Urinary system. Lab-7

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1 Urinary system Lab-7

2 Excretion: processes that remove wastes and excess materials from the body Urinary system (kidneys): excretes nitrogenous wastes, excess solutes, and water The Kidneys Regulate Water Levels

3 Homeostasis to maintain a steady state or internal body balance. To maintain homeostasis, Water Intake Water Output Kidneys adjust water output as necessary Water input: food, drink, metabolism Water output: lungs, skin, feces Kidneys modify output based on intake and loss Output varies from 1/2 to 1 liter/day

4 Organs of the Urinary System Kidneys (2) bean-shaped, fist-sized organ where urine is formed Ureters (2) small, muscular tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder Bladder (1) expandable organ that stores urine until it is expelled from the body Urethra (1) tube (longer in men than women) that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body

5 Overview of the urinary system.copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display renal artery renal vein 1. Kidneys produce urine. 2. Ureters transport urine. 3. Urinary bladder stores urine. 4. Urethra passes urine to outside.

6

7 Kidneys Main organ of urinary system, and has 3 regions:- Cortex: outer portion of the kidney Medulla: inner region of the kidney, cone-shaped tissue Renal pelvis: hollow space in center of kidney where urine collects Nephron: functional unit of the kidney

8 Anatomy of the kidney nephrons renal cortex renal pelvis collecting duct renal cortex ureter renal medulla renal pelvis Renal pyramid in renal medulla Nephrons

9 Cortex Kidney Renal artery Renal vein Nephrons Aorta Inferior vena cava Ureter Renal pelvis Bladder Ureter Cortex Medulla Medulla Collecting duct Urethra The components of the.urinary system Internal structure of the.kidney The cortex and medulla of the kidney are composed.of numerous nephrons

10 Nephrons Produce Urine Nephron: functional unit of the kidney Two functional parts: Tubule Associated blood supply 1 million nephrons per kidney Each nephron consists of a long thin hollow tube (tubule) plus associated blood supply Role of nephrons: remove approximately 180 liters of fluid from the blood daily, and return most of it, minus the wastes that are excreted

11 Distal tubule Efferent arteriole Glomerular capsule Glomerulus Proximal tubule Afferent arteriole Cortex Medulla Descending limb Ascending limb Loop of Henle Collecting duct Renal pelvis Nephron structure

12 The Kidneys Regulate Nitrogenous Wastes and Other Solutes NH3 (ammonia) is produced during breakdown of amino acids Liver detoxifies NH3, producing urea Urea is transported from liver to kidneys for disposal Other solutes regulated by kidneys Sodium, chloride, potassium, calcium, hydrogen ions, creatinine

13 Human Simple Cuboidal Epithelium Kidney Tubules Cross section Normal human kidney Examine human kidney cs under microscope**

14 Cross section in human kidney

15 kidney tissue stained with H&E

16

17 Urinary Bladder Cross Section of Urinary Bladder Examine human bladder** cs under microscope

18 Video : urinary system video

19 Exercise1. effect of certain substances on urine formation. Substane Excess salt Excess water Excess vegetebales Excess caffeine Amount of urine Form of urine

20 check urine: check ph with a procedure called a dipstick test, and also chemicals contents (like sugar, albumin ) that vary.according to the qualities of your urine the ph of human urine is a moderately acidic 5.5 to 6.5**

21 Exercise 2. Formation of urine The urine is the result (filtrate) of the processes inside the kidneys to clean the blood from metabolic wastes Urine sample Normal Abnormal ) color Specific gravity PH Glucose Protein ketone bilirubin nitrite blood disease(

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