1 Fundamentals of Nutrition Nutrition: those processes that allow the body to use food for energy, maintenance of health, and growth. Nutritional status: the state of one s nutrition Wellness: state of good health with optimal body function (requires good nutrition) Malnutrition: lack of necessary or proper food substances in the body or improper absorption and distribution of them. Composed of chemical elements found in food Used by the body to perform specific functions Nutrients in foods replace those used by the body Categorized into six groups
2 CARBOHYDRATES Contain the atoms carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen 1 gram of carbohydrate = 4 calories Simple carbohydrates: dissolve readily in cold water Examples include: glucose, fructose, sucrose, and lactose Complex carbohydrates: do NOT dissolve readily in cold water and do not taste particularly sweet. Certain complex carbohydrates, like oats and barley, have been proven to reduce cholesterol. Examples include: starches, fiber/cellulose, and glycogen Primary source of energy for the body Cellulose/fiber provide bulk, acting as a natural broom for the intestinal tract (cellulose is indigestible) Diets high in fiber may reduce risks of colon cancer. Food sources: Examples include: fruit, table sugar, syrups, bread, cereals, pasta, crackers, potatoes, corn, peas, etc.
3 FATS/LIPIDS Contain the atoms carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen Source of energy twice as many calories as the same amount of carbohydrates or protein 1 gram of lipid = 9 calories Saturated fats are usually solid at room temperature. This form of fat tends to raise blood cholesterol levels. Shortening, animal fat, coconut oil, and palm oil are all examples of saturated fats. Polyunsaturated fats are usually liquid at room temperatures. Most vegetable oils are good examples. Fatty fish (herring, mackerel, salmon, lake trout, and whitefish) are good examples of Omega-3 and is the polyunsaturated fat that is linked to lowering cholesterol and blood pressure. Monounsaturated fats are thought to lower total cholesterol and LDL. Evidence shows that monounsaturated fats are safe and effective in lowering heart disease risk. Examples include: avocadoes, flounder, olive oil, almonds, peanut oil, cottonseed oil, haddock, etc. This is your BEST choice of fats.
4 CHOLESTEROL(Fats/Lipids continued) Cholesterol is a fatty substance only found in animal products like meat, cheese, and eggs. Everyone NEEDS a limited amount of cholesterol; however, EXCESS cholesterol has been linked to arteriosclerosis Recommended blood level under 200 mg/dl LDL is low density lipoproteins or BAD cholesterol. Carries fat to cells HDL high density lipoproteins or Heavenly/good cholesterol; removes excess cholesterol from cells and carries it back to the liver to be broken down/eliminated FUNCTIONS OF FAT: *Essential component of every cell membrane *Most concentrated form of energy *Helps to maintain body temperature through insulation *Helps to cushion organs and bones *Aids in the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins *Provides flavor to food Food sources include: fatty meats, egg yolks, cheeses, oils, creams, whole milk, butter, margarine, nuts, etc.
5 PROTEINS Contain the atoms carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen 1 gram of protein = 4 calories Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. Nine Essential Amino Acids; called complete proteins The body is incapable of producing these amino acids. They must be supplemented through the diet and are found in almost all animal sources. Thirteen non-essential amino acids or incomplete proteins The body has the capacity to make these amino acids. Body cannot store excess amino acids---excreted as urea
6 (Proteins continued) The three general categories of protein functions are: 1. Provide structure (building and repairing tissue) Particularly important for post-op patients 2. Regulate body processes through enzymes, hormones, carrier proteins, and antibodies. All of these are proteins or contain protein parts. 3. Body s final energy source Complete protein food sources: meat, fish, milk, cheeses, and eggs Incomplete protein sources: legumes, soybeans, dry beans, peas, peanuts and tofu
7 VITAMINS VITA means vital; vitamins are vital for life Vitamins are organic, (carbon containing) compounds essential to life. Functions include but are not limited to: *Metabolism; help release energy from other nutrients *Vital role in almost every chemical reaction within the body *Co-enzyme for normal health and growth; some behave like hormones
8 THIRTEEN VITAMINS Four fat-soluble: A, D, E, K Nine water-soluble: Eight B-complex and C Vitamin A *Assists in the formation of healthy skin, mucous membranes, proper bone growth and reproduction *Aids in the ability of the eye to see in dim light *Low intake of Vitamin A can result in night blindness *SOURCES: yellow/orange veggies, dark green veggies and fruits
9 Vitamin D *Essential for the absorption and use of calcium and phosphorous = strong bones and teeth *Skin produces vitamin D when exposed to sunlight. *Vitamin D deficiency can result in rickets. *SOURCES : fortified milk, tuna, salmon, cod liver oil Vitamin D deficiency can result in rickets/osteomalacia
10 Vitamin E *Protects essential fatty acids from oxidation = ANTIOXIDANT *Helps to prevent cancer and other diseases. Prevents cell membrane damage. *Vegetable oils, nuts, wheat germ, whole grains, green leafy veggies and margarines. Vitamin K *Essential for the normal clotting of blood *Deficiency results in bleeding problems *SOURCES: green peas, broccoli, spinach, and greens
11 Vitamin C *Collagen formation *Aids in the absorption of iron *Antioxidant for other vitamins *Low intake can result in scurvy *SOURCES: citrus fruits, berries, melons, dark green veggies, tomatoes, green peppers, cabbage, and potatoes
12 Vitamin B-Complex Thiamin Riboflavin Niacin Pyridoxine Folic acid (essential during pregnancy) Pantothenic acid Biotin Vitamin B/12 *Essential for formation of DNA, maintains myelin sheath, promotes healthy mucous membranes, erythropoesis, aids in use of other nutrients *Promotes normal function of nervous system *Promotes metabolism, and aids in the formation of hormones SOURCES: liver, dark green leafy veggies, milk, cheese, eggs, enriched breads and cereals, organ meats, peanuts, poultry and fish
13 Low intake of specific B complex vitamins can result in: *Thiamin = Beriberi; fatal if not treated *Riboflavin = Skin inflammations, growth failure, eye problems *Pyridoxine = anemia, muscular weakness, nervousness, insomnia, and facial skin disorders *B/12 = Pernicious anemia *Biotin = Alopecia and skin problems
14 MINERALS More than one-third of the dietary nutrients needed each day are minerals. Of the 92 chemical elements found on the earth, 50 are found in the body. Oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen make-up 96% of our elemental composition; the remaining 4% represents minerals. Only a fraction of our body weight is made-up of minerals; however, they are integral to human health. Most important are sodium, potassium, calcium, iron, phosphorus, and zinc.
15 MAJOR MINERALS Calcium Used for the formation of strong bones and teeth, muscle contractions, blood clotting, and maintaining cell membranes Deficiency accelerates age-related loss of bone. Decrease in estrogen (menopause) causes decreased calcium absorption in small intestines. SOURCES: dairy products, dark green leafy veggies, canned fish, nuts, dried fruits
16 Phosphorous Enzyme formation, component of all cell membranes, forms genetic material, releases energy, assists in the formation of bones and teeth SOURCES: sunflower seeds, beans, milk products, poultry, fish, and lean meat.
17 Magnesium Normal bone structure, enzyme formation, normal functioning of the central nervous system and reproductive system functions SOURCES: sunflower and pumpkin seeds, dried fruit, lean meats
18 Sodium Regulates body-fluid volume and osmotic pressure Assists in regulations of blood acidity Affects transmission of nerve impulses SOURCES: table salt, condiments, processed meats, etc.
19 Chloride Component of gastric juice; specifically hydrochloric acid Aids in acid-base balance SOURCES: seafood, salt, milk, eggs, meat
20 Potassium Assists in muscle contraction, ph balance, fluid balance, and transmission of nerve impulses SOURCES: fruits, veggies, beans, nuts, and seeds
21 MINOR MINERALS Only four are needed in such significant doses that they have RDA requirements Iron Needed for hemoglobin formation, part of several enzymes SOURCES: dried fruits, fortified cereals, nuts, beans, poultry, fish, and lean meats
22 Zinc Wound healing, preventing infections, formation of protein SOURCES: whole grains, seeds, nuts, poultry, fish, and lean meats
23 . Iodine Needed for the formation of thyroxin Sources: table salt, shellfish, fish and fortified dairy products Selenium Essential antioxidant; may be a deterrent to cancer. SOURCES: nuts, whole grains, lean pork, cottage cheese, milk, molasses, squash.
24 WATER Found in all body tissues Essential for digestion Makes up most of blood plasma Helps body tissue absorb nutrients Helps remove waste material from body Average person should drink 6-8 glasses of water a day 55-65% of body weight Only nutrient we sense a need for---thirst