Urinary System Chapter 16

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1 Urinary System Chapter 16 1

2 Urology- the branch of medicine that treats male and female urinary systems as well as the male reproductive system. Nephrology- the scientific study of the anatomy, physiology, and pathology of the kidney. 2

3 Major Functions of the Urinary System Filter waste and excess material from the blood. Regulate blood volume and composition. Help regulate blood pressure. Store urine. Discharge urine. 3

4 Urinary Organs Kidney Ureter Urinary bladder Urethra 4

5 Renal cortex Renal artery Renal vein Ureter Renal cortex Renal medulla Renal medulla Nephrons Renal pelvis 5

6 The kidney consists of ~ 1 million nephrons Nephrons- the functional unit of the kidney. Nephrons form urine. Nephrons consist of 2 parts along with a surrounding capillary network. Renal corpuscle Renal tubule 6

7 Bowman s capsule Efferent arteriole Afferent arteriole Renal artery Renal vein Nephron Anatomy Glomerulus Proximal convoluted tubule Distal convoluted tubule Peritubular capillary network Loop of Henle Collecting duct Renal pelvis 7

8 Renal Corpuscle- part 1 of the Nephron 1) Renal Corpuscle- site where fluid (blood) is filtered. Water, glucose, amino acids, urea, uric acid, and salts move from the glomerulus through a filter to Bowman s space. Glomerulus- a cluster of capillaries. Bowman s Capsule- cuplike structure that surrounds the glomerulus. 8

9 Renal Corpuscle Bowman s capsule Bowman s space Glomerulus Afferent arteriole Proximal convoluted tubule Efferent arteriole Pore Basal lamina Slit membrane 9

10 Renal Tubules- part 2 of the Nephron 2) Renal Tubules- site of absorption and secretion. Proximal convoluted tubule Water, glucose, amino acids, and salts are absorbed from the proximal convoluted tubule by the peritubular capillary network. Loop of Henle At this site water and salts are absorbed by the peritubular capillary network. Distal convoluted tubule At this site water and salts are further absorbed by the peritubular convoluted tubule. Drugs and hydrogen ions, secreted from the peritubular capillary network, are absorbed. 10

11 Note- water is absorbed in the collecting ducts. Renal pelvis 11

12 Urinary Bladder Anatomy Hollow muscular organ. Situated at the base of the pelvic cavity. Capacity average= ml. Smaller in females because the uterus occupies the space just superior to the bladder. Rugae (folds) are present. Function- store urine. 12

13 Urination The bladder fills with urine. Nerve impulses are sent to the spinal cord and then the brain. Motor nerve impulses are returned and signal the bladder to contract and the sphincters to open. 13

14 Hormones increase water concentration in the blood. Reabsorption of water- 48 gallons of filtrate enters Bowman s space each day, ~47.5 is returned to the blood. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and Aldosterone cause water to be absorbed into the peritubular capillary network. 14

15 Diuretics decrease water concentration in the blood. Diuretics- chemicals that increase the flow of urine. Alcohol inhibits the secretion of ADH (antidiuretic hormone). Caffeine increases glomerular filtration rate and decreases absorption of sodium. 15

16 Maintaining Salt Balance Absorption of Salt- >99% of the sodium filtered at the glomerulus is returned to the blood. Atrial natriuretic hormone (ANH)- a hormone secreted by the heart atria that promotes sodium excretion. Aldosterone- a hormone secreted by the adrenal glands that promotes sodium absorption. 16

17 17

18 Reproductive System Chapter 17 18

19 Early Developmental Anatomy 19

20 Male Reproductive System Testes- the male gonads, they produce sperm (spermatogenesis) and sex hormones. Epididymis- ducts where sperm mature and some are stored. Vas deferens- conduct and store sperm. Seminal vesicles- secrete fructose, citric acid, amino acids, and prostaglandins. Prostate gland- secrete alkaline fluid that activates the sperm. Bulbourethral glands- secrete clear and slippery fluid into semen. Urethra- tubular structure that expels sperm. Vas deferens Scrotum Tail of epididymis Head and body of epididymis Rete testis Seminiferous tubule 20

21 Male Reproductive System Prostatic urethra Spongy urethra Membranous urethra 21

22 Posterior View 22

23

24

25 Semen and Sperm Semen- mixture of sperm & seminal fluid (60% seminal vesicles, 25% prostate, and a ~1% from the bulbourethral). Slightly alkaline ( ph). Typical ejaculate is 2.5 to 5 ml in volume. Normal sperm count is 50 to 150 million/ml. 25

26 Erection and Ejaculation Erection Sexual stimulation dilates the arteries supplying the penis. Blood enters the penis compressing the veins and traps the blood. Ejaculation Muscle contractions close sphincter at the base of the bladder and move fluids through vas deferens. Once the semen is in the urethra, rhythmic muscle contractions expel it. 26

27 Hormonal Control of Testes Gonadotropin-releasing hormone Luteinizing hormone Follicle-stimulating hormone 27

28 Female Reproductive System Ovaries- the female gonads, produce eggs (oogenesis) and sex hormones. Oviducts- fallopian tubes, transport eggs (oocytes) to uterus by cilia that line the tubes. Uterus- receives and nourishes the embryo. Uterine wall- muscle layer that stretches to accommodate the developing baby; contracts during childbirth. Endometrium- lining of the uterus, built up and lost each month. Cervix- opening to uterus. Vagina- receives penis during sexual intercourse; serves as birth canal and as an exit for menstrual flow. Clitoris- contributes to sexual arousal. Mammary glands- milk production and ejection. 28

29 Mammary Glands Modified sweat glands that produce milk (lactation) Amount of adipose determines size of breast. Milk-secreting glands open by lactiferous ducts at the nipple. Areola is pigmented area around nipple. Suspensory ligaments suspend breast from deep fascia of pectoral muscles. 29

30

31 Female Reproductive System 31

32

33 Lining of the Uterine Tubes 33

34 Hormonal Concentrations 34

35 Ovarian Cycle Development of a vesicular follicle, ovulation, and development of corpus luteum, 28 day cycle. Under control of FSH and LH. Follicular Phase- FSH promotes development of a follicle. Luteal Phase- LH promotes development of corpus luteum. 35

36 Hormonal Control of Ovaries Gonadotropin-releasing hormone 36

37 37

38 Uterine Cycle Twenty-eight day cycle. Days 1-5= Menstruation Days 6-13= Proliferative phase Day 14= Ovulation Days 15-28= Secretory phase Controlled by estrogen and progesterone. During menopause, usually between age 45 and 55 the uterine cycle ceases, and the ovaries no longer produce estrogen and progesterone. 38

39 FSH stimulates development of follicles. LH surge triggers ovulation & corpus luteum formation. Follicle cells secrete estrogen. Estrogen & progesterone stimulate development of endometrium. Corpus luteum in ovary secretes estrogen & progesterone.

40 Infertility Infertility is defined as the failure of a couple to achieve pregnancy after one year of regular, unprotected intercourse. Estimated 15% of all couples. Female causes, 40%. Blocked oviducts. Endometriosis- presence of uterine tissue outside the uterus. Male causes, 40%. Low sperm count. Sperm abnormalities. 40

41 From Fertilization to Implantation 41

42 42

43 43

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