regulation 3. 12/07/2013 WILEY PLUS BLOOD Which of the following are considered functions of blood 1. protection 2. regulation 3. transportation What substance found in red blood cells is responsible for carrying oxygen

More information

9 Urinary System. Chapter

9 Urinary System. Chapter 183 Chapter 9 Urinary System Components of the Urinary System -The urinary system consists of 2 kidneys, 2 ureters, 1 urinary bladder, and 1 urethra (Figure 26.1, Tortora). 1. kidneys - The kidneys are

More information

Histotopography of nephron

Histotopography of nephron THE URINARY SYSTEM Microscopic structure and development of urinary systém Kidney: nephron structure and function Urinary passages: ureter, urinary bladder, urethra Development of urinary system THE URINARY

More information

EXCRETION. Finish Line & Beyond. Types of Excretory Products in Animals. Human Excretory System. Urine Formation. Disorders of Excretory System

EXCRETION. Finish Line & Beyond. Types of Excretory Products in Animals. Human Excretory System. Urine Formation. Disorders of Excretory System EXCRETION Types of Excretory Products in Animals Human Excretory System Urine Formation Disorders of Excretory System Excretion: Animals accumulate ammonia, urea, uric acid, carbon dioxide, water and ions

More information

CREATININE: is another nitrogenous waste. Creatinine comes from creatinine phosphate in muscle metabolism (a Phosphate-storage molecule)

CREATININE: is another nitrogenous waste. Creatinine comes from creatinine phosphate in muscle metabolism (a Phosphate-storage molecule) BIOLOGY 12 - EXCRETION: CHAPTER NOTES Your cells are constantly carrying out chemical reactions to maintain homeostasis. Many of these chemical reactions produce wastes that must be removed from cells

More information

osmoregulation mechanisms in gills, salt glands, and kidneys

osmoregulation mechanisms in gills, salt glands, and kidneys Ionic & Osmotic Homeostasis osmoregulation mechanisms in gills, salt glands, and kidneys extracellular intracellular 22 23 Salt Secretion: recycle Figure in Box 26.2 Hill et al. 2004 active Down electrochemical

More information

BIOL 221 Chapter 25 The Urinary System. Intro to the Urinary System The kidneys are the major excretory organ

BIOL 221 Chapter 25 The Urinary System. Intro to the Urinary System The kidneys are the major excretory organ BIOL 221 Chapter 25 The Urinary System 84 slides 1 Intro to the Urinary System The kidneys are the major excretory organ filter about 200 liters of fluid daily. skin and lungs also participate in excretion.

More information

Other Factors Affecting GFR. Chapter 25. After Filtration. Reabsorption and Secretion. 5 Functions of the PCT

Other Factors Affecting GFR. Chapter 25. After Filtration. Reabsorption and Secretion. 5 Functions of the PCT Other Factors Affecting GFR Chapter 25 Part 2. Renal Physiology Nitric oxide vasodilator produced by the vascular endothelium Adenosine vasoconstrictor of renal vasculature Endothelin a powerful vasoconstrictor

More information

The Digestive System and Excretory System

The Digestive System and Excretory System The Digestive System and Excretory System By: Kay Foos, Amanda Smith, Joanna Dare, Lilli Blumkin Kay Digestive System The function of this system is to break down the food particles into materials the

More information

KIDNEY Locate the following structures on the sheep kidney and human kidney models: pelvis

KIDNEY Locate the following structures on the sheep kidney and human kidney models: pelvis 159 Lab 11: Urinary System Anatomy and Physiology, Reproductive System Anatomy Unit 15: Urinary System Unit 16: Reproductive Systems Cat Dissection: Photo Atlas, Chapter 19 Ex. 15-1: Urinary System Anatomy,

More information

THE ABDOMEN SUPRARENAL GLANDS KIDNEY URETERS URINARY BLADDER

THE ABDOMEN SUPRARENAL GLANDS KIDNEY URETERS URINARY BLADDER THE ABDOMEN SUPRARENAL GLANDS KIDNEY URETERS URINARY BLADDER THE SUPRARENAL GLANDS The suprarenal (adrenal) glands lie immediately superior and slightly anterior to the upper pole of either kidney. Golden

More information

QUESTIONSHEET 1. Read through the following passage on homeostasis and then answer the questions.

QUESTIONSHEET 1. Read through the following passage on homeostasis and then answer the questions. QUESTIONSHEET 1 Read through the following passage on homeostasis and then answer the questions. Homeostasis is the regulation of the internal environment within narrow limits. This gives the organism

More information

Renal Quiz - June 22, 21001

Renal Quiz - June 22, 21001 Renal Quiz - June 22, 21001 1. The molecular weight of calcium is 40 and chloride is 36. How many milligrams of CaCl 2 is required to give 2 meq of calcium? a) 40 b) 72 c) 112 d) 224 2. The extracellular

More information

Osmoregulation and Excretion

Osmoregulation and Excretion Chapter 44 Osmoregulation and Excretion PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley with contributions from

More information

Urine Formation. Urinary Physiology Urinary Section pages Urine Formation. Glomerular Filtration 4/24/2016

Urine Formation. Urinary Physiology Urinary Section pages Urine Formation. Glomerular Filtration 4/24/2016 Urine Formation Urinary Physiology Urinary Section pages 9-17 Filtrate Blood plasma minus most proteins Urine

More information

Normal Renal Function

Normal Renal Function Normal Renal Function Functions of the Kidney: balances solute and water transport excretes metabolic waste products conserves nutrient regulates acid-base balance secretes hormones that help regulate

More information

Diagram of the inner portions of the kidney

Diagram of the inner portions of the kidney Excretory and Endocrine functions of the kidney The kidneys are the main excretory organs which eliminate in the urine, most metabolites primarily those containing nitrogen such as ammonia, urea and creatinine.

More information

*Function maintains homeostasis by regulating the water balance and by removing harmful substances

*Function maintains homeostasis by regulating the water balance and by removing harmful substances The Excretory System GENERAL KNOWLEDGE AND DEFINITIONS: *Function maintains homeostasis by regulating the water balance and by removing harmful substances *Homeostasis (homeo: constant; stasis: state)

More information

1. remove: waste products: urea, creatinine, and uric acid foreign chemicals: drugs, water soluble vitamins, and food additives, etc.

1. remove: waste products: urea, creatinine, and uric acid foreign chemicals: drugs, water soluble vitamins, and food additives, etc. Making Water! OR is it really Just Water Just Ask the Nephron!! Author: Patricia L. Ostlund ostlundp@faytechcc.edu (910) 678-9892 Fayetteville Technical Community College Fayetteville, NC 28303 Its just

More information

Glomerular Capillary Blood Pressure

Glomerular Capillary Blood Pressure Glomerular Capillary Blood Pressure Fluid pressure exerted by blood within glomerular capillaries Depends on Contraction of the heart Resistance to blood flow offered by afferent and efferent arterioles

More information

Biology Human Anatomy Abdominal and Pelvic Cavities

Biology Human Anatomy Abdominal and Pelvic Cavities Biology 351 - Human Anatomy Abdominal and Pelvic Cavities Please place your name and I.D. number on the back of the last page of this exam. You must answer all questions on this exam. Because statistics

More information

network of thin-walled capillaries closely surrounded by a pear-shaped epithelial membrane called the Bowman s capsule

network of thin-walled capillaries closely surrounded by a pear-shaped epithelial membrane called the Bowman s capsule Renal Terminology Renal-Root Words & Combining Forms calyx cortex glomerul/o medulla nephr/o pyel/o py/o ur/o ren/o cuplike division of the kidney outer layer of kidney glomerula inner or central portion

More information

Kidney and urine formation

Kidney and urine formation Kidney and urine formation Renal structure & function Urine formation Urinary y concentration and dilution Regulation of urine formation 1 Kidney and urine formation 1.Renal structure & function 1)General

More information

Your Goal. Animal s Urinary and Osmoregulatory systems. Paragraph 1: Introduction Goal introduce the paper. Paragraph 1: Introduction

Your Goal. Animal s Urinary and Osmoregulatory systems. Paragraph 1: Introduction Goal introduce the paper. Paragraph 1: Introduction Your Goal Animal s Urinary and Osmoregulatory systems l Be able to tell the story of kidney evolution as an essay. Maintenance Introduction Goal introduce the paper l Homeostasis is the of Maintenance

More information

UNIT 3 Conditions supporting life

UNIT 3 Conditions supporting life Biology Form 4 Page 32 Ms. R. Buttigieg UNIT 3 Conditions supporting life In this unit we shall be seeing how an important condition that supports life is the ability of the organism to maintain a constant

More information

Chapter 19 The Urinary System Fluid and Electrolyte Balance

Chapter 19 The Urinary System Fluid and Electrolyte Balance Chapter 19 The Urinary System Fluid and Electrolyte Balance Chapter Outline The Concept of Balance Water Balance Sodium Balance Potassium Balance Calcium Balance Interactions between Fluid and Electrolyte

More information

Anatomical Considerations for Lab Practical II

Anatomical Considerations for Lab Practical II Anatomical Considerations for Lab Practical II For each of the following please be prepared to provide: Identification System Organ(s) or ducts to Function(s) location which it is attached Use your lecture

More information

Functional Renal Physiology and Urine Production

Functional Renal Physiology and Urine Production Functional Renal Physiology and Urine Production Urinalysis can provide insight into hydration status, renal function or dysfunction, systemic disease, and toxic insults. Accurate interpretation of urinalysis

More information

Biology Human Anatomy Abdominal and Pelvic Cavities

Biology Human Anatomy Abdominal and Pelvic Cavities Biology 351 - Human Anatomy Abdominal and Pelvic Cavities You must answer all questions on this exam. Because statistics demonstrate that, on average, between 2-5 questions on every 100-point exam are

More information

RENAL PHYSIOLOGY. Danil Hammoudi.MD

RENAL PHYSIOLOGY. Danil Hammoudi.MD RENAL PHYSIOLOGY Danil Hammoudi.MD Functions Regulating blood ionic composition Regulating blood ph Regulating blood volume Regulating blood pressure Produce calcitrol and erythropoietin Regulating blood

More information

METABOLIC WASTE TYPE OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS Dehydration synthesis & respiration

METABOLIC WASTE TYPE OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS Dehydration synthesis & respiration EXCRETION Introduction Humans must get rid of two types of wastes. Wastes from the digestive system (feces) and wastes from metabolic activities (sweat & urine). Removing digestive wastes (pooping) is

More information

Formation of Urine: Formation of Urine

Formation of Urine: Formation of Urine The Urinary outflow tract: monitors and regulates extra-cellular fluids excretes harmful substances in urine, including nitrogenous wastes (urea) returns useful substances to bloodstream maintain balance

More information

Excretion (IGCSE Biology Syllabus )

Excretion (IGCSE Biology Syllabus ) Excretion (IGCSE Biology Syllabus 2016-2018) Structure of the Kidney Excretion is the removal from organisms of toxic materials, the waste products of metabolism and substances in excess of requirements

More information

Lab 9 Abdomen MUSCLES

Lab 9 Abdomen MUSCLES Lab 9 Abdomen MUSCLES External abdominal oblique continuous with the external intercostal muscle; its fibers point in a caudal direction as it moves anteriorly until it inserts on the linea alba via its

More information

You will test a sample of the patient s urine to determine if her kidneys are functioning normally.

You will test a sample of the patient s urine to determine if her kidneys are functioning normally. STO-118 A Kidney Problem? The Case Ten years ago, your patient was diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes. She has been careless about following the treatment needed to keep her blood glucose levels regulated.

More information

Physio 12 -Summer 02 - Renal Physiology - Page 1

Physio 12 -Summer 02 - Renal Physiology - Page 1 Physiology 12 Kidney and Fluid regulation Guyton Ch 20, 21,22,23 Roles of the Kidney Regulation of body fluid osmolarity and electrolytes Regulation of acid-base balance (ph) Excretion of natural wastes

More information

The entire extent of the tubule is almost continuously necrotic.

The entire extent of the tubule is almost continuously necrotic. PLATE HGIC. TERMINAL MEDULLARY PORTION OF PROXIMAL CONVOLUTION LYING IN THE ZONE OF HEMORRHAGE The entire extent of the tubule is almost continuously necrotic. 180 PLATE HID The terminal medullary segment

More information

Introduction to The Human Body

Introduction to The Human Body 1 Introduction to The Human Body FOCUS: The human organism is often examined at seven structural levels: chemical, organelle, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, and the organism. Anatomy examines the structure

More information

Chapter 44. Regulating the Internal Environment. AP Biology

Chapter 44. Regulating the Internal Environment. AP Biology Chapter 44. Regulating the Internal Environment Homeostasis Living in the world organisms had a choice: regulate their internal environment maintain relatively constant internal conditions conform to the

More information

Respiratory & Digestive Organs of the Head and Neck, Human;

Respiratory & Digestive Organs of the Head and Neck, Human; Name Date Lab Exercise 5: Lab Exercise 6: Lab Exercise 7: Lab Exercise 8: Respiratory & Digestive Organs of the Head and Neck, Human; Histology of the Respiratory System Digestive System Models, Human

More information

Tissue: The Living Fabric: Part A

Tissue: The Living Fabric: Part A PowerPoint Lecture Slides prepared by Janice Meeking, Mount Royal College C H A P T E R 4 Tissue: The Living Fabric: Part A Tissues Groups of cells similar in structure and function Types of tissues Epithelial

More information

Nephritic vs. Nephrotic Syndrome

Nephritic vs. Nephrotic Syndrome Page 1 of 18 Nephritic vs. Nephrotic Syndrome Terminology: Glomerulus: A network of blood capillaries contained within the cuplike end (Bowman s capsule) of a nephron. Glomerular filtration rate: The rate

More information

Cell and Tissue Types. Epithelial, Connective, Muscle, Nerve

Cell and Tissue Types. Epithelial, Connective, Muscle, Nerve Cell and Tissue Types Epithelial, Connective, Muscle, Nerve Objectives Explain the major stages of the cell cycle and cellular division (mitosis). Describe specific events occurring in each of the phases

More information

Exercise. Digestive System. Digestive system function. 1. Define the following terms: a. Chemical digestionb. Mechanical digestionc.

Exercise. Digestive System. Digestive system function. 1. Define the following terms: a. Chemical digestionb. Mechanical digestionc. Exercise 7 The Digestive System NAME: DATE: INSTRUCTOR: SECTION: Digestive system function 1. Define the following terms: a. Chemical digestionb. Mechanical digestionc. Ingestiond. Digestione. Absorptionf.

More information

CHAPTER 05 Histology: EPITHELIUM

CHAPTER 05 Histology: EPITHELIUM BIO 211: ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY I 1 CHAPTER 05 Histology: EPITHELIUM Part 01: Brief Introduction Part 02: Survey of Types Dr. Lawrence G. G. Altman www.lawrencegaltman.com Some illustrations are courtesy

More information