Basic Histology. By Mrs. Bailey

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1 Basic Histology By Mrs. Bailey

2 Primary Tissues 1. Epithelial Tissue 2. Connective Tissue 3. Muscle Tissue 4. Nervous Tissue

3 Very cellular Supported by underlying connective tissue Epithelial & connective tissue are separated by a basement membrane, which is produced by both tissues. Packed together tightly & orderly. Tight junctions may occur between cells. Avascular. Receives its nutrients by diffusion from the underlying connective tissue. Two types: a. Covering/Lining b. Glandular Epithelium

4 Covering/Lining Epithelium Faces a space such as the lumen of a blood vessel or intestine. Apical surface = adjacent to lumen Basal surface = adjacent to basement membrane Hint: These surfaces are places, not things. Mucous membranes - line organs and cavities - secretion of mucous from glands Serous membranes - cover and protect organs

5 Glandular Epithelium a. Exocrine b. Endocrine secretions enter ducts secretions enter bloodstream

6 Epithelial Tissue Types Layers : Simple - single layer provides a selective barrier allowing diffusion, filtration, secretion, and absorption. Stratified - several layers subject to wear and tear forms a protective barrier. Pseudostratified appears to be several layers, but is actually only a single layer.

7 Shapes Squamous - flattened Cuboidal - cube Columnar - cylindrical Transitional change shape They are rounder when the tissue is relaxed and flatter when the tissue is stretched. NOTE: When viewed from the apical surface, all epithelial cells have a similar shape.

8 Types of Epithelial Tissue

9 Simple SQUAMOUS Epithelium Epithelial lining of an blood vessel.

10 Simple SQUAMOUS Epithelium Refer to page 127 Epithelial lining of an alveolus.

11 Simple SQUAMOUS Epithelium Epithelial lining of an alveolus.

12 Simple SQUAMOUS Epithelium (1) Outer layer of Bowman's capsule (yellow arrows) (2) Inner layer of Bowman's capsule (red arrows) (3) Capillary endothelial cells (purple arrows)

13 Simple SQUAMOUS Epithelium Our microscope slide

14 Simple CUBOIDAL Epithelium Refer to page 128 Ovary Surface

15 Simple CUBOIDAL Epithelium Collecting tubules of Kidney

16 Simple CUBOIDAL Epithelium What would this area be called?

17 Simple CUBOIDAL Epithelium Our microscope slide

18 Simple COLUMNAR Epithelium Refer to page 129

19 Simple COLUMNAR Epithelium Microvilli

20 Simple COLUMNAR Epithelium

21 Simple COLUMNAR Epithelium Gall bladder

22 Intestine - Villus Goblet cell

23 Simple COLUMNAR Epithelium Our microscope slide

24 Simple COLUMNAR Epithelium Name those parts! 5

25 Stratified Squamous Epithelium Cheek cells

26 Stratified Squamous Epithelium NON-keratinized Refer to page 130

27 Stratified Squamous Epithelium Waterproof! Keratinized

28 Stratified Squamous Epithelium NON-keratinized Our microscope slide

29 Transitional Epithelium Urinary Bladder Refer to page 131

30 Transitional Epithelium

31 Transitional Epithelium Our microscope slide

32 Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar Epithelium Respiratory Tract All of the cells are in contact with the basement membrane, but not all of them reach the surface. The cells that do reach the surface are either Refer to ciliated or goblet cells (mucus-secreting cells). page 131

33

34 Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar Epithelium

35 Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar Epithelium Our microscope slide

36 Connective Tissue Most abundant tissue in the body. Supports epithelial tissue and connects it to other tissues. Provides coverings that support and protect muscle and nervous tissue. Most are not very cellular, usually containing more matrix than cells. Most are vascular and regenerate easily. EXCEPTIONS: Tendons poorly vascularized; do NOT heal easily Cartilage avascular - does NOT heal easily Cells: Fibroblasts, Macrophage, Plasma cells, Mast cells, Adipocytes, WBC's

37 Connective Tissue Matrix Ground substance + Fibers (Composition is used in classifying connective tissue) Ground Substance = polysaccharides + proteins Fibers: Collagen - most abundant protein in body Elastic fibers - stretchable (in skin, BV, lungs) Reticular fibers - support and strength

38

39 Types of Connective Tissue Loose Dense Cartilage Bone Blood

40 Loose Connective Tissue Fibers are loosely arranged. Collagen, elastic, and reticular fibers provide strength, elasticity, and support. Fibroblasts and adipocytes permanently reside here. Subcutaneous layer of skin. Areolar Reticular Adipose

41 Areolar Connective Tissue Refer to page 136 Fibroblast nucleus Mast cell Elastic fiber Collagen fiber Ground substance

42

43 Areolar Connective Tissue Our microscope slide

44 Reticular Connective Tissue Reticular fiber Ground substance Nucleus of Reticulocyte Refer to page 138

45 Now you try.

46 Reticular Connective Tissue Our microscope slide

47 Adipose Tissue Refer to page 137

48 Now you try.

49 Our microscope slide Adipose Tissue

50 Dense Connective Tissue Matrix is packed with fibers and contains very little ground substance and few fibroblasts. Tendons, Ligaments, Skin dermis, Artery wall Dense Regular Dense Irregular Dense Regular Elastic

51 Dense Regular Connective Tissue Tendon Refer to page 139

52 Now you try.

53 Dense Regular Connective Tissue Our microscope slide

54 Dense Irregular Connective Tissue Skin Dermis Refer to page 139

55 Now you try.

56 Dense Regular Elastic Connective Tissue Wall of Artery; Ligament Elastic fiber Collagen bundles Fibroblast nucleus

57 Now you try. HINT: This is an ARTERY, which contains dense regular elastic CT. Peach outlines? Blue arrows? Green arrow? Grey block arrow? Yellow block arrow?

58 Cartilage Contains cells called chondrocytes housed in spaces called "lacunae". Some lacunae contain more than one chondrocyte... these are daughter cells formed after division. Hyaline - ends of bone; support rings of respiratory tubes Elastic elastin fibers; epiglottis; nose Fibrocartilage - much collagen; intervertebral discs

59 Hyaline Cartilage Refer to page 140

60 Now you try

61 Hyaline Cartilage Our microscope slide

62 Elastic Cartilage Refer to page 141

63 Elastic Cartilage Our microscope slide

64 Fibrocartilage Refer to page 141

65

66 Fibrocartilage Our microscope slide

67 Bone Dense - middle portion (osteon); Spongy ends (trabeculae) Bone tissue is unlike other connective tissues in that the extracellular matrix becomes calcified. Lamellae layers of matrix; concentric = within osteons; interstitial = in between osteons. Contains cells called osteocytes housed in lacunae.

68 Bone Haversian Canal - extends the length of each osteon through its center; contains blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves. Volkmann s Canals connect Haversian canals to each other; communication; contain nerves and vessels that carry blood and lymph from the exterior bone surface to the osteons. Canaliculi tiny canals radiating in all directions from the lacunae and connecting them to each other as well as to the Haversian canal.

69 Bone Osteon Volkmann s canals Concentric lamellae Interstitial lamellae Haversian canal Lacunae Refer to page 140

70 Canaliculi

71 Now you try What do you refer to each of the larger circles?

72 Our microscope slide Bone

73 Blood Platelets White blood cells (Leukocytes) Red blood cells (Erythrocytes) Refer to page 142 Plasma matrix

74

75 Our microscope slide Blood

76 Muscle Tissue Contains muscle cells and connective tissue. Thin layers of connective tissue surround muscle cells to protect and support them. Very cellular. Muscle cells = muscle fibers. Fibers contain many microfilaments (myofilaments) - cause muscle cells to shorten (contract) when stimulated. Skeletal (striated; voluntary; multinucleated cells) Cardiac (striated; involuntary; multinucleated cells; branching cells; intercalated disks) Smooth (non-striated; involuntary; uninucleated cells; tapered cells)

77 Muscle Tissue - Skeletal Refer to page 144

78 Muscle Tissue - Skeletal Our microscope slide

79 Muscle Tissue - Smooth Refer to page 144

80 Muscle Tissue - Smooth Similar to our microscope slide

81 Muscle Tissue - Cardiac Refer to page 145

82

83

84 Muscle Tissue - Cardiac Our microscope slide

85 Nervous Tissue Forms the brain, spinal cord, and nerves. Two basic categories of nervous tissue cells: a. Neurons receive and send information; amitotic REVIEW: axon, dendrite, cell body b. Neuroglial cells support the neurons; divide and replace themselves Highly vascularized

86 Glial cells Refer to page 146

87 Nervous Tissue Our microscope slide

88 Nervous Tissue Our microscope slide

89 Now you try &2 3. 3

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