1 FERTILITY & TCM On line course provided by Taught by Clara Cohen
2 FERTILITY & TCM FERTILITY AND TCM THE PRACTITIONER S ROLE CAUSES OF INFERTILITY RISK FACTORS OBJECTIVES UNDERSTANDING TESTS
3 Conception in TCM Future Mother: conception depends on good Blood & Essence, strong KD & LV & healthy Ren & Chong meridians. Future Father: conception depends on good Essence. Future parents: Conception occurs between mother, father & the warm fire of Ming Men.
4 Fertility in TCM The practitioner role Regulate the menses Always address the patient TCM patterns Regulate hormones: ask for test Support for IUI, IVF, egg donor... Nourish & move blood after the patient ceases the BCP Talk about lifestyle changes
5 Fertility in TCM The practitioner role Educate the patients The woman should keep track of her period dates and also her Basal Body Temperature which should drop a day before ovulation and be at its highest during the 2 ovulation days.
6 Fertility in TCM The practitioner role Educate the male patients Intercourse every second day is best. Sperm regenerate every 48 hours. Sperm lasts up to 5 days in the uterus.
7 Cause: Infertility The Western World Causes of female infertility Ovulation disorders, which hinder or prevent the ovaries from releasing eggs, such as polycystic ovary syndrome, excessive exercise, eating disorders, injury or tumors. Uterine or cervical abnormalities, including problems with the opening of the cervix or cervical mucus, or abnormalities in the shape or cavity of the uterus. Benign tumors in the wall of the uterus that are common in women (uterine fibroids) may interfere with implantation of the fertilized egg. Fallopian tube damage or blockage, which usually results from inflammation of the fallopian tube. This can result from pelvic inflammatory disease, usually caused by sexually transmitted infection, endometriosis or adhesions. Endometriosis, which occurs when endometrial tissue implants and grows outside of the uterus.
8 Cause: Infertility The Western World Causes of female infertility Primary ovarian insufficiency, also called early menopause, when the ovaries stop working and menstruation ends before age 40. Pelvic adhesions, bands of scar tissue that bind organs after pelvic infection, appendicitis, or abdominal or pelvic surgery. Thyroid problems. Cancer and its treatment. Certain cancers particularly female reproductive cancers often severely impair female fertility. Both radiation and chemotherapy may affect a woman's ability to reproduce. Other conditions, amenorrhea, celiac disease, Cushing's disease, sickle cell disease, kidney disease or diabetes, can affect a woman's fertility. Also genetic abnormalities can make conception and pregnancy less likely. Some medications.
9 Cause: Infertility The Western World Causes of male infertility Abnormal sperm production or function due to various problems, such as undescended testicles, genetic defects, health problems including diabetes, prior infections such as mumps, trauma or prior surgeries on the testicles or inguinal region. Enlarged veins in the testes can increase blood flow and heat, affecting the number and shape of sperm. Problems with the delivery of sperm due to sexual issues, such as premature ejaculation, semen entering the bladder instead of emerging through the penis during orgasm (retrograde ejaculation), certain genetic diseases, such as cystic fibrosis, structural problems, such as blockage of the part of the testicle that contains sperm (epididymis), or damage or injury to the reproductive organs. Overexposure to certain chemicals and toxins, such as pesticides, radiation, tobacco smoke, alcohol, marijuana, and steroids (including testosterone), heat, such as in saunas or hot tubs, can elevate the testicular temperature, impairing sperm production. Damage related to cancer and its treatment, including radiation or chemotherapy. Cancer treatment can impair sperm production, sometimes severely.
10 Cause: Infertility The TCM World Cold: affect Chong & Ren causing infertility, menses & post delivery problems. Heat: affect LV causing heavy menses, irregular uterine bleeding and miscarriage.
11 Cause: Infertility The TCM World Overwork & excessive exercise (especially during puberty, pregnancy & menses): weakens SP, LV & KD Diet: weaken SP & ST Traumatic injury: creates blood stasis Emotions: if not balance cause infertility, irregular menses, miscarriage TMCTCT Too many children too close together M
12 Fertility Risk Factors
13 Fertility Risk Factors Age. Infertility in older women may be due to the number and quality of eggs as they age, or to health problems that may interfere with fertility. Men over age 40 may be less fertile than younger men are.
14 Fertility Risk Factors Tobacco use. A couple's chance of achieving a pregnancy is reduced if either partner uses tobacco. Smoking also reduces the possible benefit of fertility treatment. Miscarriages are more frequent in women who smoke. Smoking can increase the risk of erectile dysfunction and low sperm count in men.
15 Fertility Risk Factors Alcohol use. For women, there's no safe level of alcohol use during conception or pregnancy. Alcohol use increases the risk of birth defects, and it may also make it more difficult to become pregnant. For men, heavy alcohol use can decrease sperm count and motility.
16 Fertility Risk Factors Being overweight. Among American women, an inactive lifestyle and being overweight may increase the risk of infertility. In addition, a man's sperm count and testosterone levels may be affected if he is overweight.
17 Fertility Risk Factors Being underweight. Women at risk of fertility problems include those with eating disorders, such as anorexia or bulimia, and women who follow a very low calorie or restrictive diet.
18 Fertility Risk Factors Exercise issues. Lack of or not enough exercise contributes to obesity, which increases the risk of infertility. Ovulation problems may be associated with frequent strenuous, intense exercise in women.
19 Fertility in TCM First Step Educate the patient on how long treatments need to be. It can, on an average take 3 months or more to get the results we want. Consistency is key! Determine what the objective is: natural conception, support for IUI, IVF, egg donor, or prevention of miscarriage. Then establish a treatment plan.
20 Fertility Second Step If the patient has been trying to conceive for 1year without success, testing is required. 6 month if the patient is over 35 yrs old.
21 Fertility in Women Understanding Tests Woman Day 3 and 21 FSH Progesterone Estradiol Prolactin
22 Fertility in Women Understanding Tests Day 3 - FSH Day 3 - Estradiol Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is the main hormone involved in producing mature eggs in the ovaries. Elevated estrogen level can "mask" the potential for detecting low ovarian reserve by suppressing FSH into the normal range. Anything above 11 is high and will require help! Anything above 200 on day 3 is considered an issue
23 Fertility in Women Understanding Tests Day 3 - Prolactin High level of Prolactin inhibits FSH secretion and can lead to irregular period or anovulation Strenuous exercise, lack of sleep, PCOS, Hypothyroidism, and some foods and medications (especially some anti-depressants and painkillers) can raise prolactin levels. Prolactin above 25 is considered high
24 Fertility in Women Understanding Tests Day 21- Progesterone Progesterone level will determine if ovulation has occurred 7 to 14 days prior Less than 3 - no ovulation Anything above 30 means ovulation has occurred and the corpus luteum is producing sufficient progesterone to induce adequate secretory changes in the endometrium to assist implantation. Between 3-30 means ovulation has occurred but the level is probably not adequate to sustain endometrial growth for satisfactory implantation.
25 Fertility in Men Understanding Tests Man Sperm Count Morphology Motility
26 AcuPro Academy is owned by Natural Health Sense Inc. Terms And Conditions Of Use All content provided on this online course is for informational purposes only. This on line video is not to be used as a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment of any health condition or problem. Users should not rely on information provided on this web site for their own health problems. Any questions regarding your own health should be addressed to your own physician or other health care provider. Natural Health Sense Inc. and AcuPro Academy make no warranties nor express or implied representations whatsoever regarding the accuracy, completeness, timeliness, comparative or controversial nature, or usefulness of any information contained or referenced on this online course; and does not assume any risk or liability whatsoever for your use of the information contained herein. Statements made about products (including herbal formulae) may have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration or Health Canada. Use of this web site does not create an expressed or implied physician-patient relationship. You are hereby advised to consult with a physician or other professional health-care provider prior to making any decisions, or undertaking any actions or not undertaking any actions related to any health care problem or issue you might have at any time, now or in the future. In using this web site you agree that neither acuproacademy.com, natural health sense inc., nor any other party is or will be liable or otherwise responsible for any decision made or any action taken or any action not taken due to your use of any information presented at this web site. The owner of acuproacademy.com will not be liable for any errors or omissions in this information nor for the availability of this information. Natural Health Sense Inc. will not be liable for any losses, injuries, or damages from the display or use of this information.this terms and conditions is subject to change at anytime with or without notice. AcuProAcademy.com 26
GYNECOLOGY & TCM PART 2 On line course provided by Taught by Clara Cohen 1 GYNECOLOGY & TCM CONCEPTION PREGNANCY MENOPAUSE CAUSES PREVENTION 2 Conception in TCM Future Mother: conception depends on good
On line course provided by Taught by Clara Cohen INTRODUCTION CAUSES SYMPTOMS TCM PATTERNS TREATMENTS NUTRITION TX OPTIONS The endometrial cells lining the uterus migrate to other parts of the body, such
GYNECOLOGY & TCM On line course provided by Taught by Clara Cohen 1 GYNECOLOGY & TCM INTRODUCTION WOMEN S PHYSIOLOGY MENSTRUATION CONCEPTION PREGNANCY MENOPAUSE CAUSES OF IMBALANCE PREVENTION 2 Physiology
On line course provided by Taught by Clara Cohen Causes: Weak Constitution/ Essence during the menses. No Pms except for being very tired around the Deficiency Pain at end of period Tired - Poor memory-
TCM CASE STUDY On line course provided by Taught by Clara Cohen Causes: Emotions Post Partum Deficiency Short scanty menses Tired - Poor memory Pale tongue - Weak thin pulse Deficiency Short scanty menses
Chris Davies & Greg Handley Contents Definition Epidemiology Aetiology Conditions for pregnancy Female Infertility Male Infertility Shared infertility Treatment Definition Failure of a couple to conceive
What to do about infertility? Dr. M.A. Fischer Section Head, Division of Urology, Department of Surgery Assistant Clinical Professor, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Hamilton Health Sciences, Hamilton,
Infertility Q: What is infertility? A: Infertility means not being able to get pregnant after one year of trying. Or, six months, if a woman is 35 or older. Women who can get pregnant but are unable to
Overview and Definition Infertility is defined as the inability of a couple to fall pregnant after one year of unprotected intercourse. Infertility is a very common condition as in any given year about
Global infertility panel Infertility testing Informations for patients Patient information Each of your body cells contains your genetic information called DNA. DNA carries all the information you need
hannamfertility.com The friendly guide to fertility Written by fertility doctors, translated for everyone. Visit FERTILITY.CA for more info Get busy. Just starting? Many women get pregnant the first month
Subfertility Infertility: failure to conceive within one year of unprotected regular sexual intercourse. Primary secondary Infertility affects about 15 % of couples. age of the female. Other factors that
Causes of Infertility and Treatment Options Dr Mrs.Kiran D. Sekhar Former vice President-FOGSI Former Chairperson- Genetics and Foetal medicine-fogsi Founder and Medical Director-Kiran Infertility centre
Date form completed: Infertility History Form Patient s name: _ Age: Date of Birth: Occupation: Partner s name: Age: Date of Birth: Occupation: Prior marriage: Yes No # Prior marriage: Yes No # Attempted
Published on: 8 Apr 2013 Intrauterine Insemination - FAQs Q. How Does Pregnancy Occur? A. The female reproductive system involves the uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes, cervix and vagina. The female hormones,
Patient Past Medical History A. Identifying Data Date this form when completed Your name Partner's name Age Birth date Height Weight Length of marriage (or relationship) How long have you been trying unsuccessfully
Reproduction Puberty stage of growth and development where males and females become capable of producing offspring. Time of physical and emotional changes. Female *occurs between ages 8 -- 15 *estrogen
What is infertility? Infertility means difficulty in becoming pregnant without using contraception. First you must understand what is needed for becoming pregnant? Ovum from the woman to combine with a
Fertility Talk. Exploring The Root Causes Of Infertility Kolawole Bisiriyu www.infertiltysolutionsng.info You can give away this book as a gift.you HAVE NO Right to edit the contents. Disclaimer Do not
Outline Male Reproductive System Testes and Sperm Hormonal Regulation Female Reproductive System Genital Tract Hormonal Levels Uterine Cycle Fertilization and Pregnancy Control of Reproduction Infertility
UW MEDICINE PATIENT EDUCATION What You Need to Know Facts about male infertility This handout explains what causes male infertility, how it is diagnosed, and possible treatments. Infertility is defined
Page 1 of 9 16 East 40 th St, 2 nd Fl, New York, NY 10016 Ph 212-679-2289 fax 212-679-2288 Please complete the following: Fertility Evaluation Name: Date of birth: Age: Partner s Name: Date of birth: Age:
Date: Mark: _/45 Chapter 14 Reproduction Review Assignment Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Use the diagram above to answer the next question.
Questionnaire for Women General Information Name Date Address Telephone Home _Work _ Cell Birth date Age _ Occupation Ethnic Background _ Height _ Weight _ Highest Education _ Partner s Name Marriage date
MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Which of the following hormones controls the release of anterior pituitary gonadotropins? A) LH
FACTSHEET FERTILITY INVESTIGATIONS Most people nowadays know enough about contraception to expect a pregnancy to occur reasonably soon after contraceptive precautions are stopped. If your own fertility
WHY INVESTIGATE FOR INFERTILITY Intrauterine Insemination 1 About this booklet This series of booklets has been developed and written with the support of leading fertility clinics across Australia, and
Male Infertility Understanding fertility in men Conceiving a baby depends on a number of factors, including healthy sperm. After a woman s age, this can be the biggest issue. Reproduction, although simple
ACT TRYING TO HAVE A BABY? YOUR STEP-BY-STEP GUIDE TO CONCEPTION THE ACT PATHWAY ACT HOW TO USE THE ACT PATHWAY BOOKLET Firstly: You are not alone. Up to 1 in 6 couples around the world will experience
Infertility Investigations Patient Information Author ID: PH Leaflet Number: Gyn 048 Version: 4 Name of Leaflet: Infertility Investigations Date Produced: March 2017 Review Date: March 2019 Please be aware
Facts About Folic Acid How much folic acid a woman needs 400 micrograms (mcg) every day. When to start taking folic acid For folic acid to help prevent major birth defects, a woman needs to start taking
COMMON QUESTIONS ABOUT ACUPUNCTURE & NATUROPATHIC MEDICINE IN IMPROVING FERTILITY How does acupuncture influence the female reproductive system? Acupuncture has been reported to promote the circulation
Female Reproductive Physiology Dr Raelia Lew CREI, FRANZCOG, PhD, MMed, MBBS Fertility Specialist, Melbourne IVF REFERENCE Lew, R, Natural History of ovarian function including assessment of ovarian reserve
Reproduction and Development Female Reproductive System Outcomes 5. Identify the structures in the human female reproductive system and describe their functions. Ovaries, Fallopian tubes, Uterus, Endometrium,
Fertility Apps Do not Help You Get pregnant Fertility Apps Do not Help You Get pregnant Beyond Regular Intercourse Many women use fertility apps to track their menstrual cycle and time intercourse. Tracking
UNIT FIVE: PUBERTY HiTOPS, Inc./Princeton Center for Leadership Training OVERVIEW PUBERTY PRE-TESTS Outline PUBERTY WITH SAM AND SALLY MENSTRUATION: HOW DOES IT WORK? SPERMATOGENESIS: HOW DOES IT WORK?
Top 5 Fertility Secrets Revealed by Melinda Stevens Brought to you by http://www.pregnancy-online.info All rights reserved, 2007. Copyright 2007, Pregnancy-Online.info 2 Hi, thanks for downloading my free
Biology of fertility control Higher Human Biology Learning Intention Compare fertile periods in females and males What is infertility? Infertility is the inability of a sexually active, non-contracepting
UTERINE LEIOMYOSARCOMA Uterine Lms, Ulms Or Just Lms Rare uterine malignant tumour that arises from the smooth muscular part of the uterine wall. Diagnosis Female About Uterine leiomyosarcoma Uterine LMS
Initial Workup of Infertile Couple: Female Neil Goodman, MD, FACE Professor of Medicine Voluntary Faculty University of Miami Miller School of Medicine Scope of Infertility in the United States Affects
Puberty is characterized by the changes that prepare the human body for the ability to reproduce. This stage generally occurs between the ages of 10 and 14 years old. The beginning of puberty is marked
Reproductive Endocrinology & Infertility Glossary The following is a glossary of terms you may hear during your association with the University of Mississippi Health Care's reproductive endocrinology and
What are the main functions of the male reproductive system? 1. Produce sperm 2. Deposit sperm into the female 3. Provide a pathway for the removal of urine Where is sperm produced? -In the 2 testes What
10.7 The Reproductive Hormones December 10, 2013. Website survey?? QUESTION: Who is more complicated: men or women? The Female Reproductive System ovaries: produce gametes (eggs) produce estrogen (steroid
INFERTILITY Infertility is the inability to conceive after 12 months of unprotected intercourse. There are multiple causes of infertility and a systematic way to evaluate the condition. Let s look at some
NEW PATIENT CONSULTATION CLINICAL QUESTIONNAIRE 1 M a k i n g t he w o r l d s m os t b ea u t if u l c o n ne c t i o ns. Please complete this questionnaire and bring to your appointment. Feel free to
Infertility FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE I HAVE NO FINANCIAL INTEREST IN ANY OF THE PRODUCTS MENTIONED IN MY PRESENTATION Bryan K. Rone, M.D. University of Kentucky Obstetrics and Gynecology I AM RECEIVING COMPENSATION
Reproductive system Presented by: Ms. Priya Reproductive system Female reproductive system has two functions: produce egg cells to protect and nourish the offspring (baby) until birth. Male reproductive
The Male Reproductive System Male Reproductive System The male sex cell is a sperm cell The whole purpose is to produce and deliver sperm to the egg Structure of a Human Sperm Cell Streamlined, built to
Female and Male Reproductive Systems Reproductive System: Organs that make possible the production of offspring. Female Reproductive System Female Reproductive System: Words to be familiar with ESTROGEN
Hormonal Control of Human Reproduction Bởi: OpenStaxCollege The human male and female reproductive cycles are controlled by the interaction of hormones from the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary with
Endocrine and Reproductive Systems Chapter 39: Biology II The Endocrine System Made up of glands that release their products into the bloodstream These products broadcast messages throughout the body Chemicals
Fertility assessment and assisted conception Dr Geetha Venkat MD FRCOG Director Pulse Learning Women s health 14 September 2016 Disclosure statement Dr Venkat is a director of Harley Street Fertility Clinic.
Information Booklet Exploring the causes of infertility and treatment options www.ptafertility.co.za firstname.lastname@example.org +27 12 998 8854 Faith is taking the first step even if you don t see the whole
NaProTechnology An Integrated Approach to Infertility Tracy Parnell Geneva 2005 Outline Scientific foundations Illustrative case history Research Discussion and questions NPT Natural Procreative Technology(NPT)
Unit 6 REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Reproductive System Test Bank Objective 6.01 Describe the basic functions of the reproductive system. 1. Which of the following is a function of the reproductive system? a. Production
EVALUATING THE INFERTILE PATIENT-COUPLES Stephen Thorn, MD Overview The field of reproductive medicine continues to evolve rapidly by offering newer diagnostic testing and therapeutic options to improve
OVARIAN CYCLE An ovary contains many follicles, and each one contains an immature egg called an oocyte. A female is born with as many as 2 million follicles, but the number is reduced to 300,000 to 400,000
Bio 12- Ch. 21: Reproductive System 21.1- Male Reproductive System o Male anatomy o Testes and how they relate to sperm production and male sex hormones o Hormone regulation in males 21.2- Female Reproductive
differentiate. The epididymis is a coiled tube found along the outer edge of the testis where the sperm mature. 3. Testosterone is a male sex hormone produced in the interstitial cells of the testes. It
Subfertility B Y A L I S O N, B E N A N D J O H N Contents Definition Causes Male Female Hx & Ex Investigations Treatment Definition Failure to conceive after a year of frequent, unprotected communion.
Female Consultation Questionnaire In order to schedule a consultation with the doctor, an overview of your medical history along with a copy of your medical records are requested. Dr. Zouves will review
Chapter 28: REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM: MALE I. FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY (Fig. 28.1) A. Testes: glands which produce male gametes, as well as glands producing testosterone 2. Seminiferous tubules (Fig.28.3; 28.5) a.
NHS Birmingham and Solihull Clinical Commissioning Group NHS Sandwell and West Birmingham Clinical Commissioning Group DRAFT Policy for Assisted Conception 1 Document Details: Version: DRAFT v7. Ratified
2 - male hormones/ female system May 7, 2012 5:08 PM I) Testosterone: main androgen (male sex hormone) A) Intro to Testosterone: -steroid hormone produced by interstitial cells in testes -produced in response
INFERTILITY 馬 Giovanni Maciocia 萬 里 INFERTILITY Infertility is defined as the inability to produce offspring in a woman who has been trying for two years with a normal sexual life and, of course, the reproductive
CASE 41 A 19-year-old woman presents to her gynecologist with complaints of not having had a period for 6 months. She reports having normal periods since menarche at age 12. She denies sexual activity,
Biology 12 Name: Reproductive System Per: Date: Chapter 14 The Reproductive System Complete using BC Biology 12, page 436-467 14. 1 Male Reproductive System pages 440-443 1. Distinguish between gametes
Fertility in the 21 st Century Dr Leigh Searle Fertility Specialist, Obstetrician, Gynaecologist FRANZCOG, PGDipOMG, MBChB Dr Kate Van Harselaar Fertility Specialist, Obstetrician and Gynaecologist Overview
NEW PATIENT DATA SHEET Please complete as best you can. It is not necessary to have all information before speaking with a doctor. PATIENT INFORMATION PATIENT NAME DOB AGE PARTNER NAME DOB AGE STREET CITY
Urinary System Chapter 16 1 Urology- the branch of medicine that treats male and female urinary systems as well as the male reproductive system. Nephrology- the scientific study of the anatomy, physiology,
Optimizing Fertility and Wellness After Cancer Kat Lin, MD, MSCE University Reproductive Care University of Washington Nov. 6, 2010 Optimism in Numbers 5-year survival rate 78% for all childhood cancers
Unit 7B STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF THE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1. Learn the structures of the female reproductive tract. 2. Learn the functions of the female reproductive tract. 3.
Sample Provincial exam Q s: Reproduction 11. Functions Testosterone Makes the male sex organs function normally, and also inhibits hypothalamus s release of GnRH and thus LH & FSH and thus testosterone
AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE INFERTILITY: AN OVERVIEW A Guide for Patients PATIENT INFORMATION SERIES Published by the American Society for Reproductive Medicine under the direction of the
FACT SHEET Overview of infertility If getting pregnant has been a challenge for you and your partner, you're not alone. Ten to 15 percent of couples in the Lithuania are infertile. Infertility is defined
Sperm production Ductus deferens Epididymis The cells of Leydig in testes secrete Seminiferous testosterone (T) tubules T secreted at puberty produces 2 o sex characteristics, spermatogenesis, & maintain
Ductus deferens Sperm production Epididymis The cells of Leydig in testes secrete Seminiferous testosterone (T) tubules T secreted at puberty produces 2 o sex characteristics, spermatogenesis, & maintain
FERTILITY CHARTING YOUR GUIDE TO BASAL BODY TEMPERATURE CHARTING FOR CONCEPTION BY KIM GATENBY BBT CHARTING Basal Body Temperature (BBT) charting is a fantastic diagnostic tool that I recommend most women
Your Monthly Update Dear Colleague Welcome to the December 2010 newsletter from Pure Bio Ltd. Office Hours over the Christmas Period: Please note that the office will be open at the following times during
Cynthia Morris DO, FACOOG, FACOS Medical Director, Women s Wellness Center Fayette County Memorial Hospital Touchdown to CME Eighth District Academy of Osteopathic Medicine & Surgery October 8. 2017 Goals
Unit 8: Human Sexuality Adolescence is the time when young people go through the, emotional, and social changes that end in adulthood. refers to the physical changes that occur during adolescence. During
Center for Reproductive Medicine Advanced Reproductive Technologies www.ivfminnesota.com Recessive Disease Screening Recessive conditions are conditions that result from two recessive genes being passed
Clinical evaluation of infertility DR. FARIBA KHANIPOUYANI OBSTETRICIAN & GYNECOLOGIST PRENATOLOGIST Definition: inability to achieve conception despite one year of frequent unprotected intercourse. Male
9.4 Regulating the Reproductive System The Reproductive System to unite a single reproductive cell from a female with a single reproductive cell from a male Both male and female reproductive systems include
Assisted Reproduction By Dr. Afraa Mahjoob Al-Naddawi Learning Objectives: By the end of this lecture, you will be able to: 1) Define assisted reproductive techniques (ART). 2) List indications for various