2 Nutrients The food you eat is a source of nutrients. Nutrients are defined as the substances found in food that keep your body functioning. Your body needs nutrients to 2 Fuel your energy. Help you grow. Repair itself. Maintain basic bodily functions.
3 Balance is Key For years, people held to the idea that there are bad nutrients and good nutrients when, in fact, all nutrients play a certain role in the body. Even those nutrients once considered bad such as fats and carbohydrates perform vital functions in the body and if one consumes too many good nutrients such as vitamins or minerals there can be harmful results, as well. These three are the framework of the Food Guide Pyramid: Balance - Eat foods from all groups of the Food Guide Pyramid. Variety - Eat different foods from each food group. Moderation - Eat more foods from the bottom of the pyramid, and fewer and smaller portions of foods from the top of the pyramid. 3
4 The 6 Essential Nutrients 4 Water Carbohydrates Protein Fat Vitamins Minerals
5 Water Did you know? 1/2 to 3/4 of the human body consists of water! Functions in the Body: Water carries nutrients to your cells and carries waste from your body. Regulates body temperature. Dissolves vitamins, minerals, amino acids and other nutrients. Lubricates joints. It is recommended that teens drink 6-8 glasses (8 fl.oz each) of water each day. This is in addition to around 4 cups of water you get from food each day. 5
6 Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are the body s main source of energy and provide the body s need for dietary fiber. Food Sources: Two types of Carbohydrates: 6 Pasta, breads, cereals, grains, rice, fruits, milk, yogurt and sweets. Starches or Complex Carbohydrates Simple Carbohydrates
7 Simple Carbohydrates Food Sources: Fruits, juices, milk, and yogurt. Candy, soda, and jelly. 7 These simple carbohydrates have a bad reputation because they are high in calories and low in nutritional value.
8 Starches or Complex Carbohydrates Food Sources: Function in the Body: 8 Whole grain breads and cereals, pasta, vegetables, rice, tortilla and legumes. An excellent source of fuel (energy) for the body. Rich in vitamins, minerals and fiber.
9 Fiber Fiber is the plant material that doesn t break down when you digest food. Many, but not all, complex carbohydrates contain fiber. Food Sources: Function in the Body: 9 Oatmeal, fruits, vegetables, whole grains and legumes. Aids in digestion. May reduce the risk of developing some diseases like heart disease, diabetes and obesity, and certain types of cancer. Helps promote regularity.
10 Proteins Food Sources: Function in the Body: 10 Meat, fish,eggs, poultry, dairy products, legumes, nuts and seeds. (Breads, cereals and vegetables also contain small amounts of protein.) Provides energy. Help to build, maintain, and repair body tissues. Proteins are made up of chemical compounds called amino acids. There are 20 amino acids.
11 Amino Acids Of the 20 amino acids, the human body is capable of producing 11 of them. The other 9 called, Essential Amino Acids must be supplied by food sources. Two types of Protein: Complete Proteins: Contain all 9 essential amino acids. They are found in animal sources. Incomplete Proteins: Lack one or more of the essential amino acids. They are found in plant sources. The best way to give the body complete proteins is to eat a wide 11 variety of foods throughout the day.
12 Fat - The most concentrated form of food energy (calories). Food Sources: Function in the Body: 12 Butter, vegetable oils, salad dressings, nuts and seeds, dairy products made with whole milk or cream, and meats. Provide substances needed for growth and healthy skin. Enhance the taste and texture of food. Required to carry fat-soluble vitamins throughout the body. Provide energy.
13 Types of Fat Saturated Fat: Fats that are usually solid at room temperature. Food Sources: Animal foods and tropical oils. The type of fat most strongly linked to high cholesterol and increased risk of heart disease. Unsaturated Fat: Fats that are liquid at room temperature. Polyunsaturated Fat: Monounsaturated Fat: 13 Food Sources: Vegetables and fish oils. Provide two essential fatty acids necessary for bodily functions. Food Sources: Olive oil, canola oil, nuts, seeds. May play a role in reducing the risk of heart disease.
14 Cholesterol - A fat-like substance that is part of every cell of the body. Function in the Body: Helps the body make necessary cells including skin, and hormones. Aids in digestion. The human body manufactures all the cholesterol it needs. You also get cholesterol from animal food products you eat. When cholesterol levels are high there is a greater risk for heart disease. Do you know what the healthy cholesterol range is for teens your age? 14
15 Vitamins Food Sources: Unlike carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, vitamins DO NOT provide energy (calories). Function in the Body: 15 Fruits, vegetables, milk, whole-grain breads, cereals and legumes. Help regulate the many chemical processes in the body. There are 13 different vitamins known to be required each day for good health. Vitamins are separated into two types: Fat Soluble & Water Soluble Vitamins.
16 Fat/Water Soluble Vitamins Fat Soluble Vitamins Water Soluble Vitamins 16 Vitamins A, D, E, K Require fat for the stomach to allow them to be carried into the blood stream for use (absorption). Can be stored in the body for later use. Vitamins C and B-complex Require water for absorption. Easily absorbed and passed through the body as waste.
17 Vitamin A Food Sources: Function in the Body: 17 Dark green, leafy vegetables, deep yellow and orange fruits and vegetables, liver, milk, cheese, and eggs. Helps keep skin and hair healthy. Aids in night vision. Plays a role in developing strong bones and teeth.
18 Vitamin D Food Sources: Function in the Body: 18 Vitamin D fortified milk, egg yolk, salmon, and liver. Nonfood Source: the sun. Helps the body use calcium and phosphorus. Plays a role in building strong bones and teeth.
19 Vitamin E Food Sources: Function in the Body: 19 Whole-grain breads and cereals; dark green, leafy vegetables; dry beans and peas; nuts and seeds; vegetable oils; margarine; liver. Helps form red blood cells, muscles, and other tissues.
20 Vitamin K Food Sources: Function in the Body: 20 Dark green and leafy vegetables (such as spinach, lettuce, kale, collard greens), and cabbage. Helps blood to clot.
21 Vitamin B-complex Food Sources: Function in the Body: 21 Whole grain and enriched breads and cereals; dry bean and peas; peanut butter; nuts; meat; poultry; fish; eggs; milk. Helps the body use the energy from the foods we eat. Helps brain, nerves, and muscles function.
22 Vitamin C Food Sources: Function in the Body: 22 Citrus fruits, strawberries, kiwi, broccoli, tomatoes, and potatoes. Helps heal wounds. Helps maintain healthy bones, teeth, and blood vessels. Helps body fight infection.
23 Minerals Food Sources: Functions in the Body: 23 Meats, beans, nuts, fruits, vegetables, dairy products, and grains. The body depends on minerals for practically every process necessary for life. Minerals actually become part of the body. The body requires 16 minerals daily.
24 Minerals Calcium Phosphorus Magnesium Sodium Potassium Iron Others include: 24 Iodine, Zinc, Copper, Sulfur, Chloride, etc.
25 Calcium & Phosphorus Food Sources: Function in the Body: 25 Dairy Products: milk, cheese, ice cream, green leafy vegetables, canned sardines and other processed fish eaten with bones. Helps build and maintain healthy bones and teeth. Helps heart, nerves, and muscles work properly. Deficiency (lack) of calcium & phosphorus leads to osteoporosis.
26 Iron Food sources Function in the Body: 26 Liver, kidney, heart, meat, egg yolk, dried beans and peas, spinach, dried fruit, whole-grain & enriched breads & cereals, nuts. Helps make hemoglobin in red blood cells. Helps cells used oxygen. Deficiency (lack) of iron leads to anemia.
27 Sodium Food sources 27 Processed & prepared foods. Canned vegetables, soups, pickles, lunch meats, ham, bacon, sausage, hotdogs, and frozen foods. Salt/sodium is used to preserve food and improve the taste and texture of food. Condiments. Table salt, soy sauce, ketchup, mustard, BBQ sauce, steak sauce Natural sources. Some meats, poultry, The main sources dairy products (esp. cheeses) and of sodium in the vegetables. average U.S. diet.
28 Sodium Function in the Body: 28 Helps maintain the right balance of fluids in your body. Helps transmit nerve impulses. Influences the contraction and relaxation of muscles. Excess sodium can lead to hypertension (high blood pressure), a condition that can lead to cardiovascular and kidney diseases.
29 Nutrient Deficiency A nutritional deficiency occurs when your body doesn t get enough nutrients. Symptoms: 29 At first the symptoms may not seem serious. They may include: tiredness, difficulty sleeping or concentrating, frequent colds, and weight loss or gains. However, if the deficiency is not corrected the symptoms may get more serious and effect the skin, eyes, and bones. The best way to avoid a nutrient deficiency is to eat a well balanced diet.
31 Review Nutrient "Cheesy" Video 31
32 Nutrient Basics Quiz Fill in the blank with the appropriate nutrient. 1. I serve many functions in the body. I help carry nutrients to the body s cells and I also help regulate body temperature. I am. 2. I can be converted into energy. I am also used to build, maintain and repair body tissues. I am. 3. I have a bad reputation in many people s minds but I do serve many functions in the body. For example, I am the most concentrated source of energy and I also am needed for growth and healthy skin. I am. 4. I am the body s main source of energy and I come in two forms, simple and complex. I am. 5. I do not provide energy (calories) but I do help regulate many of the chemical processes in the body. You need 13 different forms of me everyday. I am. 6. I am depended on for nearly every process necessary for life. The body requires 16 types of me everyday from calcium to iron. I am. 32
33 You re the Expert 33 Jenny is an active teenage. She plays on the basketball and soccer teams at her school. Lately, however, she has been feeling tired and having trouble concentrating in school. She eats three meals a day, but tends to eat mostly cheese pizza, French fries, and Twinkies. Jenny comes to you for advice. Working in small groups, create a sample diet for her which may help her overcome her nutritional deficiency. Be sure to include all of the 6 essential nutrients in her diet plan and explain briefly why you chose the foods you did.
34 Applying What You Know Pick TWO of the following assignments to be completed outside of class. 1. Record your diet for 3 days. Write down everything you eat and drink throughout the day. Then, go over your diet and evaluate it based on your nutritional needs. What nutrients are you consuming enough of? Are there any nutrients you need more of on a daily basis? In what ways will you make improvements. Write a one-page summary of your results. 2. Research one of the well-known nutritional deficiency diseases. What are the major causes of the disease? How is it diagnosed? Is a certain age group more prone to the disease? Can it be cured? Write a one- two page report on your findings. 3. Create a poster for teens your age describing the functions of the 6 essential nutrients. Be sure to include visual examples of food sources, USDA serving guidelines, as well as any new facts you may discover regarding disease prevention. You will be graded on neatness and creativity, as well as content. 34
35 Exploring the Web Here are some suggested sites you and your class may want to investigate for more information on nutrients. USDA Food Guide Pyramid information Nutrition facts and information The US FDA Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition Food and Nutrition Information Center 35
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